Television

Phoenix - reporter Heinz Abel during a live transmission from Munich

as television (also short TV, of Greek latin technical term Television) one designates generally a technology for the admission of pictures at a place, their transmission to another place,as well as their there rendition. Thereby at a place the pictures are scanned and divided, spread over a transmission path and shown later at another place with the help of the television set.

In the special one television designates today a technology, with that thosePictures are moved and additionally fitting clay/tone are transferred. The latter is taken up with microphones and shown usually with loudspeakers.

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technology television camera with

Teleprompter only brightness differences during admission and rendition of the pictures, then one speaks of black-and-white television. In the differencein addition of the colour television one speaks, even if color information is taken up and shown.

If the pictures and tones are noted to a so-called “MAZ “on a storage medium, about, they can also at a later time, if necessary after a treatment,over a transmission path to be sent. Immediate sending of the taken up data is called live transmission.

The direct rendition of the data of the storage medium, e.g. One does not count video cassette or DVD, at a television without (longer) a transmission path generally to the television.

For the television usually modulated high frequency transmission over antennas is used or ground-based in coaxial - or optical cables (cable television). The transmission over antennas is made thereby either by terrestrial frequencies (antenna television, also terrestrial television mentioned) orbut non-terrestrial by television satellite (satellite-to-receiver telecasting).

In the range of the antenna and cable television partly still is to today the similar transmission of the information in enterprise (similar television), although the admission and treatment of the pictures and tonesalready for some years digitally takes place. The conversion to digital transmission of the data (digital television) is however with the terrestrial television already in full course (see conversion with DVB-T). With the satellite-to-receiver telecasting (see DVB-S) is the conversion updigital television up to Germany world-wide finally. With the cable television (see DVB-C) the conversion is in the final phase. A completion of the similar transmission is already announced (see in addition to similar one “SWITCH off”).

Direction with GIGA material in Berlin

the complete conversionin the range of the similar broadcast should be final in Germany until 2010. The antenna television will be vorraussichtlich to at the end of 2008 changed over. To the receipt is an additional digital decoder (a setting OI box in such a way specified) or a suitable television (in that the decoderexactly the same as the today usual similar receiving element already integrated) or a digital television, which needs no more decoder, is necessary (see also digital televisions).

On which way the picture and clay/tone data are coded during the transmission, becomes ofthe television standard fixed. It is necessary, thus transmitters and receiver “the same language speaks”. There is world-wide a multiplicity of television standards, which can be reduced however to few basic parameters; the method of the ink transfer is often thereby the crucial parameter, thatalready alone as “television standard” one designates.


The most common ink transfer standards are in America, Japan and South Korea NTSC and in the remainder of the world PAL and SECAM.

The distinction in mechanical television and electronic television, during the first television attemptsdeveloped, is today insignificant: mechanical photograph and playback units were only experimentally used.

Mechanical television was realized both with the admission and during the rendition with the Nipkow disk; electronic television for the first time with that iconoscope - tube with the admission and that Cathode ray tube during the rendition. Since the iconoscope tube was developed only later than the cathode ray tube, there was in the meantime also a combination. A further transmittal mode is short that amplitude-modulated television, AMTV.

few

program offerers stand for financing with the medium televisiona mass public of up to several millions spectators opposite.

This circumstance is historically conditioned in most countries, since due to the existing laws the television was operated exclusively public institutes. This changed with sinking transmission costs and the liberalisationthe market. The costs for the production of contents are taken on the part of the program offerers on different ways (see also for this dual broadcast system).

The public broadcasting corporations, which have a nationally specified order for program, at which contents to orient themselves have,finance themselves in Germany to a large part from nationally specified fees (see also for this GEZ) and advertisement. Some further sources of income exist in resale or in the Lizenzierung of own television productions.

The private television stations finance themselves against it nearly onlyby advertisement. Television productions are given usually only in order and a majority of program contents is bought or licensed. With bought or licensed productions of the German private television stations it concerns usually turnover-pregnant US-American series or films, partlywhole television formats.

Apart from the public and the private television stations there are still paying television stations so mentioned (English. Pay TV transmitters), which are paid directly by the spectator (e.g. Premiere or BSkyB). These code their transmissions, so only with special Dekodernto be seen to be able. The spectator pays then depending upon system either per program and/or program complex or per transmission. For the future also a payment on order is planned. Since advertisement is usually felt by the spectator as disturbing, paying television station does without inthe rule on advertisement for financing. This is also often considered as main argument to decide for a paying television subscription.

