Militärparade in Berlin zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus
military parade in Berlin at present the national socialism

the term fascism marks a certain political direction 20. Century:

  1. The movement („movimento “) or also the black shirts Benito Mussolinis (1919-1922) and „the style “of the political regime following to it(1922-1943/45) in Italy as fascism strictly speaking (particularly in the 1920er and 1930er years also „Fascismus “mentioned).
  2. After an interpretation by fascism researchers such as Ernst Nolte (since 1963) closes the term beside the other anti-democratic, anti-liberals and anticommunist Ideologies as comparison category also the German national socialism and different smaller movements in Europe of intermediate wartime also. However in this connection about so easily of „German fascism “one does not speak - „fascism “serves here alone as term for a certainKind of political directions and regime in the time of the world wars (thus between 1918/19 and 1945).
  3. Already since the early twenties it became from Social Democrats and from communists to a large extent with a militant anticommunism and so-called „late capitalism “asextreme development of capitalistic rule order equated.
  4. In the socialist countries of the Eastern Bloc it was used equivalently to national socialism. The term national socialism was strictly avoided, since the contained word would have pointed „socialism “a proximity to the dominant regime.

The term fascism is derivedaccording to statements of fascist propaganda of the Italian fascio and/or latin term of fasces for federation, bundle.

Persönliche Flagge Benito Mussolinis
Personal flag Benito Mussolinis

it goes back on those fasces, rod bundle, those the antique Liktoren as symbol of the power of the Roman realm to thatRoman ruling power (consul, Imperator, governor) in front-carried. Outside of Rome the power demonstration was strengthened, as the Liktoren led not only those fasces, thus the rod bundles, but additionally a hatchet with itself, in-wound therein. Such a rod bundle with hatchettherefore also Liktorenbündel (Italian littorio) one calls. This became also an official indication of the Italian movement. The claim to power documented thereby points itself also to buildings of monumental like the victory monument Bozen. In the personal banner Mussolinis is itlikewise represent.

„Fascism “(Italian fascismo) in addition, is a derivative to the Italian term fascio („federation “) and has thereby etymologisch also a catholic-socialist tradition - end 19. Century were formed particularly on Sicilies social protest movements as fasci. This Konnotation of the term might have been determining during the naming of Italian fascism 1919 as the Roman background, which was however almost exclusively stressed later in the self-manifestation, in order to attach to fascism historical continuity.

Table of contents

fascism in the closer sense: Italy

first was „fascism “only the designation of the political movement, those from from Benito the Mussolini 1919 created Fasci Italiani di Combattimento („Italian of combat federations “) came out andthe 1922 power in Italy conquered.

substantial elements of Italian fascism

  • an extremely nationalistic, populist rule form with pronounced leader cult.
  • Serious Ästhetisierung of politics and the stress of the voluntaristischen course of the policy, thus the priority of the willbefore the economics. Fascism is here inheritance of the Futurismus and its theories.
  • The excessive use of political symbols such as flags, route columns and uniforms in ritual mass ceremonies.
  • A Traditionalismus aligned at the antique one, that itself particularly in the cult of the RomanPast expressed, at the same time in addition, one in a revolutionary manner - dynamic self-manifestation and appropriate politics policies.
  • A korporatives restaurant model also after branches of production of arranged organization, with a Plenarorgan replacing the parliament („chamber of the Fasci and the Korporationen “, Camera dei Fasci e depression Corporazioni,since 1938/39) and an organ mixed from a party and states function, „the fascist grand council “(Gran Consiglio del Fascismo, since 1922, since 1928 state organ), at the point.
  • The ideological glorification of force in the tradition of Georges Sorel.
  • That, Parts of the Croatian east coast of the Adria Italy widen props to incorporate (Irredentismus).
  • Party criticism, how it operated in particular the sociologist Robert Michels, and self understanding as (during the movement phase 1919 to 1922) an anti-party and/or. (after it) as a mass party of a new type.

Betweenthe decay-sneeze-table-decaying decay-sneeze-table-sneezing table revolutionary and the conservative traditionalistischen wing came it again and again to tensions. Mussolini lavierte for a long time between the positions and had thereby particularly in the time between 1921 and 1925 large trouble to hold these centrifugal forces together. At the same time however those functionedopposite self-manifestation outward also for the connection of different social currents to fascism.

