Airport

with airport (English. air haven, ARPT) is designated in the German linguistic area a larger airfield, on which regularly commercial air traffic takes place. There airliners are dispatched. In contrast to it the general is aviation (GA) mostly just at the edgerepresented. Military places are not defined as airports. Airports fulfill a higher safety standard than simple airfields. On them a different infrastructure, like hangar, is present airplane repair mechanisms, dispatch equipment at the soil, air traffic control and service facilities for passengers (restaurants, Lounges and Sicherheitsdieste) depending upon size.In other countries by air haven (aero postage etc.) also smaller airfields are understood, on which excluding the general aviation or the military is resident.

Flughafen Zürich
Airport Zurich

table of contents

history of the airports

the first airfields was called Aerodrome. They consisted of tree and bushless grass surfaces, those depending upon wind direction from all sides to to attachment-lie were andat their edge airplanes to be turned off could. In the beginnings of the Fliegerei was not to be thought of a regular transport of passengers yet. With increasing security of the developed airplanes and increase of the airplane sizes also the passenger numbers rose. The demand thatPassengers after a regular air traffic as well as the increasing competition of the airfields among themselves led to increased requirements concerning security and an arranged, smooth operational sequence.

The Brazilian Alberto Santos Dumont placed the concept one for the first time with an attendance with Theodore Roosevelt 1902 Air haven forwards. The origin of the word air haven (dtsch: Airport) is not secured. In a port normally ships dock on. Possibly a connection with at this time also the airships already acting in South America exists.

Airplane dispatching on thatAirport Frankfurt/Main

at such places or two courses (parallel course system) from consolidated soil, were often put on bitumen or concrete in the prevailing wind direction so for example in Berlin Tempelhof. At places with changing wind directions such becameParallel course systems also, as for instance several times put on in Chicago O'Hare, or as Triangularbahnsystem, like in Johannesburg, or as tangential course system.

The first international airport, Croydon air haven, developed 1920 in the south of London. In the year 1922 that became in king mountain (East Prussia)first purely commercial airport finished. The airports in all their current complexity developed gradually and adapted in the development to the respective conditions of the airplane technology.

legal situation in Germany

airports are in the German air rightAirfields, which require a safety device after kind and range of the intended flying operation by a building save area after §12 LuftVG or §17 LuftVG. Building save areas are the ranges around an airport, within which for reasons of the security of the flying operation an obstacle collection must take place.

Flat airport (here: Airport bad clay/tone)

the German air right differentiates permission for the plant and for the enterprise with respect to the LuftVZO (

  • third
section
§38
  • FF
.
)
  • between

airports airports special airports of landing strips of traffic landing strips special landing area Segelfluggelände of airports, as also from airfields, becomesafter §§ the 38, 50 and 55 LuftVZO of the aviation authority of the country gives, in which the area lies.

In the Federal Republic of Germany there are at present the following airfields, which are certified as airports: Altenburg Nobitz, Augsburg, Berlin-Schönefeld, Berlin Tegel, Berlin Tempelhof, Braunschweig, Bremen, Erfurt, Friedrichshafen, Dortmund, Dresden, Duesseldorf, Frankfurt/cock, Frankfurt/Main, Hamburg, Hanover, herring village, yard Plauen, Karlsruhe bathing bathing, Kiel, Cologne Bonn, Leipzig-resound, Luebeck, Moenchengladbach, Munich, cathedral Osnabrück, new Brandenburg, Niederrhein Weeze, Nürnberg, Paderborn Lippstadt, Rostock Laage, Saarbruecken, Schwerin Parchim, Siegerland, Stuttgart, Westerland Sylt, Zweibrücken. There are still some further airports (e.g. Bayreuth, meal, Kassel and Madgeburg), at which however contrary to specified the above no line and/or overall air passage traffic take place.

The airports italically placed are considered asInternational airports, the remaining are regional airports.

