Pictures, which the film art creates, are never material moved. Rather the illusion of a movement results from the fact that frames (Frames) are shown in fast succession. Differences in the pictures become due to the copying effect on the retina of the human eye starting from a speedperception of approximately twelve pictures per second as movement.
To table of contents
meaning change of the term film
original understood one by film (English. film, Häutchen) a thin layer (z. B. an oil film) or also a thin foil. With the invention of the photography and the transition from the Fotoplatte to the flexible carrier out nitrocellulose ones for the photoemulsion the term film for this photo material was used. Likewiseone called scenes of moved pictures on such material film and the whole art form as film was finally designated. Derivatives as film, film business or film industry are today usual.
the nature of the film art
The film art requires cooperating different artistic abilities, among other thingswithin the ranges dramaturgy, play art, photography (light Design, attitude sizes) and clay/tone art. Due to the high expenditures for a film generally also always economic questions are considered.
editorial: Film history
the film art develops in its technology fundamentally on the photography . Actual film history begins therefore with the discovery of the stroboscope effect, the fact that frames merge into a movement, if them fast enoughare played.
Simon soil compactor received to 1833 a patent on its stroboscopic disks, Franz Uchatius presented to 1853 a system for moving picture projection, Eadweard Muybridge (1830 - 1904) developed 1872 the phase photography, shortly thereafter the Zoopraxiskop.
Thomas Edison received to 1891 a patent for its Kinetoskop. The films shown there could be regarded however only by a person. It succeeded to the brothers Lumière (Augusts Lumière, Louis Lumière) to throw with the help of a projection device the moved pictures for the first time on a canvas. To 22. March 1895 they place to it Cinétoscope de projection the Société d'Encouragement à l'Industrie national ones in Paris forwards. After further improvements on its equipment, now Cinématographe Lumière mentioned, still starts in the same year the commercial cinema: To 28. Decembers 1895 show it in the salon of the Grand Café in Paris alsotheir equipment for the first time against admission fee a film.
In the late first half 20. Century developed with the television first electrically/electronic folders up to then of the film art dependent on the medium “film”.In the 60's followed the video technology, which flows together since the 90ern by the developments of digital technique again with the film technology.
technical development forms
the film art arises in three large development forms, whereby the transitions are flowing: Here is on the one handthe classical film art, which makes a blueprint with the help of photographic procedures frames of events in fast succession on Filmmaterial. In addition, the Filmmaterial most spread for motion picture films is the 35-mm-Film, it gives 8, 16 and 70-mm-Film.
To second the possibility, pictures exists by electronic procedures (see also: Video technology) to take up, this is the range of the television and the video art, which - under other camera technology - developed also their own picture language.
Finally would be to call the Trickfilm, in particular the Zeichentrickfilm as well as its current development in the computer animated film, with which no material procedures are as a whole abgefilmt, but the pictures by drawing, stop Motion , or digital animation to be produced individually. The youngest Sub category of it formthe Machinima, by means of computer games provided animated films.
Since the last decade of the twentieth century these technically caused differences - in particular with commercial productions - blur ever more due to the rapid development of the digital technology. A trend is to be observed for the increasing digitization of the entire manufacture chain:Material pictures are digitized first outgoing from the Filmmaterial or taken up already directly with highly soluble digital cameras. Thus the technical production of the film (cut and post office production) can digitally be run off, in particular also through artificially produced pictures or picture parts be supplemented. Finally being present a finished film in the digital format opensnew forms of the marketing: Thus for films increasingly additional scenes are planned, which are not to be seen in the cinema, however on DVDs; digital Streaming technologies permit Internet over new kinds of sale of films. For the classical Filmtheater the digital film becomes usually stillon conventional Filmmaterial umkopiert, but purely opto-electronic projection procedures already are in testing.
- Paul Read. A Short History OF Cinema film post office Production (1896 - 2006), in English, in: Joachim Polzer (editor). To the history of the film copying work. (On film lab History). World miracle thatCinematography. - Contributions to a culture history of the film technology. Volume 8.2006. April 2006. 336 pages. --ISBN 3-934535-26-7
- Kevin Brownlow: Pioneers of the film. From the silent movie to Hollywood (OT: The Parade's of Gone by…). Series of publications of the German film museum Frankfurt/Main. Flowing field, Basel and Frankfurt toMain 1997, ISBN 3-87877-386-2
- harsh ore Gehr: Sound & vision: Music video and film art; Exhibition, retrospective, 16. December 1993 - 3. April 1994, German film museum Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main, 1993, 174 S., ISBN 3-88799-043-9
- painted Hagener, Michael killing mountain: Film - on international bibliography, Stuttgart [among other things]: Metzler, 2002, ISBN 3-476-01523-8
- Jörg Dieter Kogel: European film art: Directors in, Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt/Main haven-guesses/advises 1990, to 207 S., ISBN 3-596-24490-0
- James Monaco: Film understand: Art, technology, language, history and theory of the film and the media; with an introduction to Multimedia,Rowohlt 2000, 699 S., ISBN 3-499-60657-7
- Geoffrey Nowell Smith (Hrg.): History of the international film, Stuttgart: Metzler 1998, ISBN 3-476015-85-8
- Michael killing mountain (Hrsg.): Metzler film encyclopedia. 2. Edition Stuttgart: Metzler 2005, ISBN 3-476-02068-1
- Amos bird: Film as subversive art, Rowohlt paperback, 2000, ISBN 3-499606-60-7