Fiber

of these articles is concerned with the term fiber in biology and the textile technology, where it has to a large extent the same meaning. </br> fiber designates also the longitudinal direction of wood. </br> it gives the term to the fiber in addition in mathematics.

A fiber is inin relation to the length thin and flexible thing. Fibers cannot take up pressure, but only traction powers, since they break during pressure load. In nature and technology fibers occur in a larger group, them all mostly form a certain structure.

Fibers come into nature andTechnology frequently forwards, since two phenomena are to be observed:

  • A structure from fibers is more firmly and frequently more rigid than a construction of the same form from the compact material “from the full one”.
  • Two fibers are together rotated more strongly than both individual.

Fibers border themselves from staffsbecause of their break rigidity lacking off, of wires it differentiates the smaller diameter.

Table of contents

organization

to fibers being able after its origin, length, condition or its use be divided. Fibers of limited length are pile fibers, in principle infinitely long fibers of filaments and/or. Endlos-Fasern.Straight one in the German-speaking countries prevails a certain confusion around expressions.DIN 60000 and 60001 lead the term chemical fibre as translation of the English expression one larva have a temperature. This translation is problematic, since humans can use also purely physical effects for the production of fibers (example glass fibers).The expression chemical fibre should not therefore be used also since all fibers have a chemical composition. Thus cotton consists for instance of cellulose - exactly like the viscose rayon manufactured by humans.

Here the fibers are therefore in natural fibers and artificial fibers (English: one larva of fibres) dividedbecome. As artificial fibers both fibers from native are therefore to understand (vegetable or animalischen) as well as synthetic polymers.

This organization is ajar against ISO 6938 and 2076.

Fibers can be determined by the different qualitative (Brennprobe) and quantitative methods. With the Brennprobe becomesthe flame (soot development), the smell, which observes pH value of the smoke and the consistency of the arrears.

natural fibers

vegetable fibers

vegetable fibers occur with plants as guidance bundles in the stack or trunk and as seeds - extensions. Here a list with the valid abbreviation for DIN

  • To seed fibers
    • cotton (CO) from the Samenhaaren of the fruit of the cotton plant
    • Kapok (kp) from the inside of the cap fruit of the genuine Kapokbaumes
    • Pappelflaum (n.n.)
  • hard fibers
    • wood fibers
    • sisal (SI)from the sheets of the sisal agave
    • Manila hard fiber from the sheets of a kind of banana
  • fruit fibers
    • Kokos (CC) from the Fruchthülle of the Kokosplamenfrüchte

the hair follicles fibers

form fibers of animal origin with animals. Exceptions are silk (packing of verpuppter silk crawler-type vehicles) and muscle fibers, quasi-cellular kontraktile components of the muscle. Fray the textile to use leave themselves are:

  • Wools and fine Tierhaare
    • wool of sheep (WHERE) (fleece wool WV) usually won by annual shearing and also called fleece wool.
    • Alpaka, Lama, Vikunja, Guanako are the hair of the kinds of Lama of the same name and/or. Sheep camels.The hair is finely, softly, shining and few rippled/crinkled.
    • Angora (WA) (of hair of the Angorakaninchen), Kanin (usual rabbit hair) are very finely, smooth and very easy. There they water vapour well take up are materials from Kanin much warm-holding.
    • Kashmir (WG) one wins by Auskämmen and sorts the Flaumor Grannenhaare of the Kashmir goat. These hair is as finely as the finest Merinowolle and clothing from Kashmir is therefore finely, softly, easily and shining.
    • Camel hair (WK) is the Flaumhaar of the camels, the animals throws off it annually. It is very finely, soft and easyrippled/crinkled and beige-brown.
    • Mohair (WM) designates the hair of the Angora or Mohairziege. They are long, easily lured and shining. Their color is white and it hardly felts.
  • Silks
    • Maulbeerseide (SE) (breed silk) from the Kokon of the Maulbeerspinners, the silk crawler-type vehicle one wins.
    • Tussahseide (sp) (of game oaths) of the Kokon of the Tussahspinners living in the wild collected by trees and bushes one makes. There here the butterflyusually hatched, are shorter and not abhaspelbar the fibers. A breed of the Tussahspinners did not succeed so far.
    • To shell silk

mineral fibers of geological origin

mineral fibers (fibers without organically bound carbon) seem naturally practically only in this form:

artificial fibers, one larva fibres

it exists a very large number of trade names and former trade names, which are throughout more well-known as their chemical composition. Most chemical fibres are polymers:

fibers from natural polymers

  • Zellulosi fibers
    • viscose rayon (CV) becomes after the Viscoseverfahren from pure cellulose, mainlyof booking and Pinienholz won, made.
    • Modal (CMD) is manufactured after the modified Viscoseverfahren and has therefore a higher firmness than viscose rayon in the dry and wet condition.
    • Lyocell (CLY) is manufactured in a solvent pin procedure. As solvent N-Methylmorpholin-N-oxide serves mono hydrate. The fiber draws through muchhigh drying and wet-strength out.
    • Cuprous (CUP) is manufactured in the copper oxide ammonia procedure.
    • Acetate (APPROX.) is made in the drying pin procedure out in acetone loosened Zelluloseacetat ersponnen ( see acetate fibers
    • ) triac budget (CTA) likewise of Zelluloseacetat, solved here however in Dichlormethan.
    • Paper fibers
    • bamboo fibers rain advice (n.n.)
    • Cellulon
  • Plant protein fibers
  • animal protein fibers
    • Kasein, trade name Lanital, Tiolan, Aralac