In Great Britain also a Zwischenform exists. The there BSkyB is paying television, it contains however nevertheless about as much advertisement as advertising-financed private television.

use and contents of

TV studio of the transmission criminal investigation department live one mdr television

the television rank among the mass media.

The television is used on the part of the spectators mainly for maintenance, end of workday organization as well as for the provision of information or education. Accordingly one partitionsthe television broadcasts also in maintenance transmissions, newscasts and Bildungsfernsehen. The latter is offered in Germany, with exception of documentations, in accordance with their order for education nearly only by public TV organizations. Increasingly education and messages are mixed with maintenance to the Infotainment so mentioned. This kindby transmissions also increasingly by private and Pay TV transmitters one offers.

The spectrum of the maintenance transmissions is extremely various and enclosure among other things films, series and maintenance transmissions, which can be divided into further sections. To the column to Bildungsfernsehen documentations belong, Politics -, councellors - and science transmissions.

On the part of the economy the television is used for the advertisement. In short advertising spots individual products and/or marks are presented and their purchase is recommended. Beside the advertising spots there are also Verkaufsshows or continuous commercials so mentioned. Some specialized transmitters, Home Shopping so mentioned - transmitters show all day long nothing else as such Verkaufsshows.

For the advertising industry the television is one of the most important media, because television represents one to the most popular leisure activities. On average the Federal citizen seesseveral hours on the day far, so that this way many humans can be achieved. In addition the television for the advertising industry is suitable, because one can wake feelings and emotions with this medium particularly well at the consumer.

Regulate in Germanylegal editions duration and frequency of the advertisement per transmission and/or transmitting time. The rights for the radiant emittance of advertisement in the public TV organizations are more strongly reduced. They may radiate for example after 20 o'clock no more advertisement.

State and politics use the televisionmainly to informing the population and forming of an opinion. The spectrum of contents reaches thereby from referring to highlights up to disaster warnings. Politicians try to convince often over the television the population from their own opinions to or justify their work.Into many states television is used also frequently on the part of the government to propaganda.

A further area of application of the television engineering exists in video monitoring, which becomes increasingly more favorable, since the technology becomes on the one hand qualitatively better and at the same time cheaper, on the other hand the particularly cost-intensive productionfrom contents is void.

In the space research, which estimates anyway high costs of missions, the television engineering is used likewise. However here rarely moved pictures are taken up. Instead special cameras are used, often particularly high resolutions possess and/or light of other spectral regions,note as perception by the human eye, and partly deferred to the earth send.

legal regulation in Germany

television is regulated in Germany by the broadcast right. As meinungsbildendes medium it falls into the culture sovereignty of the Lands of the Federal Republic and becomes thereforeprimarily regulated by them and administers. In order to create country widely uniform regulations, all Lands of the Federal Republic with the broadcast state contract were suitable on a uniform set of rules. This contains in particular regulations for the public broadcasting corporations, over the conditions for permission of private broadcasting stations,Form and duration of the advertisement, protection of children and young people, the short report refunding and the reporting over large events.

sociological view

Eine amerikanische Familie beim Fernsehen, ca. 1958
an American family with watching television, approx. 1958

television is a mass medium and has itself for the 1950er years in the industrial nations to Guidance medium develops. In the meantime at least one television set, 40 per cent of it even two or more has approximately 98 per cent of the German households. For many humans it is part of the everyday life become and structured often even the routine of the day. It experiences an allowance throughall layers and age groups and steps with before a not known effectiveness to the place of all institutions with journalistic requirement, without replacing this however completely.

Television works orienting and levelling. Important instrument for it is the constant repetition. Thus becomesit for the basis of the general taste and style formation and serves social communication. By intensified arising of section channels connected with the increasing role of the Internets in the social life the style screen end function of the television decreases/goes back however again. Everyoneits own director of program can become within certain limits. This causes an increasing splintering and fragmenting of the social perception and communication. With it appropiately to deal is task of the Medienpädagogik.

