Airplane

an airplane is a guidable aircraft, which uses primarily aerodynamic lift.

Contrary to the aircraft such as balloons or airships, which use the static lift, the lift develops with airplanes only if air the firm ormobile bearing areas flows around. The principle of the aerodynamic flight is carried out by different building methods, it is common to which that the air flow leads relative to the carrying organs to a dynamic lift.


modern large-capacity aircraft (airbus A380)

F-16C Fighting Falcon of the USAF

glider ASH 25

table of contents

types of aircraft

rigid wing airplanes

Dornier DO 228

with rigid wing airplanes becomes the lift -the forward movement of the aircraft - by the air flow at the bearing areas produces. In accordance with the science of flow of Bernoulli, here 1/3 of the lift become by the positive pressure at the lower surface and 2/3 of the lift by negative pressure (suction) at the top side of the profileproduced. The wings do not have to be rigid, then tiltable wings (variable sweep) are partly used, which are adapted to the airspeed, e.g. with the combat aircraft Tornado.

In the broader sense also aircraft with perfectly flexible bearing areas use the rigid wing principle, how slide- and engine screens, as well as with detachable bearing areas as with hanging gliders. Many round-canopy parachutes, in particular brake parachutes and drop brakes (English. case more retarder), are not guidable and therefore not to the airplanes are counted.

Ground effect vehicles compress air under a bearing areaand are thereby nothing else as deeply flying rigid wing airplanes.

sweep engine screen hanging glider

ground effect vehicle

[work on] of rotary-wing aircraft Bell UH-1,

one of the most well-known helicopters with rotary-wing aircraft in form of a horizontal rotor. The air flowover the rotor blades results from the combination of the rotating motion of the rotor and the airstream from independent movement and wind.

Helicopters

helicopters possess one or more propelled (almost) horizontal rotors, which produce lift and propulsion. The regulation lifttaken place via collective rotor blade adjustment, the lateral movement (forward/backwards as well as since waiting flight) by the cyclic rotor blade adjustment (see also swash plate).

Autogyro

with the autogyro, also „autogiro” mentioned, provides by the wind, not by an engine, in autorotation propelled rotor for thatLift. The rotor replaces thereby functionally the rigid wing of the wing airplane. For the propulsion a course or a thrust engine must provide.

Aerogyros

aerogyros produce the lift over one by an engine propelled for rotor and the propulsion over thrust or course engines. Those Speed of a helicopter is limited however not by propulsion lacking of the rotor, but by its aerodynamics. Therefore, after some early drafts, never pure aerogyros were realized, but always also assigned , thus it concerns bearing areas combination aerogyros.

hybrids from trick and rigid wing airplane

compound helicopter

compound helicopter are a combination of helicopter and rigid wing airplane. They possess one or more rotors, which produce up and propulsion, as well as firm wing, also in the form ofStub wings, which take over a part of the lift during the cruising. During the hovering flight these bearing areas reduce however the efficiency of the main rotor, since they are in its descending wind.

Combination aerogyros

combination aerogyros, also „Compounds” mentioned, combine likewise rotary wings and rigid wings, however that becomesPropulsion (only) with the main rotor does not produce. With the vertical take-off the rotor takes over the lift, with the cruising takes over thrust or course engines the propulsion, bearing areas and if necessary. standing rotors the lift. The rotor can with the cruising partly adjusted to low resistance andto be uncoupled or as additional bearing area used (e.g.Boeing X-50 and Sikorsky X-wing). Since the lift in the forward flight is not produced (only) by the turning rotor, are higher flight performances than possible with the helicopter.

Wandelflugzeug

of Wandelflugzeuge, also as vertiplanes or Combihelicopters designation, use the configuration of a helicopter with the vertical take-off. During the transition to the forward flight they are umkonfiguriert to the Starrflügler. They combine in such a way advantages of rotary-wing aircraft and Starrflügler. The transformation takes place usually via dumps of the rotor, which works then as course engine - Tilt-rotor or Tiltrotor mentioned (e.g. Bell Boeing V-22). To the Wandelflugzeugen also Kippflügel belongs -, swinging rotor, stowed rotor and stop rotor airplanes. Most by jet engines not propelled VTOL aircraft (VTOL - airplanes) belong to the Wandelflugzeugen.

