The group of animals of the bats describes bats of these articles. For the Operette, see the bat.
Bats
Townsend Langohr (Corynorhinus townsendii)
systematics
Row: Land vertebrate animals (Tetrapoda)
class: Mammals (Mammalia)
subclass: Higher mammals (Eutheria)
putting above: Laurasiatheria
order: Fledertiere (Chiroptera)
subordination: Bats
scientific name
Microchiroptera
Dobson 1875
over families

the bats (Microchiroptera) are a group of mammals, those together with the flight dogs (Megachiroptera) the orderthe Fledertiere (Chiroptera) form. To this order the only mammals belong and beside the birds the only vertebrate animals, which can fly actively. World-wide there are approximately 900 kinds of bat.

Table of contents

spreading

bats are almost world-wide common, them ariseall continents of the earth with exception of the Antarctic forwards. Also in other arctic regions as well as on remote islands they are missing. On some islands (for example New Zealand) they were against it up to the arrival of humans the only mammals. The bat kindthe mouse ears (Myotis) is the mammal kind furthest common without human influence at all, likewise very far common is the Bulldoggfledermäuse (Molossidae) and the smooth nose free tails (Emballonuridae).

In Europe about 40 kinds are common, limited of it 30 also in Central Europe. A list is in the section systematics.

Characteristics

general

Kleiner Abendsegler (Nyctalus leisleri)
of small Abendsegler (Nyctalus leisleri)

of bats are on the average somewhat smaller than flight dogs. As the largest kind of bat the Australian ghost bat ( Macroderma gigas) is considered, the one head fuselage length of14 centimeters, a span of 60 centimeters and a weight of 200 gram to reach knows. The smallest bat is well-known the pig nose bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), also as Hummelfledermaus, with a head fuselage length of three centimeters and a weight of twoGram, applies it beside the Etruskerspitzmaus as a smallest mammal at all.

Bats possess a close, often seidiges skin, which is mostly grey to brown or blackish colored and exhibits no hair line. In addition, there are white and examined kinds, with nearlyall kinds is besides the ventral side more brightly as the backs. Differently than other mammals they do not possess woolly hair, the skin hair are developed kind typical and possess small Schüppchen, them can for the identification of the kinds serve.

Extremities

skeleton of a bat (outBrehms animal life)

most remarkable characteristic of the bats is, as during the flight dogs, the flight diaphragm, which enables her for active flies. The flight diaphragm consists of two Hautschichten and extends from the wrists to the foot joints (Plagiopatagium). Further diaphragmsextend from the wrists to the shoulders (Propatagium), between the fingers (Dactylopatagium) as well as the legs. The latter is called Uropatagium (tail flight skin), it binds the tail - serves if available - also and often for the Einkeschernthe booty. In the flight skin muscle seaweeds are to the Stabilisation and for hitting the wings as well as nerve fibers and blood vessels for the supply of the flight skin.

The thumb is short (with the stub thumbs (Furipteridae) it is missing) and carries a claw, the four remainingFingers are strongly extended and stretch the flight skin. Are likewise extended the upper and the lower arm, which consists only of a bone, the spoke (radius) during the inch (Ulna) in the middle part is reduced. Contrary to mostTo kinds of flight dog the claw at the second finger, this is missing consists with them only of a long Fingerglied with the bats. A thorn at the foot joint, Calcar mentioned, serves the tail flight skin, this for stretching still is with some kinds by a rigid skin rag,the Epiblema, supplements.

The hind legs of the bats are arranged contrary to most other mammals by a turn of the leg in the hip joint to the rear, them end in five bekrallten toes. These serve in the dwell phase for hanging up inAccomodation, whereby a special construction of the claw chords makes a passive holding possible without muscle strain - thus also dead animals remain to hang.

Head and senses

Fledermäuse nach Haeckel 1904
of bats after Haeckel 1904

the heads of the different kinds of bat differ considerably. During some to faces othersAnimals remind - for example to mice, therefore also the name of this group - other special structures developed. Many kinds have nose sheets or other face structures, which serve for sending or strengthening the ultrasonic sounds. The ears, those with some kindsare drastically increased, are often provided with grooves or furrows, in addition they have a Tragus, an ear cover, which serves the improvement of the Echolokation. The acceptance that with the bats the optical sense reduces due to the development of the echo ranging stronglyis, by behavior attempts one disproved. Bats can see black-and-white and as due to recent investigations were determined, can some kinds also to UV light see, which is reflected strengthened by some blooms, which approach it then to the Nektaraufnahme.