1932 published Mussolini its theoretical elaboration: The spirit of fascism.

history of the Italian fascism

of the founders of fascism, Benito Mussolini, came from thatA socialist party of Italy, in which it represented on the left of syndicalistic wings. Mussolini was among other things editor-in-chief of the party newspaper L'Avanti. Organizational shape won fascism in Italy 1919, as Mussolini the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento („Italian of combat federations “) based. Insame year created the writer and flier hero of the First World War Gabriele D'Annunzio with its surprise-raidlike conquest of Fiume (today Rijeka) a first „präfaschistisches “system with a korporativen order, mass ceremonies and the fascism of anticipating symbolism. Fasci grew above all1921 and 1922 for the largest mass movement of Italy, and Mussolini became rapid, when he threatened 1922 with „the march on Rome “with a Putsch, of king Vittorio Emanuele III. appointed the Prime Minister. it forbade the socialist party and anti-fascist organizations to 1925 anda model for other fascist dictatorships created with its leader cult - „mussolinismo “-. The Duce („leaders “) presented itself as a man of the people: Worker, father, sportsman, woman Mrs., soldier, with uniform and martialischem occurrence. The requirement for great power of the antique Roman world realm remainedleading idea of Italian fascism and led in particular to the assault on Ethiopia 1935. Starting from 1938 fascism pursued also officially an anti-Semitic policy, whereupon the newest research refers, from own drive, not to German pressure, how are enoughaccepted is.

1943 were set off Mussolini from the grand council, the fascist executive body. This joggle took place system-conformal with simple majority decision, since the advice was the highest instance of the fascist state. Mussolini was arrested. The German weapon SS released Mussolini in an adventurousAction from its prison on the Gran Sasso in the Abruzzen. Under German supremacy Mussolini in north Italy created the Repubblica Sociale Italiana („republic of Salò “), which was however up to the end of war hardly more than a German puppet regime.

the research

the opinion represented differences to the national socialism
the fascist victory monument in

Bozen front of the Bozener of station long time, contrary to the national socialism fascism was not originally anti-Semitic. It took up anti-Semitic elements only, asMussolini “axles” - alliance with the German Reich under Adolf Hitler closed; the Antisemitismus was still strengthened, when Mussolini created its Repubblica Sociale Italiana standing under German supremacy after its fall.

New research realizations prove this opinion at least as doubtful,if not as wrong. In fascism since 1919 by relevant Protagonisten anti-Semitic slogans and thought had again and again been expressed, however only the 1938 - thus differently than with from the outset openly anti-Semitic national socialism - (by approximation to thoseGovernment Hitler) official regime politics became. The Antisemitismus stepped it nevertheless not only toward end of the thirties as new characteristic to fascism in addition, but from the outset inherently had been and stepped now after a maturing process for many decades into the foreground.

Fascism cultivated like the national socialism a rigides leader principle, however not in the radical consequence as in the German dictatorship. The designation Duce (“leader “, starting from center of the thirties always in capital letters: DUCE) was ideologically superelevated.Beside the Duce there was however still another “fascist grand council” and the king, and Mussolini needed importantly longer than Hitler, in order to implement its absolute claim to leadership.

At all the fascist rule carried clearly in Italy for more the course of a rule compromise with thatold elite - the monarchy, the military, the industry and the church - as in Germany, where the National Socialist regime got rid of relatively fast of most connections to traditional rule layers.

A further important difference was the fascist budgetism, thatagainst the völkischen and against the SS coined/shaped anti-budgetistic national socialism stood out clearly. In the national socialism seriously the supremacy of the party manifested itself in relation to the state, which finally led to the complete dissolution of delivered standardization and institution structure. In contrast to it that createdFascism in Italy a number of new institutions, groped however the existing order not or hardly on (see in addition: History of South Tyrol.)

it did not give prepared race ideology in fascism as in the national socialism. Where the word “race“(razza) at all, had it was used at least until 1938 no biological meaning, but in also the sense in former times common in Germany by “racing victory” as “nobly” was often used, without taking off on descent. After 1938 however spreadalso in the fascist discourse biological views ever more strongly.

The fascist “new order” differs thereby clearly from the model - while Hitler tried to establish a völkisch arranged race state, aimed at by the national socialism, strove Mussolinis regime for a strong state underIntegration of the old elite and after the establishment scruplesless, but nevertheless to a large extent traditional making and of a policy of expansion.

The modernistic wing of fascism supported a art trend, which applied in Germany as degenerate art. The author of the futuristic communist manifesto, FilippoTommaso Marinetti can be called as the most prominent example for this.

