fencing are primarily a kind of combat haven, which developed from a combat equipment. Before the establishment as kind of sport was the delivering formwhen duel, less also than martial fight, spreads far. The historical origins decrease/go back to a refinement of the weapons and courses of motion opposite sword - and sword fights .
Today fencing predominantly the sport fencing (this article) is named, fenced with Florett, sword and sword. Theatre-fenceand the student Mensurfechten with blade weapons are likewise implemented. In particular the theatre fencing corresponds to fencing, as one knows it from maintenance films.
The fencing sport is an olympic discipline. The language of theSport fencing is French.
] history of fencing, characteristics
of the fencing sport fencing beside boxes and rings to the earliest duel competitions of humansand came out from martial fencing with the sword as training or play form. One operated a kind sporty fencing already very early in Eastern Asia with bright weapons and in Africa and Japan with sticks. The antique one knew fencing schools, and in the Roman realm of the Augustusthe youth loved the looking fencing.
Fencing an armed fight from usually two persons is original, with which blank weapons with relatively long blade and with a Handschutz are used. These can be led in such a way that the attacks of the opponent by the other opponent with thatBlade and/or. at the concave form formed by blade and Handschutz to be intercepted. When fencing it comes thus to the direct contact of the assigned weapons, differently than for example with the use of measurers or Dolchen, with whom avoiding or the grasp to the wrist is used for defense,or with the medieval sword fight, with which the impacts were usually pariert with a sign.
With the spreading of the gun powder in the outgoing Middle Ages, the Erstarken of the infantry, elbow - and arm chest - contactors the armored knight lost his meaning. The sword became nowpredominantly against easy or uses completely unprepared opponents, and fencing with light weapons arose like the Rapier , for which there were uniform rules and text books starting from 1410 in Italy. There the Rapier no more by knights, but by citizens was led,developed handling to the first “spreading haven”. From Italy outgoing then the Rapierfechten in France experienced its first bloom time, Gesichtsmasken made it safer. 1570 invented the Frenchman Henri Saint Didier most fencing he technical terms, which are still used also today.
In Germany, itself alsothe Italians around the authority of sporty fencing, it argues particularly at the universities was operated, lost however by the student Mensur (bloody “blows”) its sporty character. A promotion experienced fencing then again by the Turnerbewegung in 19. Century. 1862 developed for thatfirst fencing club in Hanover, 1896 the first championships took place.
Theatre-fenced or also stage fencing is to be called best Choreographie. Here the principal purpose an optically impressive fight is to be represented. Beside modern weapons also with historical Fechtwaffen one fences, for example long staff, Rapier and Dolch.
Nowadays sport fencing is a combat haven, with which two opponents try to meet mutually with a blow and/or an impact weapon. The weapons which are used in the match are the Florett, the sword and the sword. Florett and swords are pure impact weapons, the sword is a blow and an impact weapon. It becomes on a bar-like soil (14m long and 1.50 - 2m broad), the Fechtbahn (frz.: Planche) fenced. Depending upon used weapon contacts in certain regions at the body of the opponent count as hits; these becomein the match today with an electrical hit indicator seizes. Winner is, who first a certain number and/or. who set at expiration of the combat time of more hits than the opponent.
fencing as olympic discipline
fencing ranks among the olympic “establishment kinds of sport” from Athens 1896.In Athens three competitions were located on the program: Sword, Florett and Florett for Fechtmeister. The sword fencing was added in Paris 1900, since Antwerp 1920 fences the men the today still usual competitions with Florett, sword and sword as single and in the crew.
Likewise inThe fencing gutters their olympic break-through celebrated Antwerp. For the first time they, but only in the Florett single, were allowed to fight for medals. Into Rome 1960 their crew title was added in the Florett, and in Atlanta 1996 the women began also for the first time with the sword (single and crew). Finally became inAthens 2004 also the sword fencing of the women as the sixth single discipline taken up to the olympic program. As reconciliation for the admission woman Mrs. (only single) was suspended with the olympic summer games 2004 the competition in the lady Florett (crew), so that altogether 10 matches are delivered. With future olympicMatches are to pausieren in each case different crew competitions (ever a man and a woman competition).
At present, fencing is discussed, to assign apart from other kinds of sport, to the olympic winter plays.
fencing is operated in Germany von Rollstuhlfahrern since 1962. The Fechter move non as generally again and againassumed - with the wheelchair over the Fechtbahn, but are buckled on in “fencing racks”.
