Fishery

of these articles is concerned primarily with the deep-sea fishing. Besides there is Sportangeln and the Binnenfischerei. Some references to it are in the article Fischer.
Fischer in Bangladesh
nets on a boat in Oostende (Belgium)
Fischer an der Costa da Caparica bei Lissabon (Portugal)
Fischer at the Costa Caparica with Lisbon ( Portugal) with

fishery one designates there the industries, which concern themselves with catching and breeding fish and other water animals for the food production and subsequent treatment. The fisheryranks among the primary sector of the economy, to which also agriculture and mining industry belong. For a lasting fishery a reliable and fishery research on a long-term basis put on is important, like it in Germany z. B. by the federal research institute for fishery one operates.

A special form thatFishery is the aquaculture, breeding water organisms.

Also eddyless animals become imprisoned such as soft animals (Mollusca) and cancers (Crustacea), whose portion, as far as this is statistically at all seized, looks modest compared with which fish. Underthe shells prevail to the economically meaning Mollusken such as oysters, mussels and comb shells forwards, which are also managed in moderate zones. The numerous befischten kinds of large cancer such as lobsters, Langusten, emperor garnet or narrow lobster, as well as crabs and shrimps belong all inthe category of the delicate meals.

The meat of cartilage fish such as sharks and skates, which result as by-product of the net and fishing rod fishery, find divided Zuspruch. From their liver, particularly of large kinds (z. B. Greenland shark) is won vitaminhaltiger Tran.The skin interspersed with Placoid denticles finds to sharpens from wood and for the production of leather use, which becomes belly rags of the thorn shark smoked and as Schillerlocken sold.

The main efforts of the deep-sea fishing apply however for a relatively small number of bone fish like that Clupeidae, aforementioned of the herring, as well as the Dorschartigen (Gadidae), among which also the Kabeljau ranks. Typical high sea-fish are the Makrelenartigen (Scombridae), which Thunfisch and its closer relatives.

Table of contents

catch techniques and - methods

in the long history of the fishery are many catch techniques and - methods developed, which itself roughly in fishery in certain waters depths - and types as well as the catch method angewante thereby to arrange leave.

Each catch method consists oftwo phases

I. the controlling of the fish behavior, this are all measures, which cause a change of location of the fish by exciters.

1. Attracts
2. Scheuchen
3. Indifferenz (the fish cannot oppose seizing)

II. seizing the catch object

1. Mesh(Hooks with the Kiemen)
2. Labyrinth (staggered array-similar devices)
3. Seihen (Ke or Schleppnetz)
4. Hooks (fish hook or harpoon)
5. Suck (Fischpumpe)

from the fishing vessels particularly made nets through the water or on the sea-bottom along are pulled. In the netscaught fish are pulled on board the ship, where they are frequently already processed, z. B. to frost commodity.

Special catch techniques are among other things:

Netzfischerei

it gives two categories of Netzfischerei, a passive and an active. To the passivebelong the placing and driving nets, which are laid out like senkrechte standing curtains. The top margin of the net (Obersimm) is provided with floats (fleets, glass balls cork, plastic float), the lower (Untersimm) with weights (countersink, iron chains, lead and. A.) weights. Are these heavyas the lift of the floats, the net sits up as so-called placing net on the sea-bottom. With more weakly loaded Untersimm the net than driving net at the surface or in a desired depth can float. Passive thereby, that is to be understoodthe nets stationarily are and that the fish usually gotten caught with the Kiemen or fins in the net, whereby over hang the mesh size remained booty (z. B. Dorsch, flat fish) decides. The driving nets become the catch of pelagischer kinds (herrings, Makrelen,Salmon, Dorschartige and. A.) assigned. Also so-called Gadder, mirror, becomes or three-wall nets uses, which consist of 2 or 3 together lying nets. The actual Fangnetz (interior yarn) is close. In or reciprocally a weitmaschiges net (mirror) is before-hung these. Thatby the far meshes swimming fish gets caught in the loose, it sackförmig coating interior yarn, whereby the external nets prevent an escaping.

Ring calf fishery

with the active Netzfischerei Schleppnetze are kä used as. Only the ring calf used in layers (Purse its) one aimsapproximately optically or with Echolot noticed swarms (salmon, Makrele, Thunfisch, Sardinen, herrings, Sprotten) assigned. These become with a fast boat umfahren, that from a stationary buoy or a ship's boat outgoing on a circular path a net long up to 500 mto drive out, its Obersimm leaves Untersimm at floats at the water surface is held and its 50 to 100 m into the depth hangs. If the boat reached its starting point again, so that the swarm inside that downward stillopened ring calf, the Untersimm is enclosed by means of a tying line is pulled together. The closed net is so far caught up with a power block, until the booty together-pushed in the bowllike net can be exhausted.