Bats possess under normal conditionsdentures from 32 to 38 teeth, whereby the Eckzähne are strongly pronounced particularly. These serve most kinds for breaking the Chitinpanzers of their booty insects, the Vampirfledermäusen open besides for the Anritzen of the skin of their landlords. In adjustment to the different nourishing waysvaries the structure of the dentures however substantially, so that from the original tooth formula 2133/3133 = 38 altogether over 50 different variants developed. Particularly the common Vampir ( the mode rotundus ) with a tooth formula points few teeth from 1111/2121 =20 up. The skeleton elements are mostly very thinly and tenderly trained, in order to form as small a weight as possible.

The eyes are mostly very small and black and possess lashless lids. Within the mouth range and with some kinds also within the range thatThe animals Vibrissen possess nose, thus sensitive sensory hairs. By glands within the mouth range sezernieren the animals an oily secretion, whatever is used for the care of the flight skins and probably kind-typical Geruchsstoffe contains. Further smell glands sit depending upon kind onfurther places of the face, at the shoulders or in other body places.

Sex differences

of bats do not possess remarkable sex differences. The attained full growth females are usually somewhat larger than the males, this can however only by precise measurements be determined. Onlyduring the exact view of the genital region the Penis of the males is recognizable. This is stabilized by a small Penisknochen (Baculum). With some kinds particularly also the testicles and Nebenhoden step out clearly at the mating time.

With sucking females one recognizes in additionthe well trained chest glands, which lie close of the shoulder cave. With most kinds only two Zitzen are trained, some kinds possess however also four. In addition at some families Haftzitzen in pairs without milk delivery is trained in the range of the border, at thoseitself the young animals festklammern can.

Way of life

the perfect adjustment of the bats to air as habitat coins/shapes also its way of life.

Nutrition

bat eats

most kinds of bat from moth nourishes itself of insects, which partly capture it in the flight. Larger kindseat also smaller mammals such as rodents and other bats, frogs and fish. In the Tropics and Subtropen gives it in addition, a quantity of vegetarian living kinds, which eat fruits or drink Nektar. These kinds play an important role for thosePlants, whose blooms dust it and whose seeds they spread. The three kinds of the Vampirfledermäuse (Desmodontinae) nourish themselves of the blood of other animals.

Progressive movement

the kind of main progressive movement of the bats is that flies, to that it by the possession of the flight skins and differentfurther adjustments are qualified. It mostly concerns during narrow flight leagues kinds around fast fliers, that live particularly in open area, during broad flight leagues kinds slow fliers in structure-rich habitats. During the flight the wings in a rotation are struck, howthe strong anticipated payment before the head happens and the wings within the rear range of the body again to be then pulled up. The tail flight skin serves thereby as a maneuvering assistance and for the deceleration.

The anatomical and physiological adjustments to this progressive movement are various. Thus possessin addition the spinal column is strongly preformed the bats a very voluminösen thorax with a breastbone, which exhibits a keel in convergence to that of the birds as extended beginning place for the flight musculature, in the chest range. During the flight become the breath andthe heart flapping mode frequency strongly increases, in order to cover the Sauerstoffbedarf. The heart is besides strongly increased and for instance the three-way volume has to that of other mammals of same size, in addition the number of red Blutkörchen is (Erythrozyten) as well as the hemoglobin portion strongly increased,so that about twice as much oxygen in the blood to be bound can as with comparable animals. For the cooling temperature-dependent extended blood vessels in the flight skins serve, in which the blood is cooled down by flowing around air.

Beside the flies itself bats can move also on the soil or at walls. They are however relatively awkward, since they cannot raise themselves. They pull themselves with the help of their thumb and foot claws over the surface. In addition most bats can by thatEmployment of their flight skins also swim and also from the water surface into the flight start.

Behavior

Tote Langohr-Fledermaus-Mutter (Plecotus auritus) mit totem Jungtier auf einem Dachboden
dead long ear bat nut/mother (Plecotus auritus) with totem young animal on an attic

of bats are usually night-active animals. For sleeping they pull themselvesin caves, rock columns, tree cave or human being-made Unterschlupfe (attics, ruins, mines and others) back. Apart from kinds, which live together in large groups, there are also kinds, which live as loners. In the cooler regions of their circulation area they hold for winter sleep, sometimes pullit also during the winter months into warmer regions.

All European bats have a yearly expiration, which is dictated to them by the climate. Thus they need accomodation, which offers protection from the weather and from potential enemies to them. Summer leaves itself in principleof winter accomodation differentiate.

Eine Langohrfledermaus richtet sich ein Winterquartier in einer Mauerritze ein. Die langen Ohren werden unter die Flughaut gelegt. Nur noch der Tragus bleibt zu sehen.
A long ear bat furnishes itself a winter accomodation in a wall crack. The long ears are put under the flight skin. Only the Tragus remains seeing.

