the chamfering time is a time, in which from a religion chamfered one prescribes or one suggests. In the Christianity it is a characteristic of the catholic tradition, both in the Roman catholicism and in the Orthodoxie and in Protest anti-mash in different measure is pronounced.
historical development and symbolism of the Christian chamfering time before the reformation
the Christian tradition plans exactly taken two chamfering times, since the Adventszeit is seen also as a chamfering timecan. The Christian custom of the chamfering time leaves itself in 4. Century retrace. In the Middle Ages the chamfering time before Christmas took 40 days and began after that 11. November, the March in day. The custom, before it still another March in goose tooeat, comes from that time. The term chamfering time is however only used (and even in the older linguistic usage) for the österliche bus time. It begins on ashtray Wednesday and ends in the Easter eight, the eve of the Ostersonntag. In this time are likewise40 days chamfering time intended, whereby Sundays are not counted since the Synode by Benevent (1091) any longer in addition. After another counting method the chamfering time extends likewise 40 days long, which is related to the period from ashtray Wednesday to Palmsonntaginclusive Sundays. At Palmsonntag the holy week (Karwoche) begins, which counts after this counting method as specially section.
In the Christian fixed calendar the österliche chamfering time goes (Quadragesima) Easter in front, that by the council of Nicäa 325 on thatfirst Sunday after the spring full moon one determined. Easter is therefore a mobile fixed date, that on the time between the 22. March and the 25. April (Ostergrenzen) to fall can. The date of the chamfering time is “mobile” and defines themselves in relation toEaster by the length of the chamfering time.
Regarding Jesu in the desert (Mt 4, 2) chamfered specified the church the length of the chamfering time on 40 days and nights. The time interval which can be divided into 40 units designates thoseto earthturn variety and occurs in the Bible several times: 40 years move the Israeliten by the desert (ex 16.35), 40 days meet Moses God on the Sinai (ex 24.18), 40 days move Elias to the mountain Horeb (1 Kön 19.8), 40Days chamfered Jesus in the desert (Mt 4,2; Process card 4.2) and 40 after day the Auferstehung (= Easter) celebrates the church Christi Ascension Day (Apg 1.3).
The beginning of the chamfering time is on one Wednesday and the end of the nearly at night time on thatTuesday after that 6. Sunday before Easter (Invocabit). When the Synode of Benevent 1091 chamfered Sundays in the chamfering time as memory days of the Auferstehung Jesu of excluded, therefore the beginning of the chamfering time advanced around 6 (week) days. The Fastnachtsince then 7 ends on Tuesday after that. Sunday before Easter (Estomihi) and the chamfering time begins with following Wednesday, ashtray Wednesday. Those, which celebrate their Fastnacht according to the old chamfering order before the regulation in Benevent (1091), commit the old person Fastnacht(also: Farmer nearly night), which always falls into the valid chamfering time. To the difference of the old person Fastnacht was called the new chamfering order appropriate new nearly at night date gentleman nearly night.
The chamfering time was considered as a bound time, because in this time were the Christians at obligationsbound: The obligation to chamfered, i.e. to the renouncement of meat, milk products (= Laktizinien), wine and eggs, Mitfeier of the Karwoche and the österlichen services, participation to the easthereditarycalibrated.
Other names for the österliche chamfering time or Fastenquadragese are: Quadragesima, Quadragena, Quarentana, Quadragesimummajor, - ante pascha, tense quadragesi paints, large chamfered, long ones -, jejunium longum, - quadragesimale, - paschale, jejunia.
chamfering times in the Roman-catholic church
until 1966 was in the Roman-catholic church on all Fridays (anniversary for the death of the gentleman)and in the österlichen bus time chamfered obligatorily on each Gläubigen prescribed. Since however the own resolution is so not ensured and is regarded the internal attitude of the Gläubigen as uncommonly important, the chamfering requirement became by Pope Paul VI.againarranged. Since then apply only ashtray Wednesday (first day of the chamfering time) and the Karfreitag as obligatory nearly days, on the remaining days of the chamfering time chamfered however urgently recommended. On the obligating days is also in every detail prescribed like the Gläubigenchamfered must: Only one main meal and a small stabilization at the other two table times (abort-chamfered) may be taken. In addition is to be done without meat. (From the requirement of the Fastens chamfering Sundays are excluded, see also:Chamfering Sunday, spark Sunday, bean Sunday.)Besides still the nationally ordered dance prohibition comes on these days.
Because the abstention of meat is not felt of each humans as renouncement, also different bus forms may be performed on the recommended nearly days. Many catholics eat z in this time.B. no sweets and renounce to all luxuries such as coffee, dte or alcohol. Others against it everyday habits such as television, music hear or computer games in and to avoid tavern or discotheque attendance. In this way it is possible to arrange the chamfering time individual.
The conscious restriction is v. A. a training of the spirit cause. Chamfering time is a time of the penalty and the reversal. Therefore catholics are during the österlichen bus time the Beichte placing. In the municipalities also frequently bus services take place .
Also the Advent, which is considered to preparation time on Christmas, as a required chamfering time.
chamfering times in the eastern-orthodox church
fundamental each Gläubige its chamfering rules with God, itself, should and its priest or in the eastern-orthodox churchBeichtvater clarify. Chamfered “on own fist” one does not recommend, and praying as well as the striktestmögliche abstention of the sins, not the food renouncement, is considered as the more important part of the chamfering exercise. All following is to be understood thus only as suggestion.