Between regional airports and international airports a difference exists in the legal sense. With an international airport the federation did not recognize the need, with a regional place. Thus pilots that sit on an international airportDFS, at a regional place pilot (Einzelbauftragte) of the country. At the regional places may be flown nevertheless naturally also internationally.

functions of airports

Intermodale traffic route

airports link country and air-lateral Verkehrsträger, which becomeas intermodale traffic route (dtsch.Linkage of different kinds of traffic) designates. The Modal Split gives here information over the portions of the different Verkehrsträger of the traffic volume and/or. the traffic capacity. Landlaterally airports with the motorized individual traffic (WCO) can over a road binding andPark area, the ÖPNV (regular bus, road, underground), which seeming local passenger traffic (S and regional courses) as well as the rail long-distance passenger traffic (IC/EC/ICE) are interlaced. One can between the infrastructural linkage (physical) on the one hand, and which intermodalen service chain on the other hand differentiate. First is well developed with the airports in Germany,the latter hardly available. ?

Abfertigung eines Flugzeuges auf dem Flughafen von Oslo im Winter.
Dispatching of an airplane on the airport of Oslo in the winter.
Loading and refuelling an airplane on the airport Cologne Bonn

from the linkage of earthbound traffic (railway, road) and air traffic result for passengersand freight four possible Verkehrsrichtungen:

Surface-to-surface
surface-to-air (takeoff)
air-to-surface (arrival)
air-to-air (transit)

surface-to-surface traffic can be neglected here, since it is of great importance generally not on airports. An example is the airport Frankfurt, a far from and a regional stationwith transfer possibility possesses. The substantial traffic-steering tasks of an airport exist in the completion of arrival, takeoff and transit of passengers and freight.

For this the airport must make a sufficient infrastructure available depending upon arising. Contain parking lots for short and Dauerparker,Taxi and bus stops, luggage and passenger steering element mechanisms, tariff and passport control plants and safety devices.

purchase and supply

a further not function completely unimportant for an airport their company exists or of in the supply of the waiting or through traveler passengers as well asother visitors. Therefore each airport offers a various catering trade and numerous purchase possibilities. Distinctive between a purchase in for all accessible business and a purchase into the duty free shops, which offer duty-free goods for internationally travelers of passengersand by the treasury as specially-territorial area to be regarded. This range is not accessible for visitors of the airport and for passengers, who only national on the way are.

organization of an airport

Prinzipieller Aufbau eines Flughafens

the Organisaton of an airport leaves itself in principle in onelandlateral and a air-lateral range divide. The entrance is strictly supervised in both directions. In the accompanying diagram the red line marks before ramps this boundary.

  • Landlaterally close parking lots, bus or streetcar stops, taxi conditions and possibly. a station directly onthe terminal on. The terminal again consists those of two departments, by tariff and passport checks is of each other separate (completely pulled through, red line). All passengers and also the flying personnel must happen before boarding these barriers. In the front, forall accessible part of the terminal takes place the ticket delivery, the ticket reservation, the Gepäckaufgabe and the Securitycheck. This procedure calls itself “einchecken”. Since often waiting periods develop here and also visitors and member have admission, various offer a multiplicity of small shops, travel agencies,Restaurant and lunch conditions their goods on. After crossing the tariff and passport checks, internationally travelers enter the duty free zone, in which a duty-free purchase is possible. The terminal is then left after the call to boarding over the respective gate.
  • The air-lateral range covers all parts of an airport, which are accessible for airplanes, like start - and runways (English. runway, RWY), runways (English. taxiway, TWY), apron (English. apron), ramps and hangars. The movement ofVehicles each kind and of airplanes within this range becomes by roll control (English. ground control) or of the control tower (English. more tower) (for the RWY) visually and by means of radar supervises. A small part of the apron stands on airportsas stop surface for general aviation (English. General aviation, GA) for the order. The pilots and passengers from this not commercial range leave the apron over the GAT (general aviation terminal), a kind side entrance and arrive thereby finallyafter tariff and visa control likewise into the terminal.


economics

airports offer a large economical potential for the region by suppliers, transport of persons and goods, stimulation of the job market and purchasing power absorption of the through travelers or remaining tourists.