In the late summer, approximately starting from at the end of, most European kinds of bat search for Augustsuitable winter accomodation, which offers for the cold months sufficiently protection to them. In Europe are bats and according to during the winter dependent on Unterschlupfmöglichkeiten, where they find even climatic conditions and are not at the same time for their enemies well attainable. Perfect of winter accomodationrepresent for it as cave animals Höhlensysteme , in addition, lugs and fortifications are gladly accepted. So the largest well-known winter accomodation is that about 50 meters underground lying shelter system of the east barrier from the Second World War in west Poland in Nietoperek with Miedzyrzecz. Here annually bats up to 30.000, which belong to twelve different kinds, winter. Further important accomodation is the lime mountain cave in bath Segeberg and the citadel Spandau, a fortification in Berlin. More frequently however accomodation is, thoseonly accommodate a relatively small number of animals.

Hängende Fledermäuse
Hanging bats

for the winter sleep put on the bats special fat supplies, whose exclusive purpose is it to supply during waking up the necessary energy with which again the normal Körpertemperatur are reachedcan. During the Winterschlafes the Körpertemperatur up to few tenths degrees over the ambient temperature, but not more deeply than the temperature, sinks at which the blood is not any more able, oxygen to transport.

A remarkably low has reproduction of batsReproduction rate. Most kinds bring only once in the year an individual young animal to the world. This is compensated by a life expectancy high for mammals of their size; so some kinds among favorable circumstances can reach an age of 20 to 30 years.A further characteristic of these animals is retarded fertilization: the seed of the males can be kept several months in the Fortpflanzungstrakt of the females, only in favorable weather begins the Fötus in the Gebärmutter to grow.

in Europe findsthe mating frequently in the winter accomodation instead of.

The brünstigen males visit the females under the animals hanging usually in groups, clasp them with the wings and bite them in the necks. By this treatment the female wakes upand, as soon as it awoke, by the male one begattet. The males are fully active during the mating, while the females are usually still in the waking up phase. An advertisement around the lethargischen females is not necessary. For the sex act look for each otherboth animals again a sleep place. In the course of the Winterschlafes a female can be begattet several times by different males. The fertilization of the Eizelle takes place however not following the mating, but only after completion of the Winterschlafes. Thus it is prevented thatthe female by the pregnancy a too high energy expenditure has and the young animals still in the cold season to be born.

After completion of the Winterschlafes, about at the end of March, the bats move into their summer accomodation. The males look for each other usually daily accomodation,as starting point for the hunt serve. The females are to week rooms together, in which the young animals are born and drawn up together. The carrying time of the Central European kinds depends on the food offer. It should for the pregnant female a little tooeat give, thus „“it regulates cycle and metabolism down. The carrying time can vary thereby between 40 and 70 days. These week rooms mostly cover 20 to 50 dams, which annually again together are. They leave the young animals in the accomodationback, where they form proper bat grapes/clusters together with other abandoned young animals. After the hunt flight each nut/mother recognizes her young and sets it at their Zitzen for sucking. Starting from at the end of the boys will then leave August from their mothers andappear themselves independently in the winter accomodation.

Social behavior

colony of the large mouse ear

of bats are high-social animals, which live together most time of the yearly in groups. In their accomodation they look for usually close body contact with other animals, whereby Fledermauspulke form.This has the advantage that the individual animals must to spend and use little energy on the body warming. Both in the week rooms and in the winter accomodation it comes besides to a mixing of different kinds. One mostly finds two orthree different kinds in an accomodation, whereby the individual kinds together-hang both in own Clustern and a genuine mixing occurs.

A ranking within bat colonies was so far not described, however male bats drive their competitors out from the mating districts. Comesit to disturbances within the accomodation is threatening with broken muzzle and Zetern the answer and after short time turns again peace in. Some kinds react themselves when easy disturbances with a fright position, with that them to the soilpress, when intensive threats place themselves these kinds dead (Akinese).

As is the case for many other social animals there is a swarm behavior also with bats, with which of individual to a participation other animals leads the actions. Thus follows as a ruleafter the takeoff of an animal also a start of further and also flashes of individual animals it leads to the fact that others begin with it. When deseaming there is no mutual skin care however with most kinds, instead each animal concentrates on itselfeven and only dams deseam their boys during the first days. The young animals take over this already after few days themselves. With different kinds, particularly with horseshoe noses, a mutual Belecken of the face was observed, however one assumesit thereby not around cleaning behavior but around gestures of communication acts.

Enemies

natural ones of enemies of the bats represent above all day and night-active Raubtiere, above all cats, as well as grab birds and owls. In addition there is a set of large carnivorous kinds of bat,the bats also smaller beside other booty animals hunt.