Television stations often raise the requirement, the spectator a view of the complexTo present society. Ever more and more different ranges of the social life experience a broad-becoming mediale attention. But the area of life which can be represented must be interesting, understandable and optically convertible. With it from the beginning a selection accompanies, connected with a reduction of the variouskommunikativen codes and plotting systems, as well as a specialization and a perfecting of acoustic-visual signals. Actual is it in many cases even so that television creates the topics, over which communication seems be worth worth only. On the search for new topics, those the spectatorsbinds often breaks through the Fernsehmacher borders, which often lead in the eyes of many up to the taboo break.

history

(see also history of the television and chronology of the television)

generally

in the year 1883 invented Paul Nipkowthe electrical telescope “, which with the help of a rotary disk („Nipkow disk “), which was provided with spiral arranged holes, built up pictures into light dark signals divided and/or again. Nipkow gave thereby a realizable form for a functioning for the first timeTelevision picture transmission on, which could be realized however only many years later. Paul Nipkow is designated by the fundamental idea for realization as an inventor of the Fersnehens. The technology for image dissection and - rendition after Nipkow was however mechanical and thus not particularlyefficiently.

Into the 1920er years replaced Leon Theremin the holes in the Nipkow disk by mirror arrangements and reached already 1927 to transmissions with daylight and pictures with 100 lines on wide projections. However its results were not published, but by the Soviet secret serviceto the person monitoring used. (The well-known world record was at that time 48 lines.)

historical television
(brown HF 1 of 1958)
historical television camera

the first electronic television developed 1926 Karl Tihany: „the Radioskop “(the associated patent was taken up meanwhile to the world document inheritance). Also Manfred von Ardenne worked on a system 1931, which functioned likewise on basis in the year 1897 of the cathode ray tube developed by Ferdinand brown as well as Jonathan Zenneck ( also Braun tube called). This is the basis for until today tofurthest common method to represent pictures for the television. She applied first however in Messapparaturen. Vladimir Sworykin contributed the advancements of the cathode ray tube crucial for the television , the 1923 the first useful electronic image sensor, the iconoscope - tube invented, whichstarting from 1934 in series, today however no more use was manufactured finds. Philo Farnsworth had actually developed already 1927 independently of Sworykin a cathode ray tube, thus before this had realized its patent. 1929 invented Sworykin the Kineskop - tube to the image replication. Thisis to today model in all television sets, which are based on the cathode ray tube. Thus Sworykin smoothed the way to the completely electronic television.

The first genuine electronic television picture would send 1926 in Japan Kenjiro Takayanagi, which had converted the Braun tube(S.Japanese television). As photograph instrument Takayanagi used however a Nipkowscheibe.

HistoryStarting from that 22. March 1935 was radiated in Germany the first regular television program of the world (S. Television station Paul Nipkow, Berlin). The transmissions experienced their high point in Third realm, which reached only few thousand spectators in television rooms so mentioned and large picture places in Berlin and the late Hamburg, with the extensive transmissions of the olympic summer games 1936. Although the national socialists also the television for their purposes toouses tried, remained the radio (S. Sound broadcasting) because of the range the most important medium for National Socialist propaganda. In the winter 1944 the television broadcasts were stopped in the German Reich. In the Federal Republic of Germany should only to 25. December 1952 the television enterpriseagain to be taken up.

One of the pioneers of the colour television was to be transferred John Logie Baird, to which it succeeded 1941, first colored television pictures. But only 1953 were introduced to North America the NTSC - standard for colour television. Thus were the Americans the Europeansfar ahead. These introduced only 12 to 13 years later with the PAL - standard of walter break the colour television. In addition, the projection/lead of the north Americans had his price. The NTSC standard possesses some weaknesses, so that it frequently to color defectsduring the representation comes. Therefore the abbreviation NTSC is translated jokeful also with “Never The Same Color”.

