February revolution 1917
the February revolution of 1917 terminated the Zarenherrschaft in Russia. The name decreases/goes back to the Julian calendar then valid in Russia . After our (Gregorian) time calculation the revolution at the 11 began. March. Direct causes of the February revolution were the effects of the The First World War, which strengthened the social tensions of the Vorkriegszeit additionally.
To the place of the Zarenherrschaft first a next to each other of parliament (Duma) and worker and soldier advice ( double rule) stepped. The Duma inserted a “provisional government” first under Prime Minister Lwow and then under Kerenski.For the autumn of the yearly 1917 the Duma planned the choice of a constituent meeting, that should decide on the future of the Russian republic. However still transferred in the same year the Bolsheviks by the October Revolution power to Russia.
Table of contents
to defeats in the First World War
the warRussia brought losses of more than a million dead one. The war had begun, as in all European states with a national high feeling. It became for the Zarenreich however after the turn at the east front with the battle from Gorlice Tarnow to a series of sensitive defeats.The psychological effect, which became the legitimacy of the autocracy of the house Romanow still by the fact strengthened that Nikolaus II. (Russia) 1915 had taken over personally the command over the armed forces. Thus each further retreat and each further defeat damaged the reputation of the regime.
the Russian state went through an enormous growth crisis during the war. The requirements of the modern war guidance made an enormous development of the industriellen capacities of the country necessary. This was also accomplished with national assistance. However this demanded its tribute in an enormously high capital expenditure.These expenditures were covered by the state. Over again for incomes to provide a series of war loans was released, which failed however. In the absence of other methods thereby the Notenpresse had to hold for the expenditures for war. By the Vermehrung of the money supply formed already in the second war yeara significant inflation. This should demand an average price increase of work and goods to at the end of of 1916 around 400%. Thus the food production of the great land owners was almost paralyzed, since they were dependent on the occupation of hired hands. The Kleinbauern produced still sufficient food, however becamefor it the sales of their yields unprofitable. Inflation and concentration on the manufacturing for the military had the prices for industrielle of goods, those the farmers needed upward floated. Since the river of finished goods of the cities triumphed on the country, also the counter current cameof agricultural products into the cities for succumbing. Desweitern were omitted several millions households, which had held itself up to the beginning of war on the country by simple manufacturing relating to crafts of consumer durables over water. This halfrural layer of the society partly became by the obligation in the army,mostly however by the higher wages in forces developed factories of the cities from its earlier activity far away. Thus the standard of living worsened both the urban as well as the rural population.
embittering the opposition
by the bad states broke the agreed upon Burgfrieden, that only keeping still the opposition within the war to secure should quite fast. The increasing protest readiness of the population shows up in the Duma, which were dominated by representatives of the middle class and the aristocracy. In the Duma formed since 1915 „the progressive one Block “, which reflected embittering over the autocratic policy Nikolaus' II. „The progressive block “was the strongest parliamentary opposition since the revolution of 1905. „The progressive block “covered all delegate except right/radically left-wing, and demanded a liberalisation of Russia. Soon this block closed to „Semstwo “(rural autonomy) and congress of the city federation together. The demands of the “Semstwo” were the end of the autocracy and a victorious completion of the war. The answer of the Zaren was the dissolution of the Duma; Delegates were placed despite immunity under surveillance.
authority lossthe Zaren
Zar Nikolaus II. the murder of political opponents instructed and installed at short notice an informer system generally speaking for country. 1915 he took over the military instruction over the troops. Thereupon Nikolaus was mainly in the headquarters of the army and the unpopular empress Alexandra made politics. To 15.March 1917 thanked Nikolaus II. on pressure of the generals in favor of his brother, the large prince Mikhail (1878-1918), off, who knows the crown however back. To 21. March became Nikolaus II. in detention taken and after internment in Zarskoje Selo with his family to Siberia banishes.
process of the revolution
a degradation of the supply situation in the hard winter 1916/1917, the obligation recovery and a new delivery system failed. 1917 developed in the industrial centres hunger revolts, strikes and demonstrations. Cause of the demonstrations was and. A. the 12. Anniversary “Peter citizens of the Blutsonntag “. ThoseArrest of dissidents could not work against the revolutionary tendency, but led only to a stronger radicalization. In sank Petersburg gave it by hunger emergencies starting from that to 23. February (Julian calendar) a mass riot. The shooting instructions of the Zaren led to the fraternization of the garrison soldiers and the demonstrators. Thereupon beganstorming on the weapon arsenals of the army and the demonstrators seized power. The police and the government of the Zaren dissolved.
of the Petrograder worker and soldier advice became language pipe of the rebellions. It existed to that after the model of the self organizationproletarian population 1905. At the point an executive committee stood out by the majority for Menschewiki and non-party ones. A goal of the Soviet was the production of the order, supply and the removal of the Zarenherrschaft. A constituent meeting on basis of general elections should decide on the system of government.
coup d'etat thatDuma
to 27. February quit the Duma the obedience because of revolutionary development and refused thereupon the following dissolution instruction. Afterwards they use „a provisional Duma committee “under the guidance „of the progressive block “and hoped further for a change of mind of the Zaren. Since this was missing however, was the Duma with the pressure of the road in a forced manner to the seizure of power of the parliament and the arrest of the government, the military commander and just as the Zaren. A new Commander-in-Chief was appointed and used Duma authorized persons in the Ministries. The provisional Duma committee existed up to the next elections.
Resignation of the Zaren
with pressure of the army guidance tuned Zar Nikolaus II. the formation of one „government of the social confidence “too. This could not stop the revolution however also. After the will of the generals the Zar should resign, in order to prevent with the fact that the revolution upthe own troops spread and in further consequence the continuation of the war did not endanger. At the 3. March refused taking over its brother intended for the successor it the offered. Its resigning led thus to the end of the 300-jährigen Romanow dynasty and the 400-jährigen Russian monarchy.