move airplane Tiltrotor

Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey [

work on ] of rocker airplanes (Ornithopter) off such as bird wings on and, in order to produce lift and propulsion. They are called therefore partly also flutter wings. Particularly in the early periodaviation one tried to build rocker airplanes after the model of nature. It is not well-known that personbasic airplanes of this type flew so far, it gives however functional, remote controlled model - to Ornithopter.

of Rotorflugzeuge

a Rotorflugzeug possesses asCarrying organs Flettner rotors, which use the liking US effect. Momentarily Rotorflugzeuge do not have any practical meaning. Rotorflugzeuge may not be confounded with rotary-wing aircraft.

demarcation to the air cushion vehicle

the border between airplane and land vehicle and/or. Ship is reached with the Vollhovercraft. The air cushion vehiclethe aerodynamic lift and is therefore no airplane does not use. A hybrid between air cushion vehicle and ground effect vehicle is the American Hoverwing (the German model of same name is a pure ground effect vehicle). This can be assigned again to the rigid wing airplanes.

demarcationto the rocket

differently than the airplane the rocket flies ballistically, even if it can have aerodynamic control surfaces. These do not serve however the lift. A special case is the orbital glider, that usually in the ballistic flight starts and in the aerodynamic flightlands. It can be regarded as airplane.

structure

traditional is divided an airplane into the airframe with trunk, chassis, carrying and control mechanism as well as the engine and the operational equipment. For the setting up the components can different materials and construction principlesare used.

materials

of materials for airplanes should possess as large structural a firmness as possible, so that the weight of the airplane can be kept as small as possible. In principle are suitable in particular steel, light alloys, wood, paper, fabrics and plastics for the aircraft construction.While wood up to medium sizes was meaningfully used, the metal and composite construction become today general in the aircraft construction, with which different materials are combined in such a way that their characteristics optimize themselves in each case, preferred.

building methods

structures at airplanescan be realized by different building methods. While in the start times the building of frameworks was usually used, today the shell construction plays the outstanding role. In principle also a carrier design is possible, how it is often used with the wing unit. There are combinations also here.

the airframe

bearing area also around few degrees of driven out landing flaps

the airframe consists of the wing unit, the trunk or the cell, the tail unit, the control mechanism, the chassis with land planes and/or. the floatation gear with water airplanes. With VTOL aircraft can instead ofthe chassis or the floatation gear a skid-type landing gear available its.

Wing unit

the wing unit consists with rigid wing airplanes of wing, slat and landing flaps, with rotary-wing aircraft of one or more rotors.

Tail unit

the tail unit consists with rigid wing airplanes of the horizontal tail unit with the elevators andthe associated trim tabs, the vertical stabilizer with the rudder and the trim tab for it and the ailerons. With certain rotary-wing aircraft small rudders can be at the rotor blades. Also knows a tail rotor, a Fenestron or a Steuerdüse at the tail arm as toTail unit to be belonging regarded.

Control mechanism

the control mechanism or the control consists with the rigid wing airplane of the control stick or the steering shaft with control wheel or handwheel and the rudder control pedals, with which the control instructions are given. For the transmission of the control signals linkages, push pull cables can or tax hydraulics to be used. The steering shaft is replaced with some modern airplanes by the simmering stick (Fly by Wire).

With the helicopter corresponding, these applies possesses however instead of the control stick or the steering shaft a sheet adjusting lever to the collective rotor blade adjustment and oneControl stick for the cyclic rotor blade adjustment.

Trunk

the trunk of an airplane is the central design feature of most airplanes. To the trunk the airframe is attached, and accommodated beside the pilot also a majority of the operational equipment. With a passenger airline the trunk takesthe passengers up. Often also the chassis is totally or partly at the trunk. The engines can be integrated into the trunk. With Flugbooten the lower part of the trunk is implemented in a boat form for the splash-down.

One differentiates between different hull forms.Today round of fuselage cross-sections is the rule, if the machine possesses a pressurized cabin. Freight machines often possess a rectangular fuselage cross-section, in order to optimize the load volume. Most airplanes possess a trunk, it give however also machines with two trunks lying side by side, a double trunk,or without visible trunk, a kind of the flying wing.