Fledermäuse schwärmen kurz vor Sonnenuntergang aus einer Höhle in Thailand
The bats a very much complicated and effective method developed echo ranging

of bats swarms briefly before sunset from a cave in Thailand with its echo ranging system (or also ultrasonic location), which makes it for them possible,to get along in the dark and hunt insects, without using their eyes. They discharge ultrasonic waves , which are back-thrown of objects as reflections. The individual echoes are taken up by the bat and brought into the correct succession. By those Zeitunterschiede the brain that can seize and thus locate, like far a tree or an insect is and even, with which speed and direction a booty animal moves.

One

accepted history long time that bats over extremely goodEyes ordered, since they get along in absolute darkness. In 18. Century undertook the Italian scientist Lazzaro Spallanzi first attempts with bats and owls, in which it let the animals fly in dark areas. While all owls failed, founditself bats well by right. Some time it later accomplished further attempts, this time with bats, which it had outdone the eyes. Also these animals could fly without problems, while copies with sealed ears fell to soil.

As itself Hiram Maxim, the inventor of the machine gun, in the year 1913 with sonar systems for navigation on lake and for the detection of the sunk Titanic busy, he believed to be on the correct way, but he erred, because he assumed that bats low-frequency tones with the striking of their wings would produce. Only as G. W. Pierce briefly before the Second World War a sound detector for high frequency tones developed, the true condition of the bat sonar was recognized.

The echo ranging system of the bats

thereby the echo ranging system function correctlycan be exhausted and all possibilities optimally, a special adjustment of the different organs is necessary. Like that many parts of the body are exactly appropriate for the use of the echo ranging with the bats. However not all bats use their detection systems. Thus use above allinsect and nektarfressende bats the ultrasonic, while large bats usually do without it.

The call

the asking detector Viennese of a University of

the call consists mostly of a series of five or more different tones, the one duration of less than one secondup to the hundredth of one second to have, see also Chirp can. Bats can discharge frequencies between 9 kHz and 200 kHz. Humans notice only frequencies between 16 cycles per second and 18 kHz. With the help of an asking detector ultrasonic calls can also forHumans to be made audible. This converts the calls into lower length waves.

To the hunt the Fledertiere could use theoretically both low and higher frequencies, however high frequency calls have many advantages, like smaller wavelengths, the one more exact spatial discriminationmake possible and the clearer demarcation of the echo of background noises. Deeper frequencies, which possess larger wavelengths, wash around as it were small objects and hardly send therefore echoes back.

In tree proximity the hunters call only quietly, in order to prevent an intersection of several echoes (echo salad),while it in the open area loud of cries discharge. A bat constantly adapts its call (within its kind-typical possibilities and essential structure) to the situation. In open area the calls are longer, louder and less frequency-modulated, in close proximity to would backgroundand with the catch of an insect they become more briefly and more strongly frequency-modulated.

A typical bat call consists of two components, i.e. of the component with constant frequency (CF) and a component, whose frequency decreases with the time (FM). However the calls differ strongly between the kinds and groups. Horseshoe noses e.g. possess. a very long (many ms), constant-frequent call, whose beginning and end are very weakly frequency-modulated. Other kinds use very short, only frequency-modulated calls, others against itsomewhat longer with a constant-frequent part in more detail. Additionally the calls still differ in the number of harmonious ones.

The CF-component of the call has a constant frequency (CF = „constant frequencies “), comparably with the one tuning fork. It has onehigh range and supplies a in-colored, long persisting echo to the bat with. Only few bats (e.g. the horseshoe noses) use above all CF-calls (with a small FM part at the beginning and/or end). Other kinds use than search sounds in the open air space quasi-constant-frequent so mentionedCalls, which are only weakly frequency-modulated (thus quasi-constant-frequently).

The FM - Component of the bat calls has with the time a decreasing frequency (FM = „frequence modulated “). It has a smaller range than the CF-component, supplies for it however an echo, with whateverSurface textures to be recognized. FM calls are usually used with pursuit by booty animals. Most bats use excluding FM calls with differently strong frequency modulation.

Hearing example: Tondokument ? / License

production & sending

the call becomes from the bats, as with mammals usual, in Larynx produces, where air between two diaphragms (the vocal cords) is through-pressed and these thereby in oscillations straight. By harnessing different pitches can be produced for muscles, which hold the diaphragms.

Before the acoustic waves from the mouth or from that Nose withdraw, they through in the Kehl and throat area are strengthened and filtered. Bats, which call by the nose, have often complicated nose essays, which bundle and in the correct directions steer the acoustic waves strongly. Bats with such essays, like z. B.the horseshoe noses, have often smaller ears.