The numbers of the political victims of Italian fascism are by far smaller than those of the national socialism. In fascism hardly death sentences became against regime opponents please; nevertheless it is not to be surveyed that also thatfascist regime oppositional to kill or execute left, several wars (in Libya, against Ethiopia, against Greece) accomplished and Albania in the hand caper annektierte. In the war against Ethiopia Italian troops used 1935/36 poisonous gas against hostile soldiers and led mass shootingof Abessiniern after their capture through.

fascist theoreticians and Vordenker of fascism

  • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) was 1919 the founder of fascism. Mussolini came from the syndicalistic wing of the socialist party of Italy and was strong from Georges Sorelaffected, less of - as it at the beginning of maintained - Vilfredo Pareto.
  • Robert Michels (1876-1936) was a German sociologist. Michels came from the SPD and became important as a party sociologist. It changed for the syndicalism and later fascism to Italy, turned too. 1928 established Mussolini a chair in Perugia to it, in order to develop the theory further of fascism.
  • Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944) was a neoidealistischer philosopher. It represented a “Aktualismus” radical philosophical direction mentioned, those the absolute existence of the things answered in the negative and thoseTheory represented, all features in the “pure act” was only produced. Gentile was a 1922/23 fascist educating Minister and implemented a tradtionalistische school reform, came however after 1929 because of its radical positions increasingly into the offside.
  • Sergio Panunzio (1886-1944) was a theoretician of the syndicalism. It developed an important part of the fascist state teachings after 1922, by trying to distinguish the relationship from a party and state. Panunzio taught at the influential faculty for political science of the university of Perugia.
  • The lawyer Alfredo Rocco (1875-1935)was originally influential Vordenker of the nationalistic movement of Italy, which fused 1923 with fascism. Rocco became during the totalitarian change of the Italian state starting from 1925 the architect of the fascist institution structure. Among other things he drew also for the aggravation of the criminal lawresponsible.
  • Enrico Corradini (1865-1931) was likewise from house from nationalist. It represented a decided expansion course of Italy, which had to fight as “proletarian nation” against the rich nations of the west. This later thinking figure very influential in fascism was also connected with Corradinia passionate admiration antique Rome.
  • Julius Evola (1898-1974) was culture philosopher and came of to a catholic-traditional family in Rome. Later it developed the heidnisch rassistischen Traditionalismus aligned at the antique one. Evola represented a reactionary part of fascism, again and again inContrast to the modernistic wing turned out, which Evola criticized as degeneration of fascism. Evolas extreme opinions remained however in fascism always a minority position.

fascism in the broader sense

Ernst Nolte and the consequences

1963 gave Ernst Nolte with its work fascism in its epoch of the science of history new impulses. Nolte used the term “fascism” for the first time as epoch term and marked by it a group of political movements in Europe between the world wars. Nolte defined fascism as“Anti-marxism, which trachtet to destroy the opponent by the training of a radically opposite and nevertheless neighbouring ideology and the use from almost identical and nevertheless characteristically umgeprägten methods to, always however in the undurchbrechbaren context of national self statement and autonomy”. Nolte seizes therebynot only the German national socialism and Italian fascism Mussolinis, but also the Action française, a right-wing extremist French movement together. Thus he was the first civil historian, who used a more comprehensive fascism term. Fascism is for Nolte characteristic thatEpoch from 1917 to 1945: However in this time the necessity was seen to meet the threat by the Soviet Union in its requirement on world revolution with fascist means.

The analysis of Italian fascism became as a result of Noltes thesesapplied of some theoreticians as prototype also to other nationalistic dictatorships in Europe and Latin America. The civil Totalitarismustheorie sets fascist systems as reaction to socialist and communist forces and tends partly to make these responsible for a fascist development.Thus sometimes (also in the late work Ernst Noltes) the emergence of the national socialism with reaction to communism is not only justified (“causal Nexus”), but also understanding explained (“rational core of the national socialism”). Similarly, although also without the mentioned debt assignment, argue also itselflink fascism theoreticians calling.

Remark on the following one: After the comprehensive theory debates of the 1970er and 1980er years in the civil science of history today by the majority the opinion became generally accepted, under “fascism” is meaningfully only the European political phenomenon of the time between 1917to understand and 1945. “Fascism” without comparison object (the “singularisierende” view) is used in the civil science in the meantime again particularly for the Italian development of this phenomenon. That much widens use of the term “fascism” - like it in the following above allwith Marxist theoreticians one introduces, particularly for phenomena of the time after 1945 - no more is common in the civil science of history.