Those eastern-orthodox church has four chamfering times:
- the large chamfering time, the seven weeks before Easter begins and to Easter lasts (50 days strict chamfered)
- the Apostel Fastenzeit from first Sunday to Whitsuntide up to the day Peter and Paul to 29. June (length hangsfrom the Osterdatum, easy chamfered)
- the Maria passing away - chamfering time of the 1. - 14. August (14 days middle chamfered)
- the Weihnachts Fastenzeit of 15. November to 24. December (3 weeks easy, 3 weeks middle chamfered)
in addition is on each Wednesday and Friday gefastetbecome direct, except in the weeks after Easter and Christmas.
During the chamfering times both the number of daily meals should be limited as well as their content. Within these chamfering times it gives day with stricter and less strict rules: the mildesteForm is not renouncement of the meat of land animals, with the strictest form is any vertebrate animal products (thus at animal food only e.g. Honey and sea fruits), no oil and no alcoholic beverages permit, besides then only two meals are on the day eatenbecome and nothing between the meals. Sea fruits applied for arms in the old Mediterranean cultures, where these rules developed, as inferior food.
On Saturdays and Sundays chamfered in each case around a “stage” loosened.
To monks rules apply; depending upon monasterycan be a only one cooked egg per year, at the Ostersonntag, the maximally permitted.
chamfering time in Protestant churches
the Reformatoren have chamfered very critically regarded. After their opinion it concerned thereby a purely outward actthe Religiosität, which is not deserving before God. Since Jesus Christ sacrificed itself at the cross, further Opfergaben are unnecessary. The custom of the Fastens is not unknown nevertheless in the today's protest anti-mash. For many Protestanten is the renouncement of meatand luxuries until today at the Karfreitag naturally. The more strongly the individual Protestant and/or. the individual Protestant denomination of the catholic tradition is obligated, the rather also chamfered brought with the 40-tägigen chamfering time in connection, and the rather become alsoother customs, which occur in the Orthodoxie or in the Roman catholicism, practices. Thus in the anglikanischen tradition the ash cross on the forehead is received; also liturgical movements within the remaining protest anti-mash, like e.g. the Taizé movement or the Berneuchener movement,consider the chamfering time, in which the Liturgien receives a special bus character, and without the word Alleluia one does. At the other end of the Protestant spectrum, e.g. with Pfingstlern or Evangelikalen, in addition, with many reformed Christians these grown historically becomeTraditions at all does not consider or as superstitiously rejected. , Where the chamfering time in the protest anti-mash is considered, to detailed Essvorschriften, and more is paid attention less renouncement generally; thus also the Evangelist church in Germany participates in actions,like e.g. “Auto+chamfered”, which is organized jointly with the Roman-catholic church and the traffic club Germany.
chamfering time in the Islam
the annual max. dreissigtägige chamfering time Islam is called Ramadan. In this time Muslims may do during the day neither meals norDrink. - Chamfered (Arab: Seam) forms the fourth column Islam - for all Muslims obligating: - 1. Ramadan (at the beginning of the chamfering monthly): 24. September 2006 the chamfering breaking celebration: 24. October 2006
- The chamfering month Ramadan begins, if on the first day of theMonthly the Mondsichel becomes recognizable and ends, if this repeats itself at the beginning of the subsequent monthly. The daily chamfering time covers the time of the daylight.
Are forbidden: - Food intake - Drinking - also perfume - also sexual intercourse
to chamfered belonged: - itselfto dedicate the Koran to testify to go into the mosque to praying or to the joint Koranrezitation - also through other actions its faith. The first meal after break-down of the darkness: Water and Datteln - in the night is allpermits, what on the day was to be omitted.
The obligation to chamfered - for all adults of Muslims, directly whether man or woman, - Young people with the using of puberty
exceptions as per. Koran: - Patient - both physically or psychologically -Humans, who are on a journey, - women during the pregnancy, the time of satisfying and during the Menstruation (condition of the impurity, in which the women are in this time).
chamfering time of the Baha'i
the neunzehntägigeChamfering time falls on the month Ala (2. to 20. March) of the Baha'i calendar. Shoghi Effendi points out that the chamfering time with the complete abstention of meal and drink between sunrise and sunset „essentially a time of the Meditation andthe prayer, which mental renewal is, while the Gläubige is to strive to arrange its internal life again and strengthen the mental forces resting in its soul to erfrischen and. The sense and purpose of the Fastens are mental nature.Chamfered is a symbol, a reminder, to contain of selbstischer and fleischlicher desires. “Abdul Baha explains that chamfered in the abstention of meal and drink exists and that also smoking a kind „drinking “is. In the Arab one designatesthe same verb both drink and smoke.
- Chamfered, welfare-chamfered, chamfering breaking
- family nearly day, Misereor, chamfering soup
- Exerzitien, a-turn - and desert days,
- Peter Gerlitz, Hugo coat, Stuart George resound,Joseph H. Crehan:/Nearly days chamfered I. Religion-historically II. Judentum III. Biblically and church-historically. In: Theological material encyclopedia 11 (1983), S. 41-59 (histor. Overview)