Chassis

the chassis makes possible for an airplane to landing and to starting. Chassis become into a rigid chassis, which maintains its position also during the flight invariably, and a retractable landing gear, forwardsand after the takeoff or the landing to be drawn in and if necessary by main gear sliding doors taken off can, divided. Retractable undercarriages are essential with airplanes with high terminal velocity. As chassis form the nose gear wheel chassis comes to the employment, with a small wheel under the airplane front part attachedand the main landing gear behind the airplane emphasis lies. This makes good view possible for the pilot during rolling at the soil. The tail chassis with a small wheel in the tail or a sharpening spur is today still used hardly. A characteristic is thatTandem chassis, equally large with which landing gear parts carrying the main load are at the trunk in front and in the back and which is stabilized airplane by gange wheels at the wing unit.

the engine

the engine of an airplane covers oneor several engines (in general. same design) with accessories. The most frequent building methods are:Piston motor or gas turbine (turbo-prop.) with propeller, jet engines like the turbofan, rare ram-jet engine and rocket engine.

To the accessories belong the fuel system and - lines, if necessary. one Lubrication plant, engine cooling, engine support and cowl.


the operational equipment

operational equipment: Cockpit DO 228

the operational equipment of an airplane covers all on-board components of an airplane, those not to airframe and engine belongs and to safe executiona flight are necessary. It consists of the components for the monitoring of flight attitude, flight and engine condition, for navigation, for communication, of utility systems, warning systems, safety equipment and if necessary optional equipment. The electronic part of the operational equipment is called also avionics.

ManyTechnical writers rank in the meantime the control mechanism or the control no longer to the airframe, but among the operational equipment, since with modern airplanes the control of the sensors of the operational equipment and of on-board computers is substantially affected.

bases: Lift and propulsion

lift

the lift becomes with the rigid wing airplane - and if one regards the rotors of a rotary-wing aircraft as rotary bearing areas, also with the rotary-wing aircraft - on the one hand by the form of the wing profile, on the other hand by the angle between the airstream and thatWing level (more exact: the profile chord line), the so-called angle of incidence (English: fish OF attack), determines. By increase of the angle of incidence with constant airspeed more air is diverted, the airplane rises downward upward.

Kräfte am Flugzeug
Forces at the airplane

in the horizontal flight with constant speed is the lift strength equal the force of gravity (equilibrium), in the climb however outweighs the lift strength. Additionally a resistance from the friction of air at the airplane outer skin, which must be overcome by the drive, results. With rigid wing airplanes the wing sections in that becomeRule so laid out that the resistance is as large as possible as small as possible, but the lift. Also the trunk makes a small contribution to the lift. With the Lifting Body (carrying trunk) airplanes mentioned is aerodynamically in such a way formed the trunk that it the principal partthe lift takes over.

connection between lift to move propulsion and

air resistance around itself forward must produce the airplane by means of the drive propulsion, in order to overcome the resistance, which restrains the free forward movement. The air resistance of an airplane is on the one hand on the form drag, also parasitic resistance , dependent mentioned under the friction of air at the body of the airplane and on the other hand on the lift. („Induced”) the part of air resistance dependent on the lift (company) is called induced resistance. During itself that parasitic resistance with increasing airspeed exponentially increased, is reduced the induced resistance, likewise exponentially. The resulting total resistance leads during the flight to a loss of energy, which must become balanced by energy input (fuel, sun or wind energy), in order to continue the flight. Is thosesupplied energy more largely than the total resistance, is accelerated the airplane. This acceleration can be converted also in height gain (principle of conservation of energy).

For the aerodynamic quality of an airplane both a favorable coefficient of drag ( C W is relevant - value) and with the motor vehicle,like also the relationship of the coefficient of drag (Cw) to the coefficient of lift (approx.), the lift/drag ratio E.

One calls the connection between the coefficient of drag and the coefficient of lift of a certain wing profile and thus its aerodynamic characteristic the profile-polar, explained in the clockface diagram after Otto Lilienthal.

