of the Engelssturtz, a sheet pressure from Bavaria (probably 1848)

sheet, handbill or leaflet (Austrian) one calls an in or bilaterally printed on paper with opportunity block letters, which can be partly provided, with illustrations.

The handbill is today a typical protest medium; Handbills become similaras distributes the smaller Flyer usually to current causes, for announcements or for advertisement given change and free of charge. Examples are local or regional message, small price lists or meeting lists.

Occasionally between sheets and the somewhat more extensive flight writings one differentiates.

Table of contents

of characteristics

typical characteristicsfrom sheets are:

history and development

of handbills from the late Middle Ages to the reformation

the medium “handbill” is since 1488 demonstrably. While one always thinks however today with the term “handbill” of political handbills, one means, if one of handbills in outgoing 15. Century speaks, somewhat completely different one: commercial a sheet pressures. These commercial handbills were the “picture newspaper” of the late Middle Ages: a commodity, manufactured offered for the money making,of Marktschreiern, on fairs and before church doors, in addition, in the traditional book trade, in the wholesale and on fairs. Kostenlos waren sie keinesfalls - ein krasser Gegensatz zum heute bekannten Protest-Flugblatt. Rather one estimates today that the single sheet cost at least as much, like a learned craftsman in thatCity in the hour earned. Individual estimations, like of Irving Pedigree, proceed even from four to five hours. Thus handbills for the simple Landbevölkerung were almost exorbitant.

Large illustrations took frequently a third of the sheet size, produced by woodcut technology. Who handbills, hung up it had proudly at home at walls, crates and cabinets.

Three ranges of topics dominated: Sensations and miracles; katechetische instruction and soul comfort and building; finally political and military information.

Summarized: The early illustrated a sheet pressures were produced boulevardeske information media, for the purpose of the money making. With political agitation hadto do it rarely something. This changed only starting from the reformation time, thus starting from 1517 (see below).

demarcation: Flight writings from the late Middle Ages to the reformation time

flight writings distinguish themselves formally from the handbills by the fact that they have more than one side - they are thus, technically seen, forerunners of the modern novel booklet or the operating instruction.

Flight writings served the publication of messages and addressed themselves thereby to humans who were interested in “hard” information rather as at sensations. If one says, the handbill is before the reformation like that something like one“Picture newspaper” with only one article been, then was the flight writing in approximately “Frankfurter Rundschau” of the late Middle Ages.

handbills starting from the reformation time

starting from the reformation time the handbill became more political. It served the argument in the faith war as means as also in the farmer war. Thattraditional, primarily sensationsheischende handbill (“man with four heads seen! ”) it passed parallel, it on lost however at meaning.

Also the political handbills of the reformation time were not free. But paper and pressure were too expensive.

demarcation: Flight writings starting from the reformation time

contentwise bordered itthe flight writings of the reformation time according to definition of Werner putrid pass thereby from the handbills that they should agitate and affect openly. That was new: the fact that influence did not take place any longer verbally by the Prediger, for example, and no longer was bound to a cause.

Flight writings playeda crucial role in the fight of the Martin Luther for the reformation of the church. Its sending letters were extremely successful: However was to the Christian aristocracy of German nation in the first edition already after few days out of print - despite an edition of 4000 copies, which for at that timeConditions was sensational. Also different theologians and Aufrührer wrote flight writings, for example Philipp Melanchthon, in addition, Johannes hit a corner and Thomas Müntzer. After 1525 the flight writing becomes then predominantly the Kanzleien and theologians, those with the arising splitting and sparkling wine movements for “protects” directionrecruit.

In summary the achievement of these early flight writings consists of the fact that it opinion-end were: They specified opinions, which were already vaguely present in the population. One attributes a similar function frequently for example modern Politmagazinen. One may not forget however in the view that flight writingsfor any kind of objectivity did not strive. They are related therefore earliest perhaps to today's political press releases, info. brochures of interest federations or position papers.

Also the flight writing of the reformation time was not free. Rather authors and/or printers earned frequently well at them. Thus one knowsby Martin Luther that he temporarily earned with his flight writings twice as much as with his activity as a minister. And also “underdog” Thomas Müntzer earned at his flight writings.

One may be surprised therefore from today's viewpoint at it that humans were ready, for products of political agitationTo pay money. One may not forget however on the one hand with the fact that humans were hungry in the early modern times according to each kind of information: there was not an information abundance like today, completely on the contrary. On the other hand far parts of the population were dissatisfied with thatChurch and with the lay rulers. Therefore they took up also reformatorische and aufrührerische information greedily.

resistance medium in the NS time special meaning

of the political resistance the handbills

in Germany that attained the political handbill in the modern trend [work on]forties by brothers and sisters Scholl and the members of the group of resistances white rose. From the summer 1942 up to their arrest by the German Nazi regime in the spring 1943 and spread they provided 6 handbills, in which they called to the resistance against the National Socialist terror.

In the war propaganda 20. Century formed handbills in shape of leaflet bombs an important part of the psychological war guidance.


important handbill collections possess among other things the following mechanisms:


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