Forairports lain in the city (z. B.Hamburg-Fuhlsbuettel, Berlin Tempelhof or London town center) result special economic aspects. They can block on the one hand trade areas in the city, promote on the other hand than traffic junction also the economy. The offers of small airlines and general aviation co-ordinated with itat such places by the business public and is thereby also a weighty location advantage is used in particular.

environment

Nachtflugbeschränkungen und Flugverbot an deutschen Flughäfen
restrictions of night flight and grounding at German airports

aircraft noise particularly developing with the takeoff loads the neighbors of airports heavily. For aircraft noise is characteristic that the acoustic irradiation predominantly takes place from above. Therefore a screen is not possible by barriers, as for example different buildings, barriers or Hauswände. Retreat possibilities within the dwelling into less loud area, like e.g. into the calmer bedroom at the backthe house are missing. External living ranges, like terraces and gardens, can be protected only passively by a spacer enlargement to the airport effectively from aircraft noise.

Night flight traffic particularly stands under the suspicion, to substantial health dangers (disturbance of the immune system, disturbance of the memory functions, blood high pressureto lead etc.). Particularly for night flight traffic it is accepted by critics that the economical damage exceeds the use of the night flights. Considering the many, factors which can be measured partially heavily is naturally also critical such a statement of regarding. Whohowever ever some time in the predominantly used takeoff zone of an airport was, can vestehen the displeasure of the population.


In the last years large efforts toward the reduction of the noise load become by active and passive measures of all involved ones by air traffic undertaken:

  • Development of noise-reduced airplanes by the manufacturers
  • steeper takeoff landings and takeoffs, in order to reduce here by rapid height gain (- loss) the sound pressure (there is however only very little clearance, since these criteria are specified by the I.C.A.O. (e.g.ILS approach 3 degree))
  • Variation of the takeoff landings and takeoffs
  • freiwillige restrictions of night flight of the airports
  • temporal operating restrictions for loud of airplanes
  • noise-differentiated landing duties as user advantage for low-noise airplanes to induce around the airlines in the self-interest to the purchase from noiseless airplanes to
  • freiwillige of sound-insulating window programs thatAirports
  • additional stationary aircraft noise monitoring devices in the environment of airports, around constant control and documentation of the current noise load to receive
  • planerische measures, like the appointment from ranges of restriction of settlement


settlement and traffic policy play a substantial role for the extent of the noise pollution. SomeGerman airports were far away any residential zone settled with its first permission start-up. In these cases the actual cause for the noise problems in the local land development politics is to be looked for, near-handing those in the course of the decades one ever closer to the airportsResidential zone permitted. Others, also in the meantime very large airports such as Berlin Tegel or Hamburg-Fuhlsbuettel, were put on in the middle than small airfields in settlement areas and continued to develop always debited to the residential zone.

The building of airports leads because of large area requirements and thatto expecting impairments of humans and nature again and again to substantial protests and too much lengthy planning procedures. Most well-known example of protests against airport extensions in Germany is the fight against the runway west Frankfurt airport for the 1980er years.

airport security

Kontrolle am Flughafen Berlin- Schönefeld, Gate easyJet
control at the airport Berlin-Schönefeld, Gate easyJet

an important function on each airport is nowadays the airport security, which can experience each passenger at the own body, if he goes before the flight through the intensified security checks.Particularly strict controls take place for flights with the Destinationen the USA and Israel .

large airports world-wide

the largest airport with six start/runways the O'Hare is international air haven in Chicago in the USA. The airport with thatlargest passenger arising is however the Hartsfield Jackson international air haven in Atlanta, the USA, with 84 millions Passengers annually (2004). World-wide one gets the largest number of international connections from the airport Frankfurt/Main out, during the airport London Heathrow most international flight movementsand passenger numbers exhibits.

traffic volume


world comparison

of passengers (2004)