Steerk`s auf einer Pier
Steerk `s on a jetty

the Schleppnetze are large trichterförmigeBags, which are after-dragged either of one or two boats (Trawler) at two (Kurrleinen). The net mouth is kept open by the fact that floats lift the top margin of the net opening and weights pulls the lower edge (basic rope with roll table-ware) downward. Onthe Kurrleine are attached Scherrbretter, which drift outward, so that the net remains open to the sides. With the tree-type network (Baumkurre, beam trawl) the net mouth is kept open by a horizontal tree. The pelagische Schwimmschleppnetz (Flydetrawl), used in the herring fishery,usually dragged by two boats, works in each desired depth. The basic dragging nets slide with the basic rope and the Unterblatt with the so-called Steerk (to Cod end) above ground and take up everything, which arrives into the range of the net mouth. The employmentfrom basic dragging nets presupposes clean soils free of obstacles.

fishing rod or seal fishery

of the fish hooks, one of the oldest fishery devices, plays an important role in the commercially operated fishery. With the Schleppangelei (Darrfischerei) become behind driving boatone or more fishing lines pulled tight, to which in small distances fish hooks are fastened with natural seals or spin seals ( turn signal, Pilke). Scherbretter and weights (depth fishing rod) provide for the necessary distance between the after-dragged, the catch of pelagischer fish (z.B. Makrelen) serving linen. Common they are, particularly where the ground condition the use of Schleppnetzen do not permit, the Langleinen at often kilometer-long, at floats hung up or due to embodied horizontal linen are in distances of 1 - 3 m shorterVorschnüre (Snood, Vorfächer) with beköderten fishing rods fastens. With the Langleinen become, depending on into which depth the fishing rods stand sharks, Aale, Dor, Rotbarsch, flat fish imprisoned.

basket - staggered array fishery

staggered arrays

staggered arrays are traps, at ground level the living personAnimals by seals attracts or by other precautions there steers, into these turned out. A basket - staggered array consists two trichterförmigen openings of wood, basket network or metal and has usually a cylindrical or square form with or. These are so arranged that admission grants the animal in the inside, escaping in opposite direction is however prevented. Such traps are fed with seal and deposited on the bottom of the sea and caught up by means of surface floats connected line again. They serve thatCatch usually of eddy lots (z. B. Lobster, Languste, crab, shrimps) as well as of benthischen and epibenthischen fish (z. B. Aale, Dorschartige). Into the category of the staggered arrays also permanently verpflockte nets in the reason, which are so arranged, fall that pelagische fish throughGuidance nets in one or more one behind the other gereihte net chambers to be steered, by which the way leads into a collecting staggered array. Large, permanent plants of this kind designated under the names clay/tone acres served the catch of Thunfi at the Italian coast.

Whale-catching

major item: Whale-catching

drive Fishery

under drive Fishery one understands a catching and a killing of small whales and dolphins according to kind of a Treibjagd, which is predominantly operated in Japan. The animals are driven to it in lagoons and bays,where the way back in the open sea with nets one blocks to them. Some few animals are selected for dolphin airs , zoos and entertainment parks, the majority is however afterwards killed. Estimations go here from approx. 20,000 animals out. Due to the kind of kindkind is thisKind fishery internationally outlawed.

plumb bobs after fish

Schallausbreitung beim Echolot (schematisch)
sound propagation with the Echolot (schematic)

centuries long Fischer groped during the catch to a certain extent in darkening, certain empirical values helped it however fish to catch. If sea-bird swarms arose, then was the proximityof Fischschwärmen probably. Arise from dolphins pointed on herring swarms . Nowadays the detection takes place from Fischschwärme with the help of a Echolots, which works with ultrasonic waves. Their frequency liegt über der oberen Hörschwelle (> 16,000 cycles per second). They spread in the water with a speed of 1500 m/sout (in air only with approximately 333 m/s). In the sea water absorbing of the electromagnetic waves is smaller than in air, whereby detection ranges in the kilometer range can be realized. Arrives the sent acoustic wave on places with changed density, onfirm object, the bottom of the sea, on Fischschwärme, on Wasserschichten of other temperature or Salzschichten, is reflected a part of the energy and arrived at the transmitter back. The distance of the reflecting body is determined by measurement of the time. By a horizontal vertical plumb bob (HC-plumb bob) can alsothe water before the ship to be scanned so which one Fischschwärme pursue can, and in coordination with the Netzsonde one can control the range before the net muzzle opening. It signals in-swimming fish, the height of the net muzzle opening and the distance of theNet above ground.