From thisthe lift formula results: Company = approx. * q * A

as well as the resistance formula: L.G. = Cw * q * A,

whereby approx. and Cw for the factors of lift and resistance, q for stagnation pressure (dependent on speed and atmospheric pressure)and A for the reference area stands.

airspeed and Flugenveloppe

one can differentiate between the following expressions for speeds:

  • Indicated speed (English: indicated air speed, IAS)
  • calibrated speed (English: calibrated air speed, CAS), is around thatIntrumentenfehler corrected IAS.
  • Protects speed (English: true air speed, TAS), is the CAS corrected around the atmospheric pressure in larger flight altitude.
  • Speed above ground (English: ground speed, gs), is the TAS corrected around the wind.
  • Equivalenzgeschwindigkeit (English: equivalent airspeed, EAS), is the TAS Mach number corrected around
  • the compressibility (English: Mach NUMBER, MN), is expressed a EAS, by a multiple of the speed of sound.

The pilot gets the speed over his airspeed indicator opposite surrounding air indicated. This becomesfrom static and dynamic pressure at the pitot tube of the airspeed indicator determines. This indicated speed (indicated air speed, shortened IAS) depends on the atmospheric pressure and thus the flight altitude. The IAS is relevant for the lift and has therefore thosegreatest importance for the pilots. In modern cockpits the IAS is corrected computationally around the Intrumentenfehler and indicated as CAS.

The possible speed range of an airplane as a function of the flight altitude is represented by the Flugenveloppe. The lower limit becomes therebyrepresented by the Überziehgeschwindigkeit, the upper border of reaching the firmness borders. With airplanes, which can reach the high under achievement of its drive the range of the speed of sound, which are however not designed for supersonic flights, lie it in a certain distancebelow the speed of sound.

How quickly an airplane flies related to the speed of sound is represented, by the Mach number. Designated after the Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, is equated the Mach number 1 of the speed of sound. Modern airliners with jet engine are in general.optimized for speeds (IAS) of Mach 0.74 to 0,90.

So that the bearing area produces sufficiently lift, the minimum speed is needed at least. It is called also Überziehgeschwindigkeit, because when its falling below an flow separation (English: stable) takes place and the resistance stronglyrises, while the lift breaks down. The Überziehgeschwindigkeit is reduced, if high lift assistance (like landing flaps) drove out.

With the rotary-wing aircraft the airspeed is limited by the aerodynamics of the rotor blades: On the one hand the blade tips can reach the supersonic range, on the other hand one it can during the return to Flow separation come - see Hubschrauber#Flugleistungen. In addition the drive power which can be installed related to the mass of the rotary-wing aircraft rises superproportionally to the possible maximum speed.

Airplanes to start and land favourable-prove against the wind. Thus the indicated speed contributing to the lift becomes larger thanthe speed above ground, with the consequence that substantially shorter starting and landing distances are used than with tail wind.

there are kinds

of the propulsion for the production of the propulsion different possibilities, according to whether and which means with whichForce production and - transmission principle to be used are:

without propulsion

with gliders, hanging gliders and paragliders the propulsion is ensured also without propulsion, since existing height can be converted low-loss into speed. The height gain effected through hoist-drag, dragging airplanes or upwinds(e.g. Thermionics or slope and wave upwinds).

Propellers in connection with muscle power

an extreme form of the propeller drive place so-called. Muscle power airplanes (HPA): A muscle power airplane is propelled only with the help of the muscle power of the pilot, under utilization of the sliding qualities of the airplane construction, those understandablyto be extremely easy must.

Propeller in connection with an electric motor

a propeller can be propelled also by an electric motor. This drive system is used particularly with solar airplanes and with model airplanes.

Propeller in connection with piston motors

propellers in connection with piston motorswere up to the development of the gas turbine the usual drive system. As practical power limit for aircraft engines of this kind 4,000 HP (2,940 KW) were regarded, as attainable speed of 750 km/h. Today this drive system for sport airplanes and smaller in to twin-engine airplanes are usual.Due to the special requirements of the security of the engines special aircraft engines are used.

Propulsion with the helicopter

with helicopters that or the main rotors provide by the cyclic rotor blade adjustment for the propulsion (see swash plate). Helicopters of piston motors are propelled, usuallybut, because of the smaller weight per horsepower, from gas turbines, their achievement over the turbine shaft removed (wave achievement engine) and over transmission on main and if necessary. Tail rotor is transferred. A tip jet was used rarely, with that compressed air at the endthe rotor blade leaks out. With model helicopters also electric motors are used.

Turbo-prop.

of propeller turbine engines - short turbo-prop. - are used for short and regional air service aircrafts, military transport aircrafts, sea-monitoring airplanes and in or twin-engine business aircraft in the subsonic region. Advancements for the future use in airlinersand military transport aircrafts are „Unducted propfan”, also „Unducted fan” (UDF) mentioned and „Shrouded propfan” (e.g. MTU CRISP).