The initiative proceeded from the director of the vocational advancement service game bath, walter white. First under Fechtmeister smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Heimke with 12 participants only swords was trained. In the year 1964 swords and Florett camein addition. Since 1985 fencing is operated within the German wheelchair sport federation (DRS ) also by ladies.
Already promptly the German Fechter maintained international sport meetings. The Olympiad in Tokyo 1964 made the beginning. The world plays in Stoke Mandeville and the paralympicses of the handicapped ones, following thereafter, became ofthe German active one with ever larger successes denied. Today the German Rollstuhlfechter ranks among the absolute point.
Past sporty high point were the European championships 1985 in Foggia, with which in the gentleman Mr. 10 by 11 possible gold medals could be won.
the branches of service
Fencing beginners begin usually with the Florett, in order to be able to learn the bases of fencing more easily. Due to his small weight is the Florett also well for children suitably. In the past it was to be fenced women only permitted with the Florett.
Within the pupil range with a so-called mini weapon one fences. This is smaller than the normal weapon and thus better for children suitable. Within this range may excluding only with the mini weapon to be fenced, whereby in the adult range the use of the mini weapon is not forbidden.
ended to Florett manual Sportflorett often deadly. This led to the fact that they lost rapidly at meaning and itself therebyfrom the light sword and/or. Rapier already early the Florett for the improvement of the own fencing art developed (Florett comes from the French fleur (flower): to practice after the form of the protection body, which one had put on on the point of its weapon, over with the Fechtmeister).
It consists of onethin, flexible blade (with point), a so-called bowl/bell as protection and a grasp.
The point of the electrical Floretts working as tracers consists of a blunt head and feather/spring with case. The feather/spring must with Florett perpendicularly held a weight of at least 500 g high pressures. Thusit is to be avoided that the opponent is already indicated with easy contacts as met.
The blade has a rectangular cross section and becomes ever thicker and more inflexible from the point to the bell. One divides it into blade strength, blade center and blade weakness, which indicates in particular the point,where it with a certain action the opposing blade affects.
In the center of a side (usually above) the blade has a longitudinal groove, into which a conduction is bonded.
The bell, a round and plate-like formed, small bowl, serves for the protection and containsbeside a pad a plug for the connection of the cable.
For the grasp there are three different kinds:
- the French grasp (a long smooth staff)
- the Italian grasp (a straight grasp and a Parierstange; antique cross)
- the orthopedic or pistol grasp is often called (indifferent remarks) hit surface with the Florett
the hand, is an impact weapon, i.e. Hits must arise with the point with the opponent. Originally only as straight an impacts as possible were implemented (arm is stretched, by leg movements such as loss or different forward steps the distance finally reduced),also blow-similar movements are usual in the modern sport fencing. These movements one has to imagine from the expiration similarly those with a whip or a fishing rod, whereby the tracer at the point must indicate the hit. However these hits are often disputed, there as a condition for attainingthe attack right a threat of the hit surface as well as a stretched arm to be present are (regulation of the FIE), which is not given with the whip hits by the drawing back movement. Since the 2004 discharged changes in the regulation of the FIE however so-called of “(no meaning)/Coupe” (whip impacts) became rare. This was reached throughthe increase of the minimum time of contact between the Florettspitze and the hit surface. With “(no meaning)” the time of contact is so briefly that it not when hit is indicated traditional joint types to have thus meaning won. René smelled, which implemented this change, turned out thereby into violent criticism, there onethe change frequently as rückschrittlich felt and many olympic Sportfechter its fencing style fundamentally to change had.
Trefffläche with the Florettfechten is only the Torso, thus the torso with a V-shaped, marked by the electrical waistcoat, in the step approaching end downward. In particular head, arms and legs are therebyexcluded.
With the Florett there is no double hits, but an attack right contrary to the swords. By the attack right, which recompences activity, the Florettfechten is dynamic, the opponents in movement and hit constantly falls usually before expiration of a half minute.
of the swords the successor of the sword from that, used with the duel, is 19. Century. It is more stable and more heavily and with a larger bell than the Florett provided, since also the hand must be protected.
The sword is like the Florett an impact weapon.That to blow-similar movements said applies above similarly, although cannot be so highly drawn back, because otherwise the own arm is easily met and the Herumbiegen of the blade falls more heavily, since this with the sword much more thickly precipitates than with the Florett described above.