to fish-breed

Aquakultur zur Aufzucht von Lachs vor Vestmanna/Färöer
aquaculture to the raising of salmon before Vestmanna/Färöer

of its own breed in the sense of the domestic animal breed can be only the speech, if the Entwicklungszyklos of a kind completely takes place under controlled conditions.Those meets the breed of kinds of fresh water partly too (z. B.Carp, Forelle) where the eggs artificially inseminates, which are pulled up and gemästet young animals in plants. With sea fish attempts failed in this direction so far, there the maritimeKinds void nearly without exception flat acct tables larva stages go through, whose attitude is connected with large difficulties. This is based mainly on the unawareness of the nourishing habits of these larvae and their sensitivity opposite mechanical damages and their susceptibility for infections. The management of maritime food fish limitsitself on the following measures.

1. Preserve the natural existence by decree of protected areas and protection regulations.
2. Close time during the Laichzeit and migration
3. Definition and observance of catch quotas and minimum sizes
4. Also preserve helpful procedure consists of it that thoseFish catch eggs of laichreifen, in the sea artificially inseminated and after the Embryonalentwicklung, the slipped larvae again in the sea are suspended.
5. With the artificial fattening like the Buri occurring in the Japanese sea (Yellow tail) become in the seacaught, halbwüchsige fish in roomy net cages hanging between pontoons gemästet.

See also

Marikultur
aquaculture

the most important fishing nations

of Fischerboote before Koh Tao (Thailand)
to Trawler in Scotland

the fishing nation largest with distance (based on the yield) is China, followed of Peru, India and Japan. In Europe exhibit Norway, Denmark and Spain the highest catch quantities.

The highest fishing yields (2001)
rank country yield
(in Tsd. t)
Country struggled yield
(in Tsd. t)
1 China 44063 The 11 Philippines 2380
2 Peru 7996 12 South Korea 2282
3 India 5965 13 Viet Nam 2010
4 Japan 5521 14 Iceland 1985
The 5 USA 5405 15 Bangladesh 1687
6 Indonesia 5068 16 Denmark 1552
7 Chile 4363 17 Mexico 1475
8 Russian federation 3718 18 Spain 1397
9 Thailand 3606 19 Malaysia 1393
10 Norway 3199 20 Myanmar 1288

source: Trade paper - the world ( 2005)

the yearly fishery yield lay in figures 2003 with approx. 140 million tons world-wide.

Takes place the most important catch places

of the deep-sea fishing [work on

] in

the North Atlantic fishing on a stamp of

Färöer nearly without exception the deep-sea fishing on the offshore shelf North Atlantic or their Nebenmeeren in depths to 700 m. The situationthe catch places on the flat shelf is biologically conditioned, since the best conditions for favorable living conditions are given here.

Place fish type catch time
Barentssee Kabeljau, Rotbarsch, Lodde May November
bear island - Spitzbergen Kabeljau, Rotbarsch April June
west Greenland Kabeljau March June
East Greenland Rotbarsch April December
Iceland Kabeljau, Rotbarsch, sea-salmon, Lodde all year round
Labrador Kabeljau, Rotbarsch, Heilbutt May December
North Sea herring, Scholle July October
Newfoundland Kabeljau, Rotbarsch April December
Norwegian coast sea-salmon June December
Baltic Sea herring, Dorsch (= Kabeljau), Sprotte December April
east edge herring October May
George bank USA shelf Makrele July October
Gotlandsee/Baltic Sea Sprott December April
Baffinland infantry fish July January
English channel Schildmakrele [
work on] ecological

aspects mesh measuring instrument

particularly

with the Treibnetzfischerei many do not become all-season as saleable valid, necessary and nevertheless killedAnimals imprisoned. Such Beifang is usually given again over board or converted to fish flour. Also mammals such as Delfine and small kinds of whale get caught frequently during the hunt for Thunfisch in the nets and suffocate under water.

Within the European Union givesit by the common fishery politics regulations over the mesh size of the fishnets, which are to make an escaping for the young fish possible.

The industrially operated fishery leads to the threat of the existence for many fish types, then the Kabeljau is world-wide acute by overfishing from becoming extinctthreatened.

In order to prevent further ecological disasters, which would mean also the economic fall of the fishery industry in many regions on a long-term basis, catch quotas become, D. h. a fixed quantity of fish in a certain area, fixed. These become frequent however outpolitical and economic reasons too highly set.

With the MSC seal (navy Stewardship Council) a product characteristic is present since 1997, which is to make it for consumers possible to buy fish from lasting fishery.

see also

literature

  • Antje bald jack: The exhaustion of the Weltmeere. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, November 2004, S. 60 - 68, ISSN 0170-2971

Web on the left of

Commons: Fishery- Pictures, videos and/or audio files

see also

 

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