Receipt & processing

the trichterförmigen ears of the bats are very sensitive both in relation to direction of the echoes, and the sound quality. They can turn and bend the ears, around certain sound pour more exactlyto locate. Each ear receives independently of the other one. The drum skin is larger than the oval window, by which the acoustic waves are led. A great many turns possess the hearing snail, which is adapted to the hunt frequency particularly , whereby thema more differentiated Frequenzanalyse possess, than other mammals, like for example humans. Only horseshoe noses possess them also calls, a highly differentiated Frequenzanalyse in the narrow frequency range of few kHz, in that. Their hearing snail covers this range finely, whereby a in such a way specified“acoustic Fovea “, comparably the Fovea (yellow mark) in our eye, develops.

After the echoes were taken up in the ears, this information is passed on to the brain, where the different echoes on the basis its frequencies brought into the correct order andthen to be analyzed. The longer an echo lasts, in order to reach the ear, the further is distant the reflector. One time interval of 1 milliseconds corresponds about distance of 1 centimeter. With their internal clock they know running times up to0.06 milliseconds recognize. Since both ears receive the ultrasonic echoes, the brain can join both pictures to a 3D-Bild, which a comparison with our eye picture more as if withstands.

Beside the size and form of an object also the surface texture can and therebythe material to be recognized. The object size is determined over the volume of the echo. Since the same volume however either from a small, to approach or for a large, far it removed object come can only the distance is determined, on which the actual sizeto be determined can. The recognition of the object form is based on the evaluation of the volume and the temporal process of the echo. An echo possesses several echo fronts, which refer to the form of an article. Materials and surface textures become over the tone quality of the sounddifferentiated. The tone quality of an object develops from object-typical interference (overlays) of the acoustic waves, whereby certain frequencies are strengthened and others are weakened.

Direction regulation

thereby the bat white, whether an object is on the left of or right from its current position, rates it, hownumerous other animal species, the Zeitunterschiede with the arrival of the echoes in both ears out. If the echo of the same object reaches the left ear later than rights, then the article is right from it. As the animals recognize whether thatObject over or among them is, could until today not yet free of doubts be clarified. One assumes they evaluate the interference sample of the acoustic waves, as humans likewise make it.

Doppler effect

the Doppler effect, thus a shift of the frequency, stepsup, as soon as acoustic waves meet moving objects. If an object moves towards the bat, or the bat on an object, increases the frequency and the clay/tone becomes higher, while removing causes the opposite. Bats (horseshoe noses?) can Differences of only 6 cycles per second recognize and thus rate of motion calculate. Horseshoe nose bats are able to analyze those by the wing impacts Doppler shifts produced by insects (in particular moths) and over the volume of the echo the size of the Insektes and overto determine the frequency of the Doppler shifts per second the flapping of wings frequency. Thus they can differentiate between different kinds of insect.

Borders of the echo ranging

the echo ranging system does not however only have advantages. Thus the echoes lose themselves on further distances and by air are brakedor by water absorbs. Thus bats can orient themselves with fog and very high air humidity badly or not at all.

A larger problem seems to be the power requirement, which each call costs. Over the exact energy quantity different opinions prevail, howeverattempts showed that the loss of energy in the well-known premises is reduced to a minimum. That can be explained by the fact that bats have a pronounced space memory.

Accuracy

Zwerg-Fledermaus (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)
dwarf bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

the dwarf bat recognizes wires from 0.28 mmmore than one meter distance and hunts on the day about 500 to 1200 baptizing couches (Drosophila), which are long approximately three millimeters. Other kinds of bat like the Mediterranean horseshoe nose know even a way between 0.05 mm (50 micrometers) thick wires, thosethus approximately half as thinly as humans sheds are, find. Experiments showed that by the bat ear taken up and in the brain the charged signals goals can hold apart, which only 10 millimeters lay apart, even if the objects completely different size dimensions have.

Counter measures of the booty animals

some insects hear the ultrasonic tones of the bats be able and in time in security to bring itself, while other animals produce like different butterflies even own ultrasonic tones. In former times one meant that these tones of bats would confuse and these thereforethe calling butterflies not continue to pursue. That is however a little probable. Bats can get along for example in the midst of hundreds of very loud detection calls of their kind comrades, if them together from the daily sleep caves out-fly or these again visit. They do not work thereby by any means confused.Rather the ultrasonic clicking sounds of the butterflies say to the bats: “I taste bad “. They are a signal in the dark, a reference that they are ungeniessbar. By day booty animals can communicate their Ungeniessbarkeit with warning colors to the robbers (e.g. with signal red). At the nightcolor seeing not only bats is impossible. Their booty uses partial audio signals in order to move the attacking bats for flying off. Some fish are to feel also the easy oscillations of the calls in the water and save themselves, what however only very rarelyhappens and is hardly confirmed.

