Fortress Bohus

fortress Bohus, 2005

the fortress Bohus (Swedish Bohus fästning, originally Bagahus after the island Baga, on which it lies, afterwards Bahus), is the ruin of an earlier fortress opposite the city Kungälv, 40 km north of Göteborg. It lies on a high rock over the confluence of the Nordre älv with the Göta älv. Since the Göta marked älv up to the peace of Roskilde 1658 the border between Sweden and Norway, the fortress was as Norwegian border safety device of substantial strategic importance. From the fortress Bohus is derived the name that it surrounding landscape Bohuslän .

The building of the fortress became 1308 by the Norwegian king Håkan V. Magnusson begun, in order to defeat the fortress Ragnhildsholm lying in the proximity, which the Swedish duke Eric Magnusson in its force had. The house, which was at the beginning from wood, became fast one of the most important Norwegian places for the control of the border river Göta, and by the attachment from stone also one of the strongest attachments in completely Scandinavia. Bagaholm - which island, on which the fortress lay - court place for the court district was Viken and a district captain of Bohus governed first over the southern and later also over the northern part of the landscape.

Festung Bohus 1869
Fortress Bohus 1869

Bohus played an important role in the behavior both border realms to each other, both for the peaceful and the hostile. On Bohus the nordische gentleman day was met 1333, which explained Magnus Eriksson of age. There 1344 its son Håkan the Norwegian king huldigte and received there 1388 Håkans widow Margarethe the offers of the Swedish princes for the Swedish crown. In the year after there the shank of king Albrecht began. On Bohus a part of the Norwegian princes said Karl Knutsson bonds to the Norwegian king off. 1455 - 56 was the castle a safe place of refuge for Danes and Norwegians before the Swedish leader Tord bonds.

The fortress was besieged several times, but never taken of. Christian II. besieged she 1531, Sweden changed over it in the Nordi seven-year-old war 1563 - 70 six times. In March 1566, when Nile Boije and Nile stubborn one led four assaults, it succeeded Sweden to the so-called. Red tower to take, but it with it into air were blown up, when the Norwegians were the powder supply in the tower into fire. This event becomes as Sweden impact (svensksmälla) or Bohusi bang designates.

Fars Hatt, 2005

after the war was converted Bohus by star shaped bastions until 1604 to a modern fortress. Further changes took place between 1640 and 1660 via Isaac from Gellkirck. 1645 fired at those Sweden the lock during the so-called Hannibalsfehde. The main's building of the fortress formed a square with towers at this time, from which the northwest (called Fars hatt, fat tower) was four sharp-edged, while three the others (the southwest was called Mors mötta) were round. In the center the red tower, Röda was appropriate for the western side tornet, in which the chapel was. The external work formed an irregular filter-hits a corner.

After the peace of Roskilde Buhus arrived in Swedish possession, to 30. March 1658 knew Karl X. Gustav into the fortress draw in.

During the Gyldenlöv feud it came to a last FE storage, the heaviest of all. This nearly two months (25. May - 22. July 1678) continuing FE storage by 15.000 Norwegians under Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, led to the fact that the fortress would have had itself to result in, if not G. O. Stenbock it would have come in last minute to assistance. The nearly completely destroyed lock was developed again, the Fars hatt was again developed in its today well-known round form.

Bohus was until 1700 residence of the national head of Bohuslän. Since it was no longer longer a border fortress, it had lost however much of its military importance. Under the government of Karl XII. the administration Bohusläns was shifted to Göteborg, which became cannons after Sundsborg in the Svinesund spent, which had a high value as border post against Norway. After the death of Karl XII. Bohus received however its assembly back.

Fortress Bohus, 2005

thereafter was used the fortress a time long as prison. Their most well-known prisoner was the Pietist and priest Thomas Leopold, which imprisoned-sat differently for a long time successively altogether 37 years for its alleged erring teachings. When Sweden was 1789 in economic difficulties, the citizens received the right from Kungälv to use the fortress as quarry; in the connection was decided to tear off the fortress the tower Fars hatt was only spared. The demolition works were forbidden 1796, but in the next year the citizens already received the right from Kungälv again to get itself stones. In 19. Century tried to diminish one Fars hatt up to a remainder, to Karl XIV. Johann in the year 1838 the further destruction forbade. Detailed excavation and preservation work took place then in the years 1898 - 1904. In the year 1934 the comprehensive restoration began, and among other things one established the main gate again. The restoration persists until today.

Today the fortress Bohus for the public from April is opened to Septembers and a popular object of interest during the summer season. In July there is for the past few years a Mittelalterfestival on the fortress in the memory of the three-king meeting 1101.

literature

  • Bernhard Kummer: The fortress Bohus and the city Konungahella, publishing house of the research questions of our time, Lienau 1957
  • Kungälvs Turistkontor: Bohus fästning, Kungälv o.J.

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coordinates: 57° 51 ' 45 " N, 11° 59 ' 55 " O

 

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