Marxist interpretations

the Marxist theoreticians (so in Germany first of Clara Zetkin 1923) called “fascism”a rule form of terror of the capital. Classical the definition become supplied Georgi Dimitroff before VII. World congress of the Komintern to 2. August 1935, when it determined before the plenum the communist international one, fascism is „the open, dictatorship of terror of the most reactionary, chauvinistischsten,to most imperialistic elements of the financial capital “. Thus it was meant that between fascism and capitalism no more in principle, above all no economic difference exists: In the moment, in which capitalism feels threatened in its ungezügelten utilization conditions - aboutby a threatening revolutionary movement, like in the early twenties in Italy or during the world economic crisis in Germany - strip it its pseudodemocratic mask and show in fascism a particularly hard pace of the exploitation and suppression. In addition „help "the fascist dictatorship capitalism too „survive ", since this particularly aims at the Entrechtung of the workers and smashing their organizations (trade unions, labour parties among other things). In Marxist interpretation thus also the German national socialism is a form of fascism, there it thoseresemble „typical " fundamentals fascism exhibit and „capitalistic conditions " their opinion after in fascism further to exist and (also against the National Socialist Proganda) in question not be placed there. Usually they support this thesis by the numbers of the high profits,those particularly stealing and arms companies in this time to gain could.

It is a civil ideological manipulation that in fascism the capitalists prevailed not, but member of other classes, and that sometimes the fascist dictators proceeded also against the Bourgeoisie,of them „agent “it in orthodox--Marxist interpretation to be nevertheless should. Also August Thalheimer did not dissolve this contradiction , as it Marx' Bonapartismus - term to fascism to apply wanted: Therefore the fascists would be more deklassierter or of the Deklassierung more threatened with their appendixMasses in a klassenkämpferischen deadlock - similar as Napoleon III. and its rag-proletarian appendix after the February revolution 1848 - relatively independently of the Bourgeoisie at power arrives, although they would represent objectively their interests of the prevention of a revolution. Thalheimer definedFascism as „political subjecting of all masses, including the Bourgeosie themselves, under the fascist Staatsmacht with social rule of the large Bourgeosie and the great land owners “.

Under the definition as useful Büttel of the capital all anti-communists fell equal which in Leninistic and stalinistischer definitionpolitical direction. The designation of the SPD as socialfascist, since it had instructed Polizeigewalt several times in the years after 1918 against revolutionary workers, strengthened the gap between communists and Social Democrats at the end of the Weimar Republic. The close relationship betweenThe Neomarxist max of Horkheimer formulated fascism and capitalism, which Marxists determine, 1939 in the apodiktischen Diktum, who did not want to talk about capitalism, is from fascism to be silent.

As social basis of fascism Marxists accept also the small middle class, which fears,in the antagonism from working class and capitalist class, the main contradiction after Marx to be ground. By the massive ideological civil manipulation its fear of the working class and the crisis-conditioned descent became in it and the dislike against the over-powerful competitionthe capital so to a pseudoanti-capitalistic, objectively however worker-hostile and thus per-capitalistic movement: fascism. (This met with not-Marxist sociological analyses, e.g. also for German fascism the so typical leaves itself to that Theodor of violonist. ) with this interpretation Antisemitismus in a marxist manner explain: It is thereby the wrong consciousness of the small citizens, who directed their understandable anti-capitalism away from the actual cause of their threatening descent in system-compatible way toward a scapegoat.

Nichtmarxisti interpretations

with Noltes fascism term, that itselfoften in clearly verflachter shape, everything interspersed under “fascism” was classitied, which a non-communist dictatorship in Europe 20. Century aimed at or realized. In particular thereby the national socialism was called fascist. It was finally also added that “fascistically” as onepolarize-mix name for authoritarianly oriented anti-communists one used.

In 20. Century describes fascism a number of political currents and systems of authoritarian korporativer rule. The definitions for it are changing:

elements of fascism in not-Marxist interpretations

these characteristics are summarized shortened in the three-column model, in which fascism is defined as nationalism , militarism and as chauvinistism.

Faschistoide tendencies:When “faschistoid” designated an attitude, those fascism more or less similarly, relatedis. It is not with it to equate with “fascistically” or” National Socialist “, is however suspected to bend there. Faschistoid can be also individual components one on an ideology aiming or based system.

history of fascism in the furtherSense

a model function of Mussolinis political system and its ideology was observed in completely Europe; in many countries there were extremistic groups, which wanted to copy him. Only after the “seizure of power “Hitler's popularity has the Mussolinis in theseGroups exceeded.


in Germany goes the national socialism first as a kind of play of Italian fascism into action: The German fascism of the large concerns of the German industry was financed; begun of the university-formed combat forces of the storm department (SA) overthe road battles into the nationalistic language property (“leader “). Hitler's Putsch 1923 fails.