Systematics

external systematics

into the 1970er-Jahre emerged the question whether Fledertiere are actually monophyletisch, i.e. whether bats and flight dogs descend from a common ancestor or only convergently developed. Numerous investigations becameto this question accomplished, whereby today most researchers of the Monophylie of the Fledertiere go out (details see systematics of the Fledertiere). Meanwhile this opinion apart from morphologic comparisons was confirmed also by biochemical , parasitologische and molecular-biological analyses.

As next relativesthe bats beside the flight dogs within the mammals applied long time the giant gliders and beyond that a common Taxon consisting of the Fledertieren, giant gliders, the pointed crescents and Primaten. Recent molecular-genetic investigations place the Fledertiere however into completely different group,indeed the Laurasiatheria, to which among other things insectivores, Paarhufer, whales and Raubtiere belong.

Internal systematics

the bats into approximately 17 families are divided, which can be summarized again in seven over families.

relational conditions can be represented in the following diagram. (Source for this Kladogramm is Kate E. Jones and. A.: A phylogenetic supertree OF the bats, see Web on the left of.)

 bats (Microchiroptera)├──Yinochiroptera │ ├─Glattnasen Freischwänze (Emballonuridae) │ └─N.N. │ ├─Mausschwanzartige (Rhinopomatoidea) │ │ ├─Schweinsnasenfledermaus (Craseonycteridae) │ │ └─Mausschwanzfledermäuse (Rhinopomatidae) │ │ │ └─Hufeisennasenartige (Rhinolophoidea) │ ├─Grossblattnasen (Megadermatidae) │ └─N.N. │ ├─Schlitznasen (Nycteridae) │ └─N.N. │ ├─Hufeisennasen (Rhinolophidae) │ └─Rundblattnasen (Hipposideridae) │ └──Yangochiroptera├─Trichterohrartige (Natalioidea) │ ├─Madagassische detention disk bat (Myzopodidae) │ └─N.N. │ ├─Amerikanische detention disk bats (Thyropteridae) │ └─N.N. │ (Natalidae) │ └─Stummeldaumen (Furipteridae) │ ├─Hasenmaulartige (Noctilionoidea) │ ├─Neuseelandfledermäuse (Mystacinidae) ├─Trichterohren │ └─N.N. │ more ├─Hasenmäuler (Noctilionidae) │ └─N.N. │ ├─Kinnblattfledermäuse (Mormoopidae) │ └─Blattnasen (Phyllostomidae) │└─N.N. ├─Glattnasen (Vespertilionidae) └─Bulldoggfledermäuse (Molossidae)

the phylogenetischen relations within the bats are relative to undisputed, the discussed points count among other things:

  • the position of the smooth nose free tails (Emballonuridae), which as Schwestertaxon of all remaining Fledermaustaxa are sometimes regarded,
  • the rank of the round sheet noses, thosesometimes as an own family (Hipposideridae), sometimes as Unterfamilie (Hipposiderinae) of the horseshoe noses (Rhinolophidae) to be arranged,
  • the position of the Malagasy detention disk bat (Myzopodidae),
  • as well as the rank of the kind Antrozous from the family of the smooth noses (Vespertilionidae), those sometimes as Antrozoidae from the smooth noses separatelybecome.

In recent time a discussion emerged concerns the Monophylie of the bats, i.e. some kinds of bat could be the flight dogs than related to other bats more near to. Thus Emma Teeling and Marks of Springer the horseshoe-nose-well-behaved (Rhinolophoidea) and the flight dogs platzieren(Pteropodidae) into their own Klade, Yinpterochiroptera, and confront this all other Fledertierarten. Above all molecular-biological investigations speak for this theory, so that the bats would be a paraphyletische group.

European kinds

Central Europe

Großes Mausohr (Myotis myotis)
large mouse ear (Myotis myotis)

in Central Europe are round 25 kinds spreads, which belong all together to the horseshoe noses (Rhinolophidae) or smooth noses (Vespertilionidae). The following list is alphabetical and not systematic:

dwarf bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

south Europe

a number of further kinds is among other things in south Europe, some of it occasionally than erring guestsin Central Europe. In addition count:

history of the development

the history of the development of the bats documented by fossil finds only very meagerly. Among the oldest found kinds Icaronycteris index from that rankearly Eozän of the Green River formation Wyomings as well as Archaeonycteris, Palaeochiropteryx, Hassianycteris and Tachypteron franzeni from the middle Eozän of the pit Messel in Germany. These early representatives resemble the today's bats, differences in their figure already very strongly exist onlyin details as for example the presence of finger claws and a long, free tail (however also with the today's mouse tail bats is). Also the eozänen kinds might have been capable of the Echolokation already.

Contrary to other Säugetiertaxa which can be arranged with difficulty,for instance the whales, the fossil findings do not supply with to any referring to transition forms. Therefore the conditions, which led to the evolution of the impact flight with bats, are unclear.

