Assembly-line production

assembly-line or the assembly-line production is a kind of production run, which is used in the industriellen manufacturing by bulk goods.


flow production and assembly-line production


During the flow production the list of the operational funds is organized after the Produktionsablauf, i.e. the production process is divided into individual work proceduresand the machines and jobs are arranged in such a way, required like it the technological succession of the processing steps for production (thus in the sequence at the products to performing processing steps).

The individual products go through the manufacturing thereby if possible without interruption and with as few a intermediate transportation as possible.

Planning takes place thus according to the product or object principle.

Flow production can be technically conditioned (the arrangement of the production places is an inevitable consequence of technological conditions of the production process, approximately during the Rohölverarbeitung in refineries or the steelmaking) or organizational considerations to reason to lie.


With that Assembly-line production as the most consistent development of the flow production takes place the materials handling between the individual production places by conveyors. The individual work procedures are usually reduced thereby to few handles (in the classical form a work procedure is a permanent repetition of an exactly determined handle sequence).

The implementing processing steps andtransport between the production places take place in firm temporal rhythm. Thus machining time at the individual stations is from each other dependent, one speaks of a temporally bound flow production.

For the smooth operational sequence an optimal assembly-line alignment is crucial: The individual work procedures (and work stations) must soit is specified that its execution needs exactly a fixed length of time, the cycle time. Date and capacity planning problems can be solved by this default of a firm production run efficiently, the most productive manufacturing process are to a certain extent forced.

If an automated concatenation of the production places takes place, one speaks of (stare) a transfer line,the production process takes place to a large extent fully automatic.

By the high plant intensity of the complex machines and the associated high fixed share of the cost this kind of the manufacturing is used particularly with the sort and mass production. By the small flexibility - the structure of product may not be subject to short term changes -is besides a secured market analysis to be presupposed. But the variable costs can be kept relatively low (low costs in the range of the administration, the camp and transport, the manufacturing and wages, little committee and waste)


Further advantages from economical view:

• Semifinished certifications become to a minimumreduced, thus temporary storage facilities can be avoided to a large extent. Also the consistent arrangement of the jobs saves area, in addition routes of transportation are shortened, reduced transport costs

• (Costing) advantages by division of labor and specialization Manufacturing wages can be reduced by the low qualification requirements of the workers

• Low turn-around times make a decrease for that possibleTotal production time

• An examination of the products can be integrated into the processing step


disadvantages of the assembly-line production:

• small flexibility with occupation fluctuations, the adaptability of the enterprise is lowered

• high susceptibility to interference of entire production with machine or losses of working hours

• high capital requirement, high capital freeze, high plant intensity, highFixed costs

• small action clearance of the workers

• monotonous work produces alienation, blunting and motivation problems


of use finds the assembly-line production and others in the vehicle industry, the publishing house and printer trade and the sweet goods industry.


history

already 1790 received olive Evans a patent on a mill, in thatdifferent techniques of continuous transport were used. In the year 1833 with the production of Schiffszwieback into England an assembly-line was introduced. In order the year 1870 in the slaughterhouses by Cincinnati high-put transportation volumes were used, in order to transport the slaughtered pigs from a worker to the next.

Ransom Eli Olds used already 1902 for production its “old mobile “of wood racks, on which the cars were pulled to the different manufacturing stations. Henry Ford refined production in as much as he began in the year 1913 instead of the wood racks an assembly-line during the automobile manufacturing. ThatWorker was remunerated with Ford thereafter, as fast he certain mechanical work procedures to accomplish can (piece-work wage).

William Friedle, operations director of Daimler Benz AG work Sindelfingen of 1927-1935 brought that to assembly-line to Germany.

The initial welcome as revolutionary celebrated assembly-line struck soon over instrong refusal. The mechanical working processes, to which the workers saw themselves suspended, led there only few, monotonous handles of the particular to a blunting and to the cancellation of the worker, were necessary.

The humanization in such a way specified of the working sphere led to a changed processing of assembly line work. The work proceduresin groups are implemented (group work/group manufacturing) and the chord (work) refers to a group of workers (worker, commercial coworkers).

The actor Charlie Chaplin represented the work on the assembly-line in its film “modern trend time “(modern Time) impressively.

see also

 

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