Antisemitismus, anticommunism, racingism and blood and soil - mythology basis of extermination and the campaign against ideological as inferior classified humans and groups of people become in the national socialism.

In certain way the “Italian model” helped the German national socialism. With Italia docet summarized Schieder the attitude, which fascism in right circles in Germany had caused. A monarchy with strong dictator, that the Italian people to workand order continues, with church concordat, anticommunism and expansive foreign policy, then fascism appeared to some, and to such a thing something similar might have thought those Nichtnationalsozialisten (for instance Franz of Papen), which supported Hitler'sseizure of power “; have so alsoit some opponents estimated and a re-establishment of the monarchy of it fears (e.g. Ferdinand sound-sneeze).


oriented groups arise to France in France; the most important was starting from 1908 the Action française with Charles Maurras. Neverthelessdid not develop fascism to a mass movement. With the occupation of France by National Socialist Germany the fascist movement failed because of own contradictions. Also the destruction politics opposite the Jews were disapproved or boycotted by many Frenchmen, but of thatmost at least waits.


in Greece prevailed to dictatorship from 1936 to 1941 from Italian fascism and from the German national socialism affected Metaxas -.

Great Britain

in Great Britain created Oswald Mosley 1932 “British the unionOF Fascists " (BUF), which the Übermenschentum and the world meaning of Great Britain emphasized, which however with the world war ended.


after the assault of Germany on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia marched to 10. April 1941 the German armed forces in Zagreb.On German pressure and with German support the Ustaša proclaimed the independent State of Croatia and errichetete a fascist dictatorship under Ante Pavelić, which pursued Serbs , Jews , gypsies and political opponents systematically.


in Austria gave it after that to 1. World war a number of fascist groupings; for example the home resistance, which was close first to the Christian-social party and finally came up in the “patriotic front”. Their leader was Engelbert Dollfuss. This established a Ständestaat,Italy mussolinischen for lack of an effective mass movement and a really charismatischen leader not all conditions for a “genuine” fascism in the sense above all fully fulfilled, but with the word “imitation fascism” to be designated can. Austrian national socialists, those the connection onDollfuss wanted, murdered the third realm.


in Portugal came 1926 a military junta under general Carmona by a Putsch to power. More than Spain strove also Portugal, particularly starting from 1932 under Carmonas successor Salazar overa dissociation from Italian fascism and from the German national socialism. 1933 developed Salazar its power by a new condition and the abolishment of the parliamentarism. Portugal allied itself in the Second World War with Spain to the Bloco Ibérico. The self-designation of the PortugueseAutocracy was Estado Novo. The junta became to 25. April 1974 by the carnation revolution fallen.


in Romania comes to that 1. World war with the “Legion of the ore gel Michael” (” iron guard “) under Corneliu ZeleaCodreanu in the 30's a fascist movement up, which develops as world-descriptive movement , religious combat community, with strong forces of the leader cult , militarism and Antisemitismus and was continued of the dictator marshal Ion Antonescu.


In Switzerland were formed particularly after 1933 countless groups with usually the same members. They are summarized under the term frontists. They, which were often smiled at, did not only want the connection during the Second World War to the German Reich;notoriously also the input of the 200 is - a letter of 200 economic representatives to the Upper House of Parliament, which demanded the combination with Germany. However prevented the strong commitment of other forces, which by general Guisan was represented in particular that Switzerlandever into the proximity, a part of the “third realm” came to become.


in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Sweden and Norway came with the “Swedish National Socialist party”, the “Danish National Socialist labour party” and the “Norwegian national collection”fascist movements up, which made the nordische gentleman Mr. ideology the program. The fascist organizations did not possess a mass basis however. With German occupation the fascists in Denmark and Norway influence won. The LV regime recruited ready partners from these movements. To Metaphor (“Quisling”) the willfährigen Nazi - Kollaborateure became thereby the shape of the Norwegian leader Vidkun Quisling.


in Spain took over 1939 general Franco by the civil war power against a legal link government selected with limited majority.In the civil war the Putschisten had been militarily supported by the Hitler government of Germany (“Legion CONDOR “). The state party “Falange Española Tradicionalista y de read JONS “white with the former Falange, later in union with the JONS (Juntasde Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista) a wing up, which exhibited a program aligned at the model of Italian fascism. Franco supported Germany (45,000 soldiers (the “blue division” or “division Azul”) in the Second World War to the support of Hitler at the east front with Leningrad, Novgorod, Wolchowand Mga), did not occur however officially the war . The catholic church kept strong influence and continued to develop it in the course of the years by the fundamentalist laymen bruderschaft Opus Dei, which to a large extent at expense of the influence of the fascistFalange happened. The franquistische dictatorship, which is more appropriate with the designation “conservative-authoritarianly” described particularly in its late years, remained existing up to Francos death 1975.