Bats attained in the Eozän world-wide spreading obviously already - from this epoch finds are inEurope, North America and Australia occupy. Since for some families fossil vouchers are missing, is hardly well-known over the history of the development of the group.

The bat is considered

to humans and bats of bats in

mythology and symbolism in China as symbol to luck and profit.This is reflected in the Chinese word “fu” again, which “luck” and “bat” mean at the same time. As five bats (“wu fu”) bats were arranged frequently as embroidery on articles of clothing or as round talisman around a Lebensbaum, where them in addition forlong life, wealth, health and an easy death stood. In Central America one found images of a bat divinity of the Maya on stone columns and tongefässen, which were about 2000 years old. This divinity possessed a bat head and spread wings and is alsoin the picture writing of the people again.

Francisco Goya, „Der Schlaf der Vernunft gebiert Ungeheuer“ (etwa 1797/98)
Francisco Goya, „the sleep of the reason bears monster “(about 1797/98)

in Europe is predominantly negatively occupied the bat since the antique one. Thus Ovid in its tells „metamorphosis “(IV, 1-34) that the daughters of theKing from Böotien to the punishment into bats, because they had preferred it to work and stories from the mythology tell themselves on the loom , instead of in the festivenesses in honours Bacchus were transformed 'to participate. Also the Bible writes batstoo, it ranks negative characteristics among the impure animals (more exact to the birds) and brings it in connection with heidnischen Götzenbildern (Deuteronomium 14.16 and Jesaja, 2.20). The Romans Davis Basilius wrote that the bat blood-related to the devilis.

Dämoni and teuflische natures are represented in the forming art frequently with Fledermausflügeln and differ thereby from angels. On Albrecht Dürers admitted to graphic sheetthe melancholy “from the year 1514 is it such, ona bat reminding nature that „Melencolia high-holds the signature “. In the baroque the bat is even one of the attributes of the Antichrists. Also the Spanish painter Francisco de Goya used bats beside owls as symbols of the threatening one. An old but faith means,that itself bats gladly into woman Mrs. windings. This developed probably from Christian conception that the hair of Mrs. Dämonen and/or. generally „“tighten the bad (why in many faith conceptions women their hair covered keep must). During the Landbevölkerung of Mexico applythe Vampierfledermäuse partially also today still as witches, who exhaust sleeping humans the blood.

In addition bats are associated with the soul and therefore with death, on some representations from that 14. The souls leave century when dyingthe body in form of a bat. From this also the European Vampirsagen could have developed, which already gave it, before the Central American Vampirfledermäuse admits was. This Vampirglaube held itself until today in the popular culture and is reflected particularly inthe fantasy of book authors and film producers. Figures such as count Dracula or also the small Vampir fly around nächtens as bats and look for its victims, also different Vampirfilme, as for instance the dance of the Vampire, use this motive. Likewise by thosenocturnal way of life inspired is the creation of the Comic - and film figure Batman - a superhero, who goes at night into bat lining on man hunt.

Positive characteristics are attributed to the bat in the abendländischen culture areas only very rarely. The fact that it itselfmutually support, as an act of the next love one interpreted.Cesare Ripa assigns in its work „Iconologia “under the keyword „to Ignoranca “of the bat of the Personifikation of the ignorance, there the animal rather in the dark remains instead of itself the light of the truthto approach.

Bats in the people medicine

also in the people medicine found bats international to introduction. Whole bats or also parts of them are with different nature peoples in Africa and Asia a component of Schutzamuletten. In the Arab countries and also in Europethere were many prescriptions particularly in the Middle Ages, in which bat parts were used against most diverse diseases and complaints. Thus about Albertus Magnus recommended 13 in the century that one was to rub oneself the face in with bat blood, even if one in thatNight to see clear would like. As a dämonisches animal one used the bat homöopathisch for the defense of Dämonen, in Christian time also from witches and devil.

Beside flight dogs one finds bats today still living on Indian bazaars: The skin is taken off from them,to the Wundheilung freshly on parts of the body concerned one puts.

The loss of the habitat as well as in smaller extent the Bejagung counts threat to the world-wide main threats of the bats by humans. In particular the kinds endemic on small islands are endangered thereby.The IUCN lists four kinds as become extinct, approximately 20 is considered as strongly threatened, numerous further than threatened or endangers.

17 of the German kinds is led in the endangerment categories of the red list of Germany.

The European bat night is an annually taking place event,with on the threat of these animals to be made attentive is.