1. Atlanta/Hartsfield 83.606.583
2. Chicago/O'Hare 75.533.822
3. London Heathrow 67.344.045
4. Tokyo/Haneda 62.291.405
5. Of Los Angeles 60.688.609
6. Dallas/Fort Worth 59.412.217
7. Paris Charles De Gaulle 51.260.363
8. Frankfurt Rhine Main airport 51.106.647
9. Amsterdam Schiphol 42.541.180
10. Denver 42.393.766
11. Vegas/Mc Carran read 41.441.531
12. Phoenix/Sky Harbor 39.504.898
13. Madrid Barajas 38.704.731
14. Bangkok 37.960.169
15. New York/John F. Kennedy 37.518.143
16. Minneapolis/pc. Paul 36.713.173
17. Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok 36.711.920
18. Houston/George Bush Intercont. 36.506.116
19. Detroit/Wayne 35.187.517
20. Peking 34.883.190
21. San Francisco 32.247.746
22. New York/Newark 31.947.266
23. London Gatwick 31.461.454
24. Orlando 31.143.388
25. Tokyo/Narita 31.057.252
26. Singapore/Changi 30.353.565
27. Miami 30.165.197
28. Seattle 28.804.554
29. Toronto PearsonInt'l air haven 28.615.709
30. Philadelphia 28.507.420
31. Rome Fiumicino 28.118.899
32. Sydney 26.983.107
33. Munich FJS 26.814.505
34. Bad clay/tone 26.142.516
35. Jakarta Soekarno Hatta 26.083.267
36. Charlotte Douglas 25.534.374
37. Barcelona 24.550.949
38. New York/LaGuardia 24.435.661
39. Seoul/Incheon 24.235.089
40. Paris Orly 24.053.215

source: ACI (see link list)

European comparison

of passengers in millions (2004)

1. London Heathrow 67.3
2. Paris Roissy Charles De Gaulle 51.3
3. Frankfurt Rhine Main airport 51.1
4. Amsterdam Schiphol 42.5
5. Madrid Barajas 38.5
6. London Gatwick 31.5
7. Rome Fiumicino 28,1
8. Munich 26.8
9. Barcelona 24.5
10. Paris Orly 24.0
11. Manchester 21.5
12. London Stansted 20.9
13. Palma de Mallorca Son San Juan 20.4
14. Copenhagen Kastrup air haven 19.0
15. Milan Malpensa 18.6
16. Zurich 17.3
Die größten Flughäfen in Europa - Passagiere 2003 in Millionen
the largest airports in Europe- Passengers 2003 in millions

Germany comparison

passengers

commercially (2005)

IVF = international airport; RF = regional airport

1. Frankfurt/Main (IVF) 52.219.412
2. Munich (IVF) 28.619.427
3. Duesseldorf (IVF) 15.510.990
4. Berlin Tegel (IVF) 11.532.302
5. Hamburg (IVF) 10.676.016
6. Cologne/Bonn (IVF) 9.452.185
7. Stuttgart (IVF) 9.405.887
8. Hanover (IVF) 5.637.385
9. Berlin-Schönefeld (IVF) 5.075.172
10. Nuremberg (IVF) 3.843.710
11. Frankfurt cock (IVF) 3.076.823
12. Leipzig/resounds (IVF) to 2.122.233
13. Dresden (IVF) 1.782.901
14. Dortmund (RF) 1.742.911
15. Bremen (IVF) 1.739.797
16. Münster/Osnabrück (IVF) 1.540.656
17. Paderborn/Lippstadt (RF) 1.342.000
18. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden (RF) 712,000
19. Luebeck (RF) 710,000
20. Friedrichshafen (RF) 596,000
21. Weeze (RF) 588,000
22. Berlin Tempelhof (IVF) 545,600
23. Saarbruecken (IVF) 486,320
24. Erfurt (IVF) 438.912
25. Rostock (RF) 175,000
26. Old person castle (RF) 118,000

air freight

in tons (2005) (only international airports)

