Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Herzog von Alba

Portrait von Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
Portrait of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo

Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3. Duke of (Duque de) Alba (* 29. October 1507 in Piedrahita (Ávila) Kastilien; † 11. December 1582 in Lisbon) was more Spanish Field gentleman and statesman in the service of the emperor and Spanish king of Karl V. and its son and Spanish king Felipe II.


the duke of Alba on a painting of Tizian

it came of to the family of the dukes of Alba, was thatSon of García Álvarez de Toledo and Beatriz de Pimentel and Enkel 2. Duke of Alba, Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo. It was also called “the iron duke”.

Already as a young person it participated 1525 in the battle with Pavia and received for it oneHonor. By Karl V. destined as a military command, he participated in the FE storage of Tunis 1535. Under emperors Karl V. he was victorious army leader against the Schmalkaldi federation and triumphed 1547 in the battle with Mühlberg over the Evangelist side, those from JohannFriedrich I. (Saxonia) one stated. In the Comentarios de la guerra de Alemaña hecha por Carlo's V. EN 1546 y 1547 described the general and favourite of Karl V., Don Luís de Ávila y Zúñiga the campaign in more simply, more alive and more spirit-rich, however parteiischer way.

1552wurde Fernando Álvarez de Toledo mit dem Kommando über die Armee betraut, die Frankreich erobern sollte und war einige Monate mit der erfolglosen Belagerung vonMetz beschäftigt. In consequence of the success of the French weapons in the Piemont it became the general commander of the imperial troops in Italywith unrestricted power carries. When its first attacks remained unsuccessful, it was forced to the retreat into its winter accomodation. After the resignation by Karl V. extended Felipe II. its command, held it however from extreme measures. It subjected Kampanien and stood before the gates of Rome, when Felipes of instructions forced it to negotiate peace. 1559 it sent it at the point of a shining legation to Paris, over in the name of its ruler around Elizabeth von Valois, the daughter of the French king Henri II. (see also: Peace of Cateau Cambrésisto recruit).

1567 to 1573 he was a governor of the Netherlands, where he led a fright regiment. Into the intention of wanting to extinguish shed they and political unrest in August 1567 it looked for effective control of the letterpress printings in a part of Europe tooattain, in which the printing was a source of deviating opinions. In one year some printers were banished and one was in the long run exekutiert. Bookseller and - printers were scanned, in order to find forbidden books; many new books arrived additionally at the index librorum prohibitorum, the papal censorship indexfor forbidden books.

Alba struck the Protestant rebellion - as it was its order - with bloody severity down. Alba succeeded it also first, the regional rebellions by special courts, to the so-called blood advice of Brussels to suppress. With this action more than became6.000 insurgent executed, under them Lamoral count von Egmont. 1576 attacked Spanish troops Antwerp and plünderten it three days, which admit rage as „Spanish “became. The soldiers raged murder-end and plundering by the city, from the citizens money demanding and fackelten the housesthose, which refused or could not not pay, off. With the Gemetzeln in Mecheln and Antwerp, Alba let than 18,000 humans execute more; among them also Philipp count von Hoorn, one of the noble leaders of the rebellion. 1573 became Alba of Felipe II. recalled andby Don Luís de Zúñiga y Requensens as a governor one replaced.

When the Dutchmen thereupon flooded the country, released after suffering segelten and the city from the Spanish Belagerern, all 17 Netherlands provinces formulated their demands common after departure of the Spanish troops and religious tolerancein the Genter Pazifikation (1576). Thereupon Luís de Zuñiga y Requensens became by the milder Don Juan de Austria, (illegitimen) a half brother of the king, when governor replaces.

For its king Felipe II. if the duke of Alba fought against the Frenchmen, Pope IV. forced Paul.to the giving way and Portugal conquered in a short, strategically masterfully led war 1580.


  • Henry came: El Gran Duque de Alba. - La Esfera de Los Libros, 2004; ISBN 8497342208 (Spanish)
  • ders.: The Duke OF Alba. - Yale UniversityPress 2004;ISBN 0300102836 (English)


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)