Destruction of the habitats

your endangerment goes out particularly by destruction of its habitats, approximately by the reorganization of old buildings and the sealing with potential sleep places, by the destruction withInsect habitats, by the destruction of dead wood existence and the poisoning with insect protective agents and wood preservation colors. Any longer large mouse ear (to Myotis myotis, see photo above) is not completely so rare, dwarf bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), large Abendsegler (Nyctalus noctula)and water bat (Myotis daubentonii). Mouse ear bat females form large week rooms on attics in summers, where they bear and draw their children up together. These week rooms and also different bat accomodation (trees with concavities, column accomodation, caves and lugs) it applies like alsoto protect the other habitats.

Wrong locations of wind-powered devices

also at wind-powered devices have an accident bats, like for some years admit are, the reasons for it are so far however unsettled. First this phenomenon in the USA as well as in Australia observed, in the meantime to runalso in Europe a set of investigations, try extent and background the deaths to light up. In Germany so far 13 kinds of bat (conditions November 2005) with several hundred individuals at the plants had an accident. The dark number might be however very large,since only a infinitesimal small portion of the plants is at all searched.

There are obviously different reasons for accidents, which partly overlay and strengthen:

  • during the course time in August and September the collisions accumulate themselves up,
  • are concerned v.a. Kinds thosein the free air space and/or over large distances pull, like that large Abendsegler, the broad wing bat , the small Abendsegler, the two-color bat , some
  • locations, for example in the forest or in its proximity, hunt are particularly impactpregnant,
  • for certain climatic conditions -Temperature, wind velocity - favour the bat impact.

The legal protection of the bats in Germany (BNatSchG) forbids intentional killing of these „to strictly protected “animal. For this reason must be reacted with the establishment of wind energy plants increasingly to the problem.

Transmission of diseases

The Vampirfledermäuse and other kinds can endanger humans and other animals, since they can transfer different diseases by their bites and excrement. This occurs usually however very rarely.

Bat rabies

the first rabid bat became 1954 inHamburg discovers. To 1985 in Europe only very few infected bats were found. Since then bat rabies spread strongly. Two thirds of all rabid bats were registered in Denmark and Holland. Approximately 20 per cent of the animals infected in Europe becamein Germany seizes. Bat rabies - which not to the fox rabies virus identically actual released of the European bat virus (European asked Lyssavirus, EBLV, type I and. II) and 2003 were determined altogether 13 times in Germany (Berlin 3, Bremen 1,Lower Saxony 3, Saxonia-Anhalt 1, Schleswig-Holstein 5). Bavaria is considered so far as free from bat rabies. However the relatively small investigation numbers are not very meaningful.

In Europe there was up to now only 4 rabies illnesses with humans: 1977 in the Ukraine, 1985 inFinland and Russia. To 24. November 2002 causes a bat bite first case of rabies with humans in Scotland for 100 years. Most frequently the broad wing bat ( Eptesicus serotinus) is infected.

Ebola

when current investigations of three kinds of fruits corrosiveBats in the Congo and Gabon were determined during a Ebola - epidemic disease the viruses, without these animals were gotten sick. Thus bats are considered as potenzielle landlord animals to the Ebola virus. More exact research results are not present.

Use of the eliminations

cave deposits outBat excrement can as caves so mentioned guano powerfulnesses worthy of exploitation reach. Höhlenguano was used just like Inselguano, which of sea-bird eliminations consists, as phosphate-rich fertilizer.

Literature

  • Neuweiler G.: Biology of the bats. Thieme (1993)
  • riveting hammer J., Krapp F. (Hrsg): Manual of the mammalsEurope. Volume 4/1: Fledertiere. AULA publishing house, Wiesbaden 2001 ISBN 3-89104-638-3 (very detailed and current technical book)
  • riveting hammer J., Krapp F (Hrsg): Manual of the mammals of Europe. Volume 4/2: Fledertiere. AULA publishing house, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-89104-639-1 (very detailed and current technical book)
  • Siemers B.,Nill D. (Hrsg.):Bats - the practice book, echo ranging, hunt behavior, accomodation, bat detectors. BLV publishing house company 2000, ISBN 340515930X
  • Schober W., Grimmberger E. (Hrsg.): The bats of Europe. Recognize - determine - protect. Cosmos 1998, ISBN 3440075974
  • Simmons, N. B., Geisler J. H.: Phylogenetic relationships OF Icaronycteris, Archeonycteris, Hassianycteris, and Palaeochiropteryx ton extant asked lineages, with COMMENT on the evolution OF echo location and forum-went strategies into microchiroptera. Bulletin OF the American museum OF Natural History, 235: 1–82.
  • Brown M., Dieterlen F. (Hrsg): ThoseMammals of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Volume 1: General part and bats (Chiroptera); Eugen Ulmer publishing house, 2003, ISBN 3-8001-3282-6 (very good technical book over mammals, particularly bats)
  • Nowak R.M.: Walker's Mammals OF the World. John Hopkins University press, 1999, ISBN 0801857899

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