The age of the satellite-to-receiver telecasting began to 12. August 1960. On this day the first passive communication satellite became into one with echo 1Orbit around the earth brought. The quality of the transferred television pictures was however very moderate. The first active communications satellite Telstar became to 10. July 1962 brought into its orbit. With his assistance became to 23. July the first Live-Sendung for those Eurovision from the USA sent. To 26. July 1963 was brought for the first time with Syncom 2 a communication satellite into a nearly complete geostationary orbit. This made possible it to send from a firm point on earth signals continuously to a satelliteto receive or from this to.

history of the television in Germany

  • 22. March 1935 - since at that time in Germany by the television station Paul Nipkow, Berlin) the first regular (very short) television program of the world was radiated - all live endings.
  • 1936 - With the olympic summer games a first high point for only the few thousands spectators in television rooms so mentioned and large picture places in Berlin and the late Hamburg. 1944 was adjusted these television broadcasts in the German Reich (war-caused).
  • 25. December 1952:The official television enterprise is taken up again, test programs gave it starting from center 1950
  • 1953/ 54 first spreading of black-and-white receivers in the FRG for the coronation/culmination of queen Elizabeth II. and to the soccer world championship in Berne. The transmitters of the pool of broadcasting corporations had own andcommon transmission portions in a short evening program.
  • 1963 start Second Channel of German Television (Mainz) as country widely uniform program. The possession of a television is part dt. Wirtschaftswunders
  • starting from 1964: The pool of broadcasting corporations transmitters offer additionally regionally third programs.
  • 60's - the cinema dyingbegins. It is accelerated end of the 1970er years by domestic tv-Speichermöglichkeiten:1971 was introduced to system from Philips and Grundig the first video cartridge Rekorder after the VCR -.
  • 1967: The colour television is introduced to the IFA.
  • August/September 1972 sends pool of broadcasting corporations and Second Channel of German Television together a full program in color of the XX. Olympic summer games in Munich (world-wide selling).
  • 1980 the common videotex of pool of broadcasting corporations and Second Channel of German Television offer additional information to the watching to current transmissions and looking up possibilities (service part) on
  • 1983 beginning of theCable television time age (broadband cable from copper) with 20 to xx channels
  • 1984: First German private station: PC (today 1) 1991
  • SOWS: First German Pay TV - transmitters: Premiere. (From 1984 to 1991 Pay TV in Germany was radiated only by Swiss Teleclub).
  • 2003: The region Berlin is first, in which the similar antenna television is switched off and replaced by DVB-T.

view

satellite dishes at a house front
a 82 tariff liquid crystal screen of the company Samsung

many efforts, the technical quality tooimprove, for lack of co-operation of most diverse groups of interests failed. The separation of the similar is safe by the digital television, which is already to a large extent final with the satellite-to-receiver telecasting. Germany set itself by broadcast state contract the goal, until 2010 on the digital radiant emittance of the television programsto change over.2003 were already changed over in Berlin the terrestrial similar Fernsehausstrahlung to digital to basis by DVB-T (see in addition to similar one “SWITCH off”).

Only in the consequence it becomes probably an improvement of the picture and clay/tone quality, in particular with that Dissolution of the fig. (HDTV) come, since with the progressive advancement of the computer engineering adjustments become possible also in terms of software to future television standards and this could help to avoid the obligation to the purchase of new devices.

Those today predominantly on cathode ray tubes of which are based television setswith sinking prices probably slowly from the flat and thus space-saving plasma panels or liquid crystal screens are replaced. A further alternative however technology for flat screens, developed not yet completely , are OLED - screens, those opposite the two first mentioned ones several advantages (point of view independence, further more reducedCurrent consumption, faster switching times, flexibly) with itself to bring would know.

With the Internet a completely new spreading possibility of moved pictures and clay/tone (see also IPTV ) develops, which could step into competition for the classical use and spreading form of the television (see above),but clearly large possibilities and advantages offers. This could extract increasingly the public from the classical spreading form of television. However it remains being waiting whether and how the content producers thereby their production costs to bring in to be able and how the classical television will react to it.

literature

  • Pierre Bourdieu: Over the television. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1998.
  • Knut Hickethier: History of the German television. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1998.
  • Monika Berne old (Hrsg.), screen meadow: Film, television, toolism; Documentation of the conference “screen meadow. Locations and scenarios more contemporarily FeministiFilm and TV-sciences ", 15. - 17. May 2003, in Vienna, Marburg: Stir up, 2004. ISBN 3-89472-387-4
  • Albert Abramson: The history of the television. Munich: William finch publishing house, 2002. To ISBN 3-7705-3740-8

see also

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Commons: Category: Television - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Television - quotations
Wiktionary: Television - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wiktionary: watch television - word origin, synonyms and translations
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