The whole body is Trefffläche, also head and feet. It applies the rule for “each hit counts”. Thus there is double hit (two hits within 40-50 ms) and therefore no certain attack right.
The descent is stressed by these natural rules by a duel weapon. There the opposingPoor and in particular the hand from the distance next lies, concentrates however when sport fencing many actions to meet the hand and/or. to hide the own hand, what sword combat a somewhat static appearance can give.
The components of the sword are inSubstantial the same as with the Florett. In the difference the Degenspitze a weight of at least 750 g high pressures must.
The sword blade has an easily V-shaped cross section and is relatively rigid thereby; it becomes likewise thicker from the point to the bell ever.
The sword comes from the military sword of the Kavallerie 19. Century off. It possesses a flat and light blade.
of the swords is a blow and an impact weapon, i.e. Hits can be set with (blunt) the blade sharpness. The hit surface is the entire torso inclusive Headand to arms (up to the wrist), whereby however the step contrary to the Florett is excluded, i.e. the Trefffläche horizontal at the hip it ends.
The sword fencing is usually still faster than with the Florett. Hits fall often already after few seconds. As is the case forFlorett applies an attack right. Invalid hits are not indicated, so that e.g. with a hit on a leg combat is not interrupted.
The sword is just as developed as the above two weapons, has however no point with mobile head as hit sensor, but thoseBlade runs out in a bend of round. The sword blade has an approximately rectangular cross section, necessarily however, but is electrical as whole leading no bonded braid, so that valid hits can be indicated.
The sword bell is differently cut and rather halfspherically around the hand downward pulled thanthe plate-like bells of the two other weapons.
For the sword there is only, the French grasp something similar, Griffart.
Similarly to the Florett it applies to attain the attack right also in the sword fencing, before a hit is set. Is additional, and that is from all Fechtwaffen onlywith the sword so, no cross step permits. To this measure one seized, since sword engagements became ever faster and a reasonable combat structure was no longer ensured.
the fencing clothes, which are carried nowadays when sport fencing, serves the protection of the Fechter. It consists of muchfirm cotton, nylon or kevlar. There are the following articles of clothing, which are subject to firm safety standards:
- Fechtmaske with close screen from V4A - steel or plexiglass and additional neck flap; Säbelfechter carry an electrically conductive mask
- Fechtjacke with adjustment between the legs; different models for left and/or Rechtshänder
- Submitting waistcoat (“Plastron “) from pass-safe material to have around an additional protection on the weapon side
- chest protection for Mrs.
- Fechthose to over the knees, held of suspenders
- (optional) Tiefschutz (Suspensorium) for men
- glove with hand back upholstery to the protection against passes into the sleeve
- of Kniestrümpfe
- additionally there is electrical waistcoat (no protection, but necessary equipment for hit assessment) for florett and Säbelfechter still another.
Not only the clothes actually contribute the weapons to the security of the Fechter, but also. The blade are manufactured in such a way that they break very rarely. One Urbane legend is it however that the blade break when breaking off blunt. Prevailing material is Maraging steel, it gives however meanwhile also a number of other similar materials. Sound of the FIE became certified, the seal of the FIE carries. Despite the protection regulation one can Injury to be excluded, usually does not come it however only to Blutergüssen.
Traditionally the fencing clothes are white, in order to facilitate it for the combat judge to recognize hits. Fechtmeister carry usually black. Since new the official FIE rules permit multicolored fencing clothes.
the Planche (fr.) or Fechtbahn is the surface, on which the Fechter move. The course is made of a metal network, which is to prevent that combat can be interrupted by a hit on the soil. Such hits are not indicated. The Fechtbahn is for all weapons14 meters long and between 1,50 - 2.00 meters wide. The starting line is distant for both Fechter 2 m from the center line. The rear border (during their excess it a punishing hit gives) is 7 m of the center line and/or. 5 m of the respective starting lineremoved. Behind it are prescribed for safety reasons 2 m discharge up to clearing. During lateral leaving the opposing Fechter a meter may precede the Fechtbahn, the other Fechter sets up itself in such a way that the blade points cannot touch themselves with stretched arm. Leaving thatCourse to the rear is punished with a punishing hit.