fibers from synthetic polymers

  • polycondensation fibers
    • polyester (PES), usually polyethylene terephthalate (PET), trade name Diolen, Trevira etc., show versatile characteristics and take therefore a top position under the synthetic fibers. The polyester fiber is much tearing andscheuerfest and humidity hardly takes up.
    • PP (Pa), trade name nylon, perlon, Dederon, is very flexible and kneeling third little. PP can be deformed by heat durably, this when thermal fixing is used.
    • , If kevlar, Nomex, Twaron era-avoided trade names, one has very muchhigh ultimate tensile strength and is used for technical textiles.
  • Polymerization fibers
    • Polyacrylnitril (PAN), trade name Dralon, orlon etc., exhibits a wollähnlichen grasp and a good light and chemical resistance.
    • Polytetrafluorethylene, trade name teflon is water-rejecting and hardly colorable. It becomes as foil with micro openings in enclosure clothing, trade name ferment Tex processed.
    • Polyethylene (PE), trade name Dyneema
    • polypropylene (PP), trade names e.g. Polycolon, lightest textile fiber at all, with good scrubbing firmness and practically no water absorption, by cook firmness good care characteristics, flexibly, assigned in the sport function and underwear range frequently.
    • Polyvinyl chloride (with fibers CLF otherwise PVC) is good warm-holding and becomes for rheumatism laundrybegun.
  • Polyadditionsfasern
    • PU (EL) as elastomer, trade name Spandex, Lycra, elastan, Dorlastan. Elastan consists of at least 85% PU and has a very high flexible stretch. Since it is well anfärbbar in comparison to rubber, it becomes usually in connection with other fibers forflexible fabrics, bath clothing and socks, assigned. Elastodien has no meaning for the textilen employment practically.

inorganic chemical fibres

  • glass fibers (AP) are only very little flexible and brittle. They become among other things in DEK eastopen and for the interior arrangement uses. In large measure they becomeReinforcement of plastics and in technical textiles assigned. In addition they are used for the optical data communication in telephone and EDP nets.
  • Carbon fibers (CF) are much easy and have a high firmness. They are likewise inserted for the reinforcement of plastics, in group ceramic(s) and in technical textiles. As fiber feltfind they to use for the thermal insulation of high temperature inert gas or vacuum furnaces.
  • Metal fiber (MTF), very thin wire
  • Keramikfasern form a special class of inorganic fibers. They consist of a faserförmigen ceramic(s) structure. They occur as oxidic (aluminas, Mullite, Yttriumoxide) and not-oxidic (SiC, SiCN, SiBCN) fiber types. Their main operational area lieswith applications of high temperatures for insulating materials (with short fibers) and as reinforcement fibers in highly loaded composite materials like for example in fiber-reinforced ceramic(s).
  • Nano-tube fibers consist almost completely of carbon nano-tubes (English. nanotubes). They possess very high strengtheningnesses and still are in early development stages. NASA examines such fiber systemsto the building of space elevators.

the largest artificial fiber producers

the most important manufacturing country of artificial fibers China is followed, of Taiwan and the USA with large distance. In Europe Germany and Italy are the most important producers.

Die wichtigsten Produzenten für Kunstfasern
The largest artificial fiber producers world-wide (2001)
source: Trade paper the worldin figures (2005)
rank country production
(in Tsd. t)
Country struggled production
(in Tsd. t)
1 China 7.905 8 Thailand 838
2 Taiwan 3.105 9 Germany 800
The 3 USA 2.744 10 Turkey 672
4 South Korea 2.381 11 Mexico 555
5 India 1.681 12 Italy 550
6 Japan 1.347 13 Russian Föd. 423
7 Indonesia 1.289 14 Brazil One


finds 318 further tables to production data here:

Fasermischungen

it is today usual to mix for textile applications fibers. A goal always is to get a yarn with changed characteristics. Here on the one hand one tries,improves performance characteristics, improves clothing-physiological or better care characteristics to receive. On the other side one tries to reach a change of the appearance or an increase of economy. From the processing are more difficult mixtures sometimes to handle than pure fibers. However straight Fasergemische leave themselves partialprocess better.

  • Melange a Fasermischung as multi color color effect in a yarn
  • Vigogne is a mixture from wool and viscose rayon
  • Vigoureux is a partial streifenförmig roll-printed on Fasermischung for achievement high-quality calm Melange Farbffekte

Textile suitability

fibers, which are to be converted to dresses, should oneDiameters smaller than 10 micrometers have, since they feel otherwise unpleasantly hard. Therefore all phloem fibers are used today no more for dresses, but for technical textiles such as packing or damming mats.

Artificial fibers from polymers are suitable very well for textiles, for clothes as for technicalApplications. Since the fibers are particularly manufactured, can be selected its form, thickness and length nearly freely.

Glass fibers and carbon fibers are converted to fabrics or to bonded fabrics; usually in order to process it later to nichttextilen GRP components materials to use rarely in order it directly in this form. For example becomeGlass fiber fabric as temperature-steady isolation used for cables.

Thin metal wires play a substantial role with the production of cables, where they are usually twisted .

If fibers textile are to be used, must they gesponnen to become. Exception: Fleece material and filaments.

see also

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