1. Frankfurt 1.892.098
2. Cologne/Bonn 650,949
3. Munich 208,662
4. Cock 107,302
5. Duesseldorf 57,459
6. Hamburg 24,990
7. Stuttgart 17,305
8. Berlin Tegel 12,288
9. Leipzig/resounds to 12,052
10. Nuremberg 12,034
11. Berlin-Schönefeld 10,295
12. Hanover 6,551
13. Erfurt 4,855
14. Bremen 776
15. Berlin Tempelhof 573
16. Dresden 441
17. Münster/Osnabrück 62
18. Dortmund 58
19. Saarbruecken 54

entire

inTraffic units (2005)

according to one passenger or 100 kg of freight

1. Frankfurt 71.140.392
2. Munich 30.706.047
3. Duesseldorf 16.085.580
4. Cologne/Bonn 15.961.675
5. Berlin Tegel 11.655.182
6. Hamburg 10.925.916
7. Stuttgart 9.578.937
8. Hanover 5.702.895
9. Berlin-Schönefeld 5.178.122
10. Cock 4.149.843
11. Nuremberg 3.964.050
12. Leipzig/resounds to 2.242.753
13. Dresden 1.787.311
14. Bremen 1.747.557
15. Dortmund 1.743.491
16. Münster/Osnabrück 1.541.276
17. Berlin Tempelhof 551,330
18. Erfurt 487,462
19. Saarbruecken 486,860

source: Automatic data processing (see link list)

Switzerland comparison

of passengers in millions (2005)

1. Zurich 17,88
2. Geneva 9.41
3. Basel Mulhouse Freiburg 3.32
4. Lugano Agno 0.19
5. Berne Belp 0.10
6. St.Gallen Altenrhein 0.11

Austria comparison

of passengers in millions (2005)

1. Vienna Schwechat 16  
2. Salzburg 1.7
3. Graz Thalerhof 0.89
4. Innsbruck crane requests 0.72
5. Linz Blue Danube air haven 0.84
6. Complaint ford/word ago lake 0.52

naming

airports are marked by their individual three-figure IATA Flughafencode or the I.C.A.O. four digit code (location indicator).

Each airport has in addition still another own individual name designation. The designation after famous localor national famous persons was in former times just as common, as also an auxiliary designation, which gives an additional indication for the location of the airport. The tendency goes in the meantime to the designation to persons.

The airport Cologne Bonn has today the name “Konrad Adenauer”

airportswith further place names are today still:

  • Ansterdam Schiphol
  • Copenhagen Kastrup
  • Leipzig-resounds
  • cathedral Osnabrück
  • Paderborn Lippstadt

many more common is in the meantime airport with names like e.g. John F. Kennedy internationally air haven (New York town center), airport Franz Josef bunch (Munich), AéroportCharles de Gaulle (Paris - Roissy), Havanna airport Jose Marti, Aéroport Saint Exupéry (Lyon - Satolas), Nikola Tesla air haven (Belgrade), aero postage Santos Dumont (Rio de Janeiro) or international airport Johannes Paul II. Krakau Balice (Krakau).

trivia

  • the tiefstgelegene airport the world is Amsterdam ski pole, that approx. under the sea surface is to 4 m.
  • The high-altitude airport of the world is international the El Alto air haven in La Paz, Bolivia with 4.048 m and. NN.
  • The runway of the airport in Gibraltar is crossed by a public road, which is locked off with flying operation with a barrier. The road is the only connection from the mainland to the peninsula.

literature

  • Andreas Fecker - airports, GeraMond publishing house, Munich.ISBN 3765472379
  • Ashford, Norman; H. P. Martin Stanton; Clifton A. Moorlands - air haven operation, McGraw Hill (1997). ISBN 0-070-03077-4
  • brook man, P. - International airports of Europe: Plans - data - facts, Stuttgart: Engine book (1997). ISBN 3-613-01649-4.
  • Olive Hengstenberg; Bernd Burkhard Borys; Thomas's C. Gudehus - cooperative airport enterprise, Kassel: Kassel university press GmbH, 2003. ISBN 3-89958-026-5
  • Wolfgang Kühr - the private airplane leader, air right, air traffic and air traffic control regulations, volume 5 1983. ISBN 3-921-270-13-8


see also:

Web on the left of

Commons: Air haven - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Airport - word origin, synonyms and translations


This article or section is still incomplete and exhibits the following gaps :

Expiration of startsand landings (organizational), building of airports (e.g. Runways, buildings), navigational mechanisms
Help Wikipedia, by extending it and working on him now!

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)