In the impact weapons Florett and sword are forbidden it letting the weapon point on the Fechtbahn sharpen. A Zurechtbiegen of the weapons, so that these rest upon thereby the metal course, is likewise forbidden.
Until recently Fechtbahnen becamemade of copper or aluminum. These had a weight of approx. 100 kg. Now Fechtbahnen from a plastic are used, which are covered with a leading yarn. These weigh only 30 kg and can very easily be shifted, there one them no longer complexto stretch must, because it is enough to fasten it with tape.
electrical hit indicator
the electrical hit indicator is used with all tournaments and mostly also with training. It became with the sword 1936 (?) introduced, with the Florett 1957 (?) and with the sword 1988 (?).
Ifa Fechter its opponent with a certain Kraft meets, a contact is closed (and/or. with the Florett opened to make possible around technically the announcement from invalid hits to), which releases a light and a sound signal at the indicator. If with the Florett a hit hits outside of the valid hit surface, shinesa white light up, within the valid hit surface a red and/or. green. With the sword invalid hits are not indicated and the fight is not thus also interrupted. The combat judge (chairman) observes the Fechter and the indicator, in order to decide, who set a valid hit; thoseDecision over a valid hit is with the chairman.
For the electrical hit indicator with the Florett and sword an electrically conductive material is needed, which covers the valid hit surface. Florettfechter wear a waistcoat, which covers the entire trunk. With Säbelfechtern are the torso and the arms ofa waistcoat covered, the mask is likewise electrical leading. With Degenfechtern the entire body is valid Trefffläche, therefore no electrically leading clothing is needed. With all kinds of weapon the weapon is electrically attached. The Fechtbahn is grounded, in order to avoid an inadmissible hit indicator, if with the swordfor example the foot of the opponent to be met is. Swords and Florett have a mechanical switch at the weapon point, that with the Florett with 500 g and/or. with the sword with 750 g to be pressed must to close over the electric circuit and/or. to open. With the sword is enougha contact with any part of the blade.
The electrical hit indicator uses a harmless Niedervoltsystem, usually with 12 V tension.
Different larger fencing equipment manufacturers for some time develop a system for slack fencing. The Fechter are equipped with Funksender, with the opponent and thatMeldegerät communicates. For the hit indicator light emitting diodes are inserted into the mask. Such systems are so far only available for swords. 2001 were used for the first time into Koblenz slack fencing with an European championship.
the fencing tournament, rules and actions
on tournaments becomein principle first setting rounds so mentioned fenced, after which a direct elimination (KO-system) with or without hope run follows. All participants are divided first in groups, which cover ideally the same number of Fechtern; otherwise some groups may exhibit a Fechter more. The tablet for thoseDirect elimination is set after the results of the Vorrunden. With national championships and Worldcups push in this moment also directly qualified to the match in addition. Both before a rounding and before a direct elimination fight two Fechter are called to combat. If the call takes place, one must itselfto the combat judge (chairman) announce. The first mentioned one stands right from the chairman. Left-handed people stand usually left from the chairman, so that the chairman has a unverdeckte view on the weapon and the weapon arm. See for this the picture at the article beginning, a left and a Rechtsfechtershows. If two left-handed people fence against each other, then the same applies as to two Rechtshänder to them.
During combat the course may be left only after previous inquiry. An inquiry to the chairman is indicated by lifting the weapon-free arm.
If two Fechter begin to the fight,if they greet each other only mutually, then the combat judge and last the public. After the fight it is usual to be enough oneself the unbehandschuhte hand. A missing greeting whether at the beginning of combat or at the end, can for this a refusing Fechter with the exclusion ofTournament (black map) because of offence against the sporty spirit to be punished.
the matches are delivered in different age groups. The age groups are fixed in the sport order of the DFB http://www.fechten.org/uploads/media/sportordnung.pdf :
- Pupil (C-youth) - 9 to 11 year old
- B-youth - 12 to 13Year old
- A-youth (cadet) - 14 to 16 year old
- juniors - 17 to 19 year old
- active ones (general class) - 20 year old ones and older
- seniors - 40 year old ones and older
younger Fechter, than 9 year old ones, are not certified according to sport order. Besides the senior class becomes on many tournamentsstill further divided:
- Special class - 35 to 39 year old ones (partially also starting from 30)
- seniors AC 1 - 40 to 49 year old
- seniors AC 2 - 50 to 59 year old
- seniors AC 3 - 60 to 69 year old
- seniors AC 4 - 70 year old ones andolder
a fight takes in round engagements (Vorrunde) maximally 3 minutes combat time or to one the Fechter of 5 hits obtained (within the pupil range in round engagements on 4 hits one fences), in the KO-engagements (final rounds) maximally 9 minutes (with one-minute break after in each case3 minutes (in the sword fencing one minute of break after a Fechter of 8 hits set)) or 15 hits (with the seniors of 10 hits and/or. 6 minutes). If the fight is stopped, e.g. with a hit, also the clock is stopped.
