Ferdinand Schörner

Ferdinand Schörner (* 12. June 1892 in Munich; † 2. July 1973 ebenda) was a German army officer (since 1945 general field marshal) and during the Second World War army and army group commander.

Ferdinand Schörner

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beginnings

of Schörners military career began after the Abitur with a service as a one year's einjährig-Freiwilliger at the Bavarian infantry body regiment. Subsequently, it remained not in the army, and studied instead in Munich as well as in Lausanne and Grenoble philosophy and new languages.

the First World War

with the outbreak of war 1914 returned Schörner to the military and became a vice-sergeant and reserve officer candidate at the Bavarian infantry body regiment. There he was already appointed in November 1914 the second lieutenant of the reserve and the company commander.

Schörner was used with its unit in France, Tirol, Serbia, Romania and at the Italian front and got in acknowledgment of his achievements in November 1917 as only Bavarian infantry second lieutenant the Pour le Mérite lent. In the year 1918 Schörner of the reserve career changed into the active service and to the first lieutenant was carried. It was three times heavily wounded altogether.

intermediate wartime

after the armistice was Schörner first at the free corps Epp actively and in the year 1920 occurred it the realm resistance . It was used as company commander and completed the leader assistant training course. In the year 1923 Schörner was an aide of the military district commander of Munich, general of Lossow, and at that striking down Hitlerput takes part.

After it had terminated its general staff training, Schörner at the 1 became. July 1926 the captain appointed, connected with the assumption of a company in land hat and a little later in Kempten in the general-outer. Schörner, which possessed good Italian knowledge, became afterwards for some time as an interpreter the Alpini, which shifts Italian mountain hunter troop. Starting from the year 1931 Schörner was used as tactics teachers at the war school in Dresden.

In the year 1934 Schörner was promoted to the major and to director/conductor of the 4. Group in the 3. Department of (foreigner of armies) of the office for troop appointed. In this position it was for the south and/or. Southeast of Europe responsibly. At the 1. March 1937 got Schörner the appointment as the lieutenant colonel.

At the 1. October 1937 became Schörner commander of the mountain hunter regiment 98. In this position it was involved also in the invasion in Austria in the year 1938. Briefly before the outbreak 2. World war became Schörner to 27. August 1939 to the Colonel carries.

the Second World War

of the 2. World war began used for Schörner with the Poland campaign, further as a commander of the mountain hunter regiment 98. In May 1940 Schörner became then commander of the again set up 6. Mountain division and participated in the France campaign . At the 1. August 1940 it was promoted to major general.

In the spring 1941 was Schörner with the 6. Mountain division used in the Balkans campaign. To 20. April 1941 was lent to it the knight cross. To 27. April hisste its advance guard on the Akropolis the realm war flag. After conclusion of the campaign Schörner with its division remained in Greece as an occupation troop. In the autumn 1941 Schörner and the 6 became. Mountain division to the polar sea front shifts. Starting from January 1942 Schörner, after the deadly accident general Dietls , was then Kommandierender general of the XIX. Mountain corps and it were appointed the lieutenant general.

Already in June 1942 the transport took place to the general of the mountain troops. Starting from that 1. October 1943 was Schörner then Kommandierender general of the. Tank corps in the Ukraine. On this position it remained to at the end of January 1944.

Schörner, which always a demonstratively National Socialist convicition to look placed and which it led subordinated troops with large hardness (“more fear in the back, than from the front! ”) became, at the 1. February 1944 appointed the boss of the again created National Socialist operations staff of the army. In this function it was responsible for the training of the troop in the National Socialist sense. To 17. February 1944 received oak leaves to Schörner to the knight cross. Already two weeks later it laid down the office due to a heavy conflict with Hitler's secretary Martin boron man.

To 31. March 1944 was carried Schörner the colonel general at the same time and appointed the commander in chief of the army group Südukraine. In July 1944 Schörner transferred then the command over the army group north. To 28. August 1944 it was distinguished with the swords to the knight cross with oak leaves and at the 1. It received the brilliants to January 1945. With that 20. January 1945 became Schörner commander in chief of the army group center and to 5. April 1945 in this position appointed the general field marshal.

As small anecdote is marked that Schörner in this period had also the supreme command over the part of Mährens, in which a place named “Hotzenplotz” (today Osoblaha) lay. The child book author Otfried Preussler used the name of this place later for its famous “robber Hotzenplotz “. The history of the place ran less “merrily”, because due to the exhortations to hold out Schörners had this place, as many other places in the area, from which Germans to last is held. Hotzenplotz was together-shot for this reason in March 1945 by the Soviet troops up to the foundation walls.

The balances of power of the Germans to the Soviet troops were with the tanks 1:7, at the infantry 1:11, with the artillery 1:20, at the Air Force even 1:40. Under its guidance could 1.6 million refugees from Schlesien and the Sudetenland in security by the moving forward Soviet federations be brought. However here still another mark is stressed that it sent also numerous soldiers and people storm men on Ascension Day commands.

Hitler intended Schörner in his political will for the commander in chief of the army. To 9. May 1945 tried to submerge Schörner in civilian clothes - it was imprisoned taken however soon thereafter in Austria by American troops and delivered afterwards to the Soviets.

post-war period

Schörner was condemned in Russia to 50 years hard labour and was arrested until January 1955 in different camps. Its return to Germany (first to east Berlin, then after Bavaria) fell into the time of the rearmament; the establishment of the German Federal Armed Forces was approaching. The fact that former regiemetreue armed forces officers (when 131er so mentioned) in the Federal Republic pensions received was criticized sharply and partly even with National Socialist expressions stepped out, by the rearming opponents. Also conservative politicians discussion themselves now in the case Schörners against the grant of a pension. The later Secretary of Defense Franz Josef bunch dissociated himself from him (“monsters in uniform”) and the Bundestag decided to 13. July 1955 a retroactive change of the Bundesdisziplinarordnung, which were considered as Lex Schörner.

In the year 1957 against Schörner accusation was raised. It became and. A. accused the fact that perhaps it left its troop by day after the surrender which resembled a desertion. It tightened a “noise-leather”, a Sepplhut put on and with a Fieseler stork after Tirol to be brought to be able. The procedure led, because of the death sentences expressed by it with end of war, to a detention of several years and the deprivation of the pension authorization. Already in the year 1960 Schörner became from health reasons from the detention to dismiss prematurely. 1963 were granted to it by Federal President Heinrich Luebke a part of its pension.

It died to 2. July 1973 in Munich at the age of 81 years.

honors

literature

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