See also: Franquismus


in Hungary existed to groupings as inAustria, which oriented themselves at the model of the SA and SS, for example the Pfeilkreuzler (also “Hungaristen” mentioned). Its leader Ferenc Szélasi believed in a “Karpato danubisches” native country. The Pfeilkreuzler appointed itself to heidnische traditions that Hungary and was rabiat anti-Semitic.At the same time they were located in the Hungary under realm Weser admiral Miklós Horthy (1920 - 1944), which mainly authoritarianly, klerikal and were aristokratisch coined/shaped, rather at the political edge. Only after Horthys of German crew power forced resignation to 15. October1944 could transfer Szélasi power in the state and appoint itself the “people leader”. The Pfeilkreuzler established thereupon a tyranny, which delivered the Jewish Hungary of the SS, but only few months existed and remained mainly limited to Budapest.

Work on []
United States of America

in the 1920er and 1930er years were there in the USA, not least under the impression of the world economic crisis 1929 with up to 15 million unemployed person, some politicians, who can be considered as „faschistoid “, whereby thisat that time like today was for each individual case disputed or is.

Huey Long was member of the democratic party and from 1928 to 1932 governor von Louisiana and afterwards up to its murder 1935 senator. 1935 it had still begun,to provoke the presidents of the democratic party Roosevelt for the next presidency election 1936. This came by its murder to an abrupt end. For its opponents it was a Populist with diktatorischen inclinations, that depending on as a potential fascist or communist dictatorone estimated.

Father Charles Edward Coughlin (1891 to 1979) was a catholic priest, who used in the 30's the new mass medium radio for socialcritical responding and up to 40 million listener reached. First it supported still Roosevelt and its New Deal, was being entitled appreciative by this however then and did not begin themselves to radicalize more and more to the right, agitated against Jews, bankers, capitalists and communists. It supported openly Hitler and the national socialists. 1936 it created thatanti-Semitic sheet „Social Justice “(social justice). 1942, Germany had explained in the meantime to the USA the war, gave it its superiors in the catholic church, also due to solid pressure by Roosevelt, talking and write prohibition. Coughlin pulled itself thereupon into itsMunicipality to Detroit and from the political life back. After its retirement 1966 it wrote lampoons against communism and the second Vatikani council, however no more larger public reached.


the Japanese kind of play of fascismthe Japanese imperialism was in the initial period of the Shōwa time. 1937 attacked Japan China , occupied the west of the country as well as Korea (second Japanese-Chinese war). It came to medical attempts at prisoners of war.

fascismand political stability lacking

general one can say that fascist organizations in such states had it heavily, those was already democratically strengthened and/or in those the parliament to sufficient influence possessed (for example Scandinavia, France, England). In othersCountries however, in which many humans longed themselves for “before-democratic”, monarchistic or diktatorischen systems of government and for a “strong man “(for example Italy, Germany, nations in Eastern Europe), had the fascists easier play.

after 1945


into Chile fell 1973 likewise general Augusto Pinochet with support of the USA by a Putsch the democratic-socialist government Salvador Allendes. The regime Pinochets covered for Chile with terror and murder around itself at power to hold.

Among historians however disputed to what extent the Pinochet regime is as fascist to be designated can.


1967 arrived it again by the so-called “Putsch of the Obristen “to a faschistoiden regime at Greece, that as military junta until 1974remained for power. In Greece there was a strong communist movement, not least, because Stalin regarded the Balkans power-politics and metaphorically as its backyard, which then finally contributed also to the fall of the dictatorship. The Obristen held itself by brutal forceat power.

