Fatimiden

the Fatimiden were a Shiiteismailitische dynasty, which prevailed from 909 to 1171 in the Maghreb , Egypt and Syria.

Table of contents

thoseOrigin of the Fatimiden

after splitting the Muslims into Sunniten and Shiites, were led the latters by Imamen, which descendant of the Ali was ibn Abi Talib and the Fatima. However it did not come also under the Shiite to splitting, there the transition of the guide roller alwayswas undisputed. Thus 9 developed to in. Century the Shiite main branches of the Imamiten, Ismailiten and Zaiditen. (Provisionally) the last Imam of the Ismailiten was Ismail ibn Dschafar.

In the center 9. Century began Abdallah aluminium-Akbar with the mission for its ismailitische teachings.It announced the imminent appearance of the hidden seventh Imams, by which all law religions (beside the Christianity and Judentum also the Islam) to be abolished and the cultless Urreligion is to be manufactured.

Because of pursuits it led and its successor the mission soon from the hiding by messengersand sending letters. Thereby the mission was most successful in the Iraq, in east Arabia, in Yemen and in the Maghreb. Only after the seizure of power in the Maghreb the descendants of Abdallah aluminium-Akbar led their descent on Fatima, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad and woman of the Ali ibnAbi Talib back, why the dynasty is called Fatimiden.


the Fatimiden in North Africa

After the Missionar Abu Abdallah asch ski had spread ` i the teachings of the Ismailiten under the Berbern of the Maghreb, he fell the dynasty of the Aghlabiden into Ifriqiya. Thus it smoothed the way for Abdallah aluminium-Mahdi, which justified the realm of the Fatimiden in Ifriqiya.This attributed now as alleged grandchildren of Ismail ibn Dschafar its descent to Fatima, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad .

Abdallah aluminium-Mahdi (910 - 934) accepted the title of a Kalifen and created the capital aluminium-Mahdiya south of Sousse. Of beginningthe fall of the Abbasiden was aimed at on, which were from view of the Fatimiden usurpers. Subjecting of Algeria and Sicily succeeded, but failed the conquest of Egypt first just like the campaigns to Morocco.

Under Abu l-Qasim aluminium-Qaim (934 - 946)Sicily was again subjected and the coasts of Italy and France by fleet expeditions was geplündert. Around Sicilies to befrieden the Kalbiten was used as Emire. However it came by the rebellion of the charidschitischen Berber under Abu Yazid (944 - 947) to a heavy crisis asthe insurgent ones occasionally the capital aluminium-Mahdiya besieged.

At the reorganization of the realm by Ismail aluminium-Mansur (946 - 953) and Abu Tamin aluminium-Muizz (953 - 975) succeeded to the Fatimiden under the field gentleman Dschawar as-Siqilli the raid up to the Atlantic, butcould not be stated the rule over Morocco, since the emphasis of the fatimidischen policy aligned itself to the conquest of Egypt. the conquest of Egypt and the fall of the Ishididen succeeded to 969. Kalif aluminium-Muizz shifted now 972 the capital of the realm to Cairo and set those Ziriden as viceroys in the Maghreb. Thus this was only a boundary region in the fatimidischen Imperium.

the Fatimiden in Egypt

After still Abu Tamin aluminium-Muizz had created the new realm capital Cairo, under aluminium-Aziz the fatimidische rule in Egypt was consolidated. Became, despite the Shiiteismailitischen confession of the Fatimiden, which tolerates Sunni Muslims. At the same time Palestine and Syria to 978 were conquered as well as control over Mekka and Medina won. Been subordinate thus the most important Heiligtümer Islam the Fatimiden.

Under the fatimidischen rule the economy of Egypt took a large upswing by the building of roads and channels and by promotion of the trade between India and the Mediterranean area. In the 11. Century possessedthe realm of the Fatimiden the largest resource the Islamic realms. Also culture and science were supported by the Fatimiden, whereby the establishment of the aluminium-Azhar-university attained meaning.

Under aluminium-Hakim (995 - 1021) the tolerant religion politics were increasingly given up opposite Nichtmuslimen. Thus public Prozessionen becameand cult actions of the Christians and Jews just like the benefit of wine and beer forbids. To procure occasionally also Christian churches and monasteries geplündert around finances for the army and the building from mosques to. Thus it came 1009 to the destruction of the grave church into Jerusalem. Around 1017 the aluminium-Hakim developed as the Inkarnation of God regarded in Egypt sparkling wines. From this developed itself later the religious community of the glands.

Az-Zahir (1021 - 1036) succeeded again the pacification of the realm and striking down some Beduinenaufstände in Syria. ThatHigh point of power the Fatimiden under aluminium-Mustansir ( 1036 - 1094) reached as ismailitische mission acres in Yemen power to be seized and the Abbassiden into Bagdad 1059 briefly be fallen could.

However this expanded power politics led to the national bankruptcy and to the fall of the dynasty. Could the Ziriden in Ifriqiya by the deportation of the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym again under the offering moderateness of the Fatimiden to be forced, but was lost to Syria and Palestine 1076 to the Seldschuken . Also on the inside the government had increasingly the commanders of the troops and the Wesiren are left.

Also the conquest of Jerusalem by the cross drivers during the 1. Crusade and the Fatimiden could prevent the establishment kingdom of the Jerusalem any longer. After 1130 the Fatimiden came increasingly under the influence of the cross drivers. With the successful conclusion of the FE storage of Askalon (1153) by Balduin III. (Jerusalem) the Fatimiden lost the last base in Pälestina. Already 1163 led only ad-DIN of the rulers from Damascus, a campaign to Egypt to its officer Saladin 1171 the Fatimiden fell and the dynasty of the Ayyubiden justified.

Institutes for mission and schools

created effect of the Fatimiden the Shiiteismailitischen Fatimiden for the spreading of their teachings, which at first only those the Sunniten were opposite. Although the Sunniten rejected the allegorische interpretation of the Koran, nevertheless substantial mission successes in the Islamic world could be obtained. Even if it in 11. Century with the Erstarken of the orthodox Sunniten particularly in Iran to substantial setbacks came, possessed the ismailitischen municipalities enough Kraft around also after the fall of the Fatimiden to exist.

For the Ismailiten the Fatimiden is also therefore of importance, there under these of On-Numan the basis for the ismailitische right school was put.

literature

  • Heinz stem: The realm of the Mahdi. C.H. Beck Munich, 1991 ISBN 3406354971
  • Heinz stem: The Kalifen of Cairo, the Fatimiden in Egypt (973-1074). C. H. Beck Munich 2003 ISBN 3-406-48654-1
  • UlrichHair man: “History of the Arab world”, C.H.Beck Munich 2001


 

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