With resembling and at expiration of the maximumCombat time is extended combat by 1 minute, whereby a hit advantage is drawn lots before according to the coincidence principle. If in the extension no hit is obtained, the Fechter with the hit advantage keeps the victory awarded. With the seniors usually becomes at expiration of the fencing timeand hit resembling and up to the crucial next hit without Zeitbegrenzung further-fenced.
crews consist of three Fechtern and optionally a fourth Fechter, who can be exchanged in the process of the crew fight. The exchanged Fechter takes over all engagements of the replacing. A crew fight can on twoKinds to be accomplished:
- as Einzelkämpfe or
- as Stafette.
At the time of execution as Einzelkämpfe fence successively all three Fechter crew against all three Fechter of the other crew. The sequence of the engagements is prescribed by the regulation. So thus maximally nine engagements results,according to the rules of the single engagements to be accomplished in each case. The crew with most won engagements is the winner. At the time of execution as Stafette the two crews fence on 45 hits. All three Fechter the one meet all three Fechter of the others also hereCrew. However the result of the preceding engagements is taken over:
- In first combat fenced to a crew 5 hits reached and/or. up to the expiration of 3 minutes combat time.
- In second combat the conditions from first combat are taken over and fenced to a crew10 hits reached and/or. up to the expiration of 3 min.
- In third combat the conditions from second combat transferred and fenced to a crew 15 hits reached and/or. up to the expiration of 3 min.
Within the combat time of 3 mina Fechter can set also more than five hits: If it e.g. sixth combat with conditions 11:25 takes over, then it could set and with 30:25 pass 19 hits on within the engagements time. Won the crew, those as first 45 hits reached orwith expiration in guidance was appropriate for the time of ninth combat. With resembling and similarly to single combat by 1 minute is extended and an advantage is drawn lots.
by the chairman can be expressed cautions:
- Yellow map = simple caution: Cautions e.g. become. given fordefective material (only with the start of combat, or with again exchanged material) or Verdecken of the Trefffläche with the weapon-free arm.
- Red map = punishing hit: Punishing hits e.g. become. given for brutality or with the receipt of the second yellow map.
- Black map = exclusion of the tournament/disqualification e.g.by manipulation at the weapon, often also with insult of the combat judge or the opponent.
the Mensur is the distance of the two Fechter from each other. One differentiates between close, normal and far Mensur. The width of the Mensur depends on the physical abilitiesthe Fechter. Generally the normal Mensur is the distance, in which both Fechter can meet with a loss.
the attack right with the Florett and with the sword means that the hit privilege attacking first has. An attack is defined as a direct threat,before that of the opponent begins and with the stretching of the arm is connected (threat of the valid opposing hit surface). One may not set up oneself however at the beginning of a engagements section with stretched arm (line). As soon as the arm is tightened (the weapon does not show no more to thosevalid Trefffläche), is terminated the attack and the right to a valid attack ignores on the opponent. With simultaneous hits of both sides none counts the hit (there nobody the attack right possessed).
Differently expressed: If one is attacked, one must defend oneself first, before onea rule-conformal counter attack to accomplish knows. If one does not do this and leads even an attack through without itself to have defended, one applies with an approximately simultaneous hit as met and the own hit is not rated. The hit one “along-pushing” Fechters is only considered thus asdo not please. This is the basic principle in the conventional fencing disciplines: “Meetings without to be met”.
One may nevertheless try the aggressor to meet without itself against its attack to have defended before. If one sets thereby an individual, own hit, this is valid. The “along-pushing” Fechterhere the hit priority of the aggressor takes with a double hit in purchase. Usually this is reached by avoiding movements (the valid hit surface is extracted from the opponent thereby). A goal is it that the opponent pushes in emptiness and one meets it thereby.
A protection against the attackwith the blade (parade) and give in such a way that straight repelling the possibility for a counter attack (Riposte) cause a transition of the attack right.