Matthew Lyons

in the year 2004 formulated the US-American politics policy Matthew Lyons the following fascism definition:

Fascism is a form of right-wing extremist ideology, those the nation or race as organic community, which exceeds all other loyalties,gentleman light. It stresses a myth of national or rassischer Wiedergeburt after one period of the fall and decay. For this purpose fascism calls mirror-image-ritual Revolution´ after one `against indications of the moral fall such as individualism and materialism and aims at it, the organicCommunity of `andersartigen´ one forces and groups, which threaten, to clean. Fascism tends to it, to maleness, youth, mystische unit and regenerativ Kraft von Gewalt to wonderful. Often - however not always - it supports teachings rassischer superiority, ethnical pursuit, imperialistic expansion and genocide. Fascism can take at the same time a form of internationalism, which is based either on rassischer or ideological solidarity over national borders away. Normally fascism of open male supremacy uses up itself, although it sometimes also female solidarity and newPossibilities for women of a privileged nation or race to support knows.“(Quotes after publiceye.org of 12. To January 2004)

see also


collections more differentolder beginnings

  • Costanzo Casucci (Hrsg.): Interpretazioni del fascismo. Bologna ² 1982 [1961]. (Anthologie of most diverse interpretations, of more fascist as from anti-fascist side.)
  • Ernst Nolte (Hrsg.): Theories about fascism.6. Edition. Munich 1984. (A collection of partially. classical texts of thattwenties up to the sixties.) ISBN of 3-492-10365-0

Nichtmarxisti works of the newer and newest fascism research

  • Maurizio brook: The charismatischen leader dictatorships. Third realm and Italian fascism in the comparison of their rule structures. Baden-Baden (Nomos) 1990
  • Ruth Ben Ghiat: Fascist of modernities.Italy, 1922-1945. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London 2001. (A culturally oriented investigation of the fascist regime with strong - entitled - stress of its modernistic courses.)
  • Mabel Berezin: Making the fascist self. The political culture OF was Italy.Ithaca/London 1997. (A locally embodied investigation -over the fascist regime in Verona -, those the accent on the investigation of the construction of a fascist identity puts.)
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations J.B. Bosworth: The Italian dictatorship. Problem of and of perspectives into the interpretation OF Mussolini and Fascism.London 1998. (Collection of summariesthe state of research to different questions of fascism.)
  • Alberto De Bernardi: Una dittatura moderna. IL fascismo come problema storica. Milano 2001. (An analysis of the fascist regime, in particular its revolutionary korporativistischen side.)
  • Renzo De Felice: Mussolini. 8 Bde. Torino 1965-1997. (Mammutbiographie, thosea history of fascism represents.) Victoria
  • De Grazia at the same time: The culture OF consent. Measure organizing OF leisure in Fascist Italy. Cambridge and others 1981. (An analysis of the fascist leisure and consent politics, particularly the role of the regime organization Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro.)
  • SimonettaFalasca Zamponi:Fascist spectacle. The aesthetics OF power in Mussolini `s Italy. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London 1997. (An investigation of the fascist Ästhetisierung of the political reality.)
  • Emilio Gentile: The Italian road tons totalitarianism. London 2004 [it. 1995]. (Standard work of the newer Totalitarismusforschung to Italy.)
  • Emilio Gentile: The sacralization OF politics in Fascist Italy. Cambridge and others 1996 [it. 1993]. (Disputed pioneer work of the cult-Uralsistic historiography, which formulates the thesis, which fascism has its own “religion” established.)
  • Roger Griffin (Hrsg.): Fascism.Oxford/New York 1995. (Pointed basic work- to his definition of “generic fascism” see under author.)
  • Roger Griffin: “Völki nationalism as Wegbereiter and Fortsetzer of fascism: An anglo-saxon view of a not only German phenomenon ". In: Heiko Kauffmann, Helmut Kellershohn, Jobst Paul (Hg.): Völki gang. Dekadenzand Wiedergeburt - analyses of right ideology. Münster, 2005. ISBN 3-89771-737-9
  • Mario Isnenghi: L `Italia del fascio. Firenze 1996. (A study to the Italian life reality under the regime.)
  • Denis Mack Smith: Decay Italy. A political history.New Haven/London 1997. (History of thenewer Italy with detailed representation of fascism.)
  • Brunello Mantelli: Short history of Italian fascism. Berlin 1999 [it. 1994]. (Short, liquid representation of the most important facts of fascism, connected with an innovative interpretation.)
  • George L. Mosse: The fascist revolution. Toward Ageneral theory OF fascism. New York 1999. (Essay collection, which concerns itself particularly with cultural questions, for instance the Roman Cäsarismus of the regime and its self-manifestation as avant-garde 20. Century.)
  • Ernst Nolte: Fascism in its epoch. Action francaise -Italian fascism - national socialism. Munich 1963 [last new expenditures. 2000]. (The standard work, that the newer fascism research activated and still the research busily.) ISBN 3-7610-7248-1
  • Stanley Payne: History of fascism. Ascent and case of a European movement.Berlin 2001. (Rassisti aspectsfascism here little is considered.)
  • Jens Petersen/Wolfgang Schieder (Hg.): Fascism and society in Italy. State - economics - culture. Cologne 1998. (Anthology with newer realizations to Italian social history between 1922 and 1945.)
  • Sven Reichardt: Fascist combat federations. Force and communityin Italian fascism and in the German SA. Cologne/Weimar/Vienna 2002. (Comparative standard work for the history of the political force in Germany and Italy with extensive empirical part, in addition, convincing culture-historical beginnings.)
  • Thomas Schlemmer/Hans Woller: Italian fascism and the Jews.In: Quarter booklets for contemporary history 53 (2005), number 2. (New realizations to the Italian Antisemitismus.)
  • Petra Terhoeven: Dear pledge for the native country. War, sex and fascist nation in the Italian gold and Eheringsammlung 1935/36.Tübingen 2003. (Representation of the large fascist propaganda action, on the basis those at the same timeEssential structures of the regime to be examined. Among other things criticism of the term of the political religion - see also Emilio Gentile.)
  • to Nicola Tranfaglia: La great guerra mondiale e IL fascismo. Torino 1995. (Overall display of Italian history between 1914 and 1945 with accenton the contradictory modernization achievement of the fascist regime.)
  • Wolfgang Wippermann: Fascism theories. To the conditions of the present discussion. 5. Edition. Darmstadt 1989 (scarcely and generally quite usefully, although meanwhile no longer completely up-to-date.)
  • Hans Woller: Rome, 28. October 1922. The fascist challenge.Munich 1999. (From the row “twenty days in 20. Century - by the example of the fascist “march on Rome” here just as scarcely as well readably ascent, success and fall of the fascist movements in Europe between 1918 and 1945 are represented.)

