|this article treats fat in the chemical sense, further meanings under fat (term clarifying)|
fats and greases oils is trichloroethylene ester of the three-way alcohol Glycerin and more differently, predominantly even-numbered and normal aliphatic mono carbonic acids (fatty acids). Of the IUPAC recommendedName for this connecting class is Triacylglycerine (see also Triglycerid). Pure Triacylglycerine of fatty acids is called also Neutralfette. Chemically fats are assigned to the Lipiden.
In the broader sense one understands existing material by fat one primarily from Fettsäuretriglyceriden, eitherof animal or planting cells one wins or one makes synthetically. According to whether it is at ambient temperature firm or liquid, one speaks of fats or fat oils, between them lies still the semisolid (caper-firm) fats.
Becomes colloquial with fat also the fatty tissue in the human or animal organism designates.
Table of contents
chemistry and characteristics
the characteristics of a fat become of the chain length thatFatty acid molecules affects and of it, like many C=C double bonds in the fatty acid remainders occur (these are as insatiated). Double bonds in natural fats and oils possess almost exclusively cis configuration; if a fatty acid contains several double bonds, then they usually are by oneGroup of groupgroups (- CH 2 -) separated. The accompanying illustration shows a typical example of a Triglyceridmolekül, how there is found in many vegetable fats and oils.
Natural fats contained always different fatty acids, always represent a mixture and point thereforeno melting point separate a Schmelzbereich up. With rising chain length and removing number of double bonds between the carbon atoms of the chain the fusing temperature rises. The firm products contain high portions of long and satisfied fatty acids, whereas the fatty acids in the liquid oils outweighingsimple or several times insatiated are.
With heating up fats partially already decompose below their boiling point.
By those relatively long chains of the fatty acids (4 to 26, typically 12 to 22 C-atoms) become the oxygen atoms of the ester connection shielded, so thatFats hydrophob and thus in water are soluble hardly. Thus they do not have influence on the osmotic condition of an aqueous phase (z. B. Zellsaft, intermediate cell liquid, blood, Lymphe with animals, Vakuole and transportation containers with plants). They form thusas depot fat a suitable memory form for energy (with humans 10 kg and more). The density of human fatty tissue is with 0,94 kg/l.
composition of some fats and oils
|Number of C-atoms||Cis double bond at||name||butter||olive oil||Kokosfett||linseed oil||Sonnenblumenöl|
|4, 6, 8, 10||-||butane, hexane, oktan, DEK-acidify||9%||0%||16%||0%||0%|
|18||9, 12, 15||Linolensäure||0%||0%||0%||50%||0%|
|20||5, 8, 11, 14||Arachidonsäure||0%||0%||0%||0%||0%|
the fat content from food become inthe rule by extraction with lipophilic solvents determines. The FDA defines fat as the soapable portion of food. Thus Nichtacylglyceride fall, like z. B. Sterine or Phosphatide, not under the FDA definition of fat.
The fat characterisation titration-analytic characteristic numbers become such as z.B.Iodine number, enrich Meissl number, saponification number, Peroxidzahl or acid number determine. The fatty acid distribution can be determined by means of Gaschromatografie. The German society for fat science defined already more than 400 methods of analysis, under it methods for the authenticity recognition of native olive oil or the regulation ofDismantling products in used Fritteusefetten.
of fats and oils belong to the basic nutrients of humans. It in the human body among other things necessarily as
- an energy supplier
- solvent for fat-soluble Vitamine
- cushions for internal organs such as kidney, heart and nervous system
- a component of the cell membranes
of fats are beside coal hydrates (sugar, Glykogen) the most important energy stores of the cells. One differentiates between brown fat (particularly with newborn children available, serves for above all to the isolation and heat production) and white fat(serves as energy storage)
The normal value of the triglycerides in the blood amounts to 70 to 170 mg/dl.
Some insatiated fatty acids and the satisfied fatty acids can be formed to small extent by the human body. The other vitally necessary, at leastone calls doubly ungesättigen fatty acids essential fatty acids (Vitamin F). These must be caused to the body over the food (Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids).
The depot fat as energy stores in the human body originates predominantly from the fat taken up with the food, therein other form the body supplied the energy (sugar and protein) due to the enzymatic equipment of the human physiology only extremely reduced into fat to be converted knows. Other mammals can form very well from an energy surplus in the food depot fats.
recommending daily fat supply
sound of the German society for nutrition (DGE) are 60 to 80 g fat per day for an adult humans sufficiently. It can quite come to small excesses, if in the following days the fat supplyone adapts. Women should weekly maximally approx. 420 g and men to approx. until 560 g fat to itself take.
Plants, the fat for our nutrition supply, are arranged in the article useful plants.
fat in the art
fat was a material more frequently used by the artist Joseph Beuys, over withinto symbolize an artistic object or a space installation stored energy. Most well-known objects: „the fat corner “and „the fat chair “. The moreover one oils play art-historically a very important role than bonding agents. These Ölfarben of crucial importance were blended with Farbpigmentenfor the development of the painting (see also: Oil painting).
Fat separators are used whenever fats and oils of organic origin from the waste water held backwill are. Across an integrated impact plate the waste water is led into the fat separator, which leads to a decrease of the flow rate and a homogeneous flow distribution. The separation of the separatable Leichtstoffe (fat) and sinking materials (mud) from waste water becomes alone by the effectthe force of gravity reaches.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Fat - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- of Lipide on the homepage von Konrad Förstner
- German society for fat science
- euro Fed Lipid - The European Federation for the Science and Technology OF of Lipids
- www.wissenschaft.de:Like cheese, chips and CO fat realm nutrition out-cheats hunger decreased with rats the effect of saturation hormones
- bkk.rheinland.de information to the quantity of grease which can be excluded