Ferdinand II. (Aragón)

Ferdinand, the catholic one (* 10. March 1452 in Sos; † 23. January 1516 in Madrigalejo) was as Ferdinand II. King of Sicilies 1479 - 1516 and as Ferdinand V. King of Kastilien and León.

Ferdinand II. of Aragón

life

he was the only son of Johann II. of Aragón and its second wife Juana Enriquez. It reached already 1466 the Mitregenten of Aragonien and 1468 the king of Sicilies (as Ferdinand II.) appointed. To 19. October 1469 marriedit the Infantin Isabella I. from Kastilien, and Heinrichs IV. took over with it after death. (the incapable one) of Kastilien in the year 1474 the rule over Kastilien and León. There it becomes as Ferdinand V.counted. They defended their rule throughthe battle of Toro 1476 against Portuguese interference.

With Isabella I. it had the following children:

  • Isabella (* 1. October 1470; † 23. August 1498) - Johann marries (* 28
  • with Alfons of Portugal. June 1478; † 4. October 1497) - Margarete marries with ore duchessof Austria
  • Johanna I. (* 6. November 1479; † 13. April 1555) - marries with Philipp I., King of Kastilien
  • Maria (* 29. June 1482; † 7. March 1517) - marries with Manuel I.
  • Katharina (* 15. December 1485; † 7. January 1536) -married with Arthur Tudor, prince of Wales, in 2. Before Heinrich marries VIII. with its brother. by England

after the death of its father Johann in the year 1479 Aragonien was combined with Kastilien to the Spanish realm, whereby in kastilischen affairs only Isabella make the decisionswas allowed. According to Isabellas death was carried out the combination of the two Kingdoms of also de jure and the Kingdom of Spain was created.

The year 1492 brought two important idioms for Spain: the discovery America by Christoph Kolumbus, on behalf the pair of kings the segelte and conquest of the Kingdom of Granada, with which the last maurische state on the iberischen peninsula disappeared. Thus a long series of wars (Reconquista) was terminated.

Since Christoph Kolumbus had discovered the new world for Spain, this practiced the rule to sea on to country andthe eastern and western coasts of the Atlantic ocean out nearly without opposition. In the contract of Tordesillas (1494) the new world between Spain and Portugal became by Pope Alexander VI. divided. In Ferdinands order was provided the so-called Requerimiento, a text, in that the IndiosSouth America for unconditional surrender and simultaneous subjecting under the rule of the Spanish crown as deputies of the catholic church and the Pope were requested.

Ferdinand and Isabella were as the catholic kings well-known, there them in before not known sharpness and brutality against Jews and Muslims proceeded. 1492 was driven out all non--catholics by the iberischen peninsula, which meant economically and artistically a large bleeding.

To 21. August 1496 came it to a double wedding: Johanna of Kastilien (Johanna the mad one), the daughter of the pair of kings married the having citizen Philipp the beautiful one , during the successors to the throne Johann (*1478) Margarethe of Austria married.

Since 1504 Ferdinand was also king of Neapel (as Ferdinand III.).

In second marriage he married 1506 countess Germaine of Foix, a sister daughter of the king Ludwig XII. of France, it thatSon Johann (* † 3. May 1509), gave. The marriage gave it the pretext to an additional extension of its rule area. It began the conquest of the Kingdom of Navarra south the Pyreneeses, and could these to 1512 lock.

By lucky meeting of world events and by oneNumber of outstanding Ministers (Mendoza, Jimenes, Gonzalo de Cordova and other one), connected with the statesmanlike the gift and capability of the pair of kings, caused a rapid upswing of Spain under its government. Main props a Ferdinands and a Isabellas was on the stabilization of the royal force in relation to the aristocracyand the religiousness and directed toward reacquisition of the crowning possessions come into the hands of the large Vasallen; in all other respects strict law was handled and the Gerichtswesen by introduction of the Santa Hermandad (holy brother shank) was intensified.

Large increase in Revenuen and influence the combination granted to that Grossmeistertümer of the three religious knight medals with the crown, which could due to of it the aristocracy all the more energetically opposite-stepped. Also on the church Benefizienwesen the catholic kings knew to make their influence valid; the most powerful instrument was however the Inquisition, that faith court, that, in 13. Century , guessed/advised then in purge was furnished, revived at that time. The tribunal of the Inquisition depended on the crown and served at the same time church as political purposes.

By participation in the general policy of Europe, in which he worked satisfactorily as a masterful diplomat, achieved Ferdinand forSpain largest successes; 1492 he came into the possession of the counties Roussillon and Cerdaña, 1495 formed he the large anti-French league. By skillful negotiations it induced France to a division of the Kingdom of Neapel, which two powers occupied together 1501, already1503 however seized Ferdinand of the whole realm (as a king of Neapel Ferdinand III.).1512 with the conquest long umworbenen Navarra were then created and in all directions rounded off on the Pyrenäi peninsula a state State of, and also the south of Italy the realm added. Ferdinandstill another fusion of Portugal with Spain and extension of the possessions in Italy planned, it came however no longer completely to the execution. The foundation-stones to these plans were however already put. The oldest daughter Isabella was after the death of the Portuguese successor to the throne, their first husband, alsothe Portuguese king Emanuel I. (Manuel I.) marries. The combination hoped for of Spain and Portugal failed however, because both the princess and its only child died soon. Since Ferdinands son Johann deceased however shortly thereafter, Philipp was now the heir to the throne Kastiliens. Its regency steppedhe on 1504, deceased however already 1506. The nunmehrige heiress to the throne would have been Johanna, this was however due to her insanity government-unable and in such a way took over Ferdinand the regency of Spain up to its death in the year 1516.

Ferdinand died to 23. January 1516 in Madrigalejo. Its mortalRemnants are together with its wife in the crypt of the Capilla material (royal chapel) in Granada. Followed it in Spain Karl I., as German emperors Karl V.

Ferdinand II. also father of the illegitimate children was Alfons, Johanna, Maria and Maria.

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