Marxist affected interpretations

  • Johannes Agnoli: Fascism without revision. ça Irish Republican Army, Freiburg (mash gau) 1997, ISBN 3-924627-47-9 (this book contain several papers to Italian and German fascism and warn that since Ernst Noltes definition extension historical revisionists would try, with thatLink fascism understood that as fascistically designated national socialism to likewise relate. Further does not postulate the author, the left 68er student movement can under any circumstances with the term in connection be brought.)
  • William Alff: The term fascism and other essays to contemporary history.edition suhrkamp,Frankfurt/Main 1971, ISBN 3-518-00456-5 (the book treats the topics 1 in six essays. Fascism, 2. The Associazione Nazionalista Italiana of 1910, 3. The entrance of Italy into the First World War, 4. To the interpretation of twentieth July, 5. The fear before the Dekadenz. To the art politics of German fascism., 6. The refugees of the Spanish republic as political pursued ones of German crew power in France (1940-1944).)
  • Konrad Hecker: Fascism and its democratic accomplishment.Point of article publishing house, Munich1996, ISBN 3-929211-02-5 (a in a marxist manner oriented analysis and criticism at the structural failure of the democratic coming to terms with the past in such a way specified.)
  • jour fix to initiative Berlin (Hrsg.): Theory of fascism - criticism of the society. Unrast, Münster 2000, ISBN 3-89771-401-9 (before the background of the critical theory, the realizations of the psychoanalysis and the society criticism of the Poststrukturalismus in this anthology one tries to supply contributions for the analysis, which fascism is, on the height the time. It is demanded that a theory of fascism today in the situationto be must to develop a society criticism emancipatory requirements been sufficient and Auschwitz fundamentally in its analyses referred.)
  • the pure hard Kühnl: Fascism theories. A manual. Updated new edition. Thistle publishing house, Heilbronn 1990, ISBN 3-923208-22-7 (first edition 1979. On the basis of Marxist society criticism.)
  • William realm: Mass psychology of fascism. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-462-01794-2 (original: Mass psychology of fascism. To the Sexualökonomie of the political reaction and to the proletarian Sexualpolitik.Publishing house for Sexualpolitik, Copenhagen 1933. This work remained forgetting for a long time and became from the 68er generation againtaken up. It is surely fundamental for all attempts to analyze fascism as on the mass arranged ideology and in its psychological effects.)
  • Bernd A. Because: Fascism theories. A comparative overview with bibliography. R. G. Fischer, Frankfurt/Main 1984, ISBN 3-88323-528-8 (essentially a good bibliographic overview, however of 1984.)

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