An example: The first Fechter attacks, the second Fechter accomplishes likewise an attack and both Fechter meets valid. Now receivesthe first Fechter the point, since it possessed the attack right in the crucial instant. Counter example: The action begins as described, now resists above however the second Fechter with a parade the attack of the first off it thus the attack right turned around and firstFechter must defend itself now for his part - and it gets the second Fechter the point.
With the Florett and sword the chairman must decide, who had the attack right and thus the point receives. If the chairman cannot make a decision, the hits for futile are explainedand the fight is continued.
In the sword there is no attack right: Who meets first, its hit counts. Meetings both within 40 milliseconds, are rated both hits. After this time the alarm unit indicates no more further hits.
- of straight lines impact; withoutfurther actions and with loss the opponent is usually met. The straight impact is implemented very fast and surprisingly or prepares a further action of the aggressor such as Kontrariposte.
- Loss; snaps approximation at the Gegener, by the front leg of the Fechters around 1.5 to2fache of the distance of the feet is shifted forward in the fencing position. The front knee remains over the heel; the rear knee is stretched. The front thigh and the rear leg a straight line form ideal way.
- Parade Riposte; Defense and counter attack.
- Ligade (Streichfinte)
- Battuta (blade impact)
- Connection (pressure on the opposing blade weakness with the own blade strength)
- Sperrstoss/Arretstoss (impact into the opposing attack)
- Filo (slide along the opposing blade along)
- Cavation (evasion)
- (no meaning)/Coupe (whip-well-behaved impact, with which the point hits first)
- Flèche (franz. Arrow, projectile), also fall attack and/or. Run attack, particularly is fast spoken attack, with which the attacking with stretched arm held throws itself lightning-like forward. The characteristic is technical that the procedure of repelling takes place with the Flèche with the front leg as support leg, on which the weight is shifted forward. Thus also that can Impression “(forward) fall themselves leaving” to develop. This movement however caught by likewise forward the swung leg (Schwungbein), which supported to one, by the force of gravity, much snap, first step leads. Usually the opponent should be met with this first step.However frequently a short Sprint of few steps, for which however the function of the Flèche stands as surprise attack against, follows the first step. If a Flèche becomes even running, this points those on a bad fencing style of the aggressor, since this is not able,Mensur to a correct attack to hold, and deliberately interrupts the fight when running out. In English it is called fleche, clearly to differentiate of the more general Flash.
The fencing position
the fencing position is the most appropriate output and end position of all movements on the Fechtbahn. It ensures favorable conditions for all movements and by the following criteria is characterized:
- Position of the feet in relation to the Gefechtslinie
- situation of the body emphasis
- turn of the shoulder and the basinin relation to the engagements level.
The front foot of 1 1/2 to 2 foot lengths rectangular before the rear foot stands. The body emphasis is perpendicular over the supporting surface. Main base are footballs, which are on a meant line. The turn of the shoulder and of theBasin amounts to about 25 degrees in relation to the engagements level. Deviations from this fencing position are justified, often in addition, anatomically or physiologically conditionally and as incorrect are usually not judged with successful Fechtern tactically. Thus e.g. becomes. of Bulotschko (1967) the position of the rear leg inright angle for the center of the rear leg as for the best Fechter characteristically designates. The situation of the emphasis depends on the distance of the feet in the fencing position, the diffraction of the legs in the foot, Hüft and knee joints and the inclination of the torso. As typical variantsare to be called beside the characterized position the high-close and deep-far fencing position. A misalignment of the body emphasis is possible forward. The fencing position is not a firm element, but necessary for fast and loose movements.
international roof federation is since 1913 the Fédération international one d'Escrime (FIE). The national sport federations are German Fechter-Bund (DFB), the Austrian fencing federation (ÖFV) as well as the Fédération Suisse d'Escrime. Sometimes for German Fechter-Bund the abbreviation DFeB is falsely used, around this federation of the Dt. To define football federation. The Dt. Fechter-Bund is however older thanthe Dt. Football federation and carries therefore exactly the same the abbreviation DFB. Training organization for Fechtmeister is in Germany the academy of the fencing art of Germany (ADFD), however not officially by the DFB is recognized.
|Wiktionary: fence - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- acquaintanceFechter and Fechtmeister
- theatre fencing
- Mensur (student connection)