Turbojet

of turbojets are used for modern fast airplanes to near the Transschallgeschwindigkeitsbereich (transsonic speed range) or also for speeds in the Transschall and supersonic range.For flights within the range of supersonic speed turbojets often possess an afterburning for the achievement increase.

Ram-jet engine

of ram-jet engines were used historically in form of the Verpuffungsstrahltriebwerks as predecessors of the rocket engines for cruise missiles, today as valveless ram-jet engines for hypersonic speeds. Combinations of turbojet alsoAfterburning and ram-jet engine are called turbo-ram-jet engine or turbo-RAM jet.

Rocket engines

of rocket engines are used so far only with experimental airplanes.

Boosters

by the propulsion and particularly the lift when starting from STOL airplanes to to increase, became occasionally also boosters in the form of jet engines (example: Variantsthe Fairchild C-123) or steam rockets assigned.

flight control

the flight control (English: flight control) covers the entire system for the control of airplanes around all 3 space axes. In addition belongs beside the control surfaces and the control members in the Pilotenkanzelalso the transmission of the tax inputs.

axles

axles of an airplane

for the description of the control are designated axles: Transverse axis (English. „pitch”), longitudinal axis (English. „roll”), and vertical axis (English. „yaw”). Each axle is with a 3-Achs-gesteuerten rigid wing airplane one or more control surfacesassigned. A 2-Achs-Steuerung e.g. does without. on ailerons or rudders, which missing component replaced by the natural stability.

control surfaces and Steuerdüsen

the control can take place with the rigid wing airplane via different components: Rudder and flaps, jet flaps slot nozzles mentioned, by thatAdjust from thrust vectors (jet engines, with which the exhaust gas jet can be moved in different directions), by twisting of the wings and tail units or also by Gewichtsverlagerung. With the helicopter becomes with the help of the rotor blade adjustment and the controlling of a possibly existing tail rotor or Fenestronsor a nozzle at the tail arm steered. With all other airplanes all aforementioned control possibilities can be used. With the VTOL aircraft come as further control possibilities in particular into the schwebe and Transitionsflug tilting and/or. Swivel from rotors or jet engines in addition.

Ruder als Steuerflächen
Rudder as control surfaces

The control of rigid wing airplanes is represented by the example of the control over rudders:

  • Aileron at the rear end of the bearing area steers the roll attitude, thus the turn around the longitudinal axis, rolling.
  • Elevator at the rear end of the airplane adjusts the pitch attitude, also Nodding or tilting mentioned, as the angle of incidence is changed.
  • Rudder - with the conventional rigid wing airplane at the rear end of the airplane - serves the lateral control, also turns or craving mentioned.
  • Trim tabs at the elevator serve the pitch trim.
  • Spoilers serve the delimitation of the speedin descending flight and the reduction of the lift.

The airplane can turn simultaneously around or several of these axles.

The elevator is usually in the back attached at the fuselage, likewise the rudder, this combination as tail unit is designated. Deviating from it can the altitude control also in front platziert its (CAN pool of broadcasting corporations).

Height and rudders can be also combined as with the V-tail unit.

The function of the ailerons can be replaced by excursion moving in opposite directions of the elevators.

All kinds of trim tabs serve the stabilization of the airplane situation andfacilitate the flight control for the pilot. With modern airplanes the autopilot takes over control of the trim tabs.

The high lift assistance are used when starting, in the climb and for the approach flight. At the rear edge of the wings the rear edge lift assistance or final flaps (flaps) are, inContrast to the rudders always synchronously at both wings to be used. Larger airplanes and STOL airplanes wear usually also still nose lift assistance in the form of slats (Slats), Krügerklappen or leading-edge slats (tilting noses), similarly to the landing flaps which were because of the rear bearing area edgedrive out for the front bearing area edge. The curvature of the wing section can be changed by the flaps in such a way that the outline speed is lowered and also with the slow approach flight or in the climb the lift remains.

For the delimitation of the speed in descending flight becomeon the bearing areas uses attached so-called brake/spoilers, „spoilers” mentioned. In the driven out condition they decrease the lift at the bearing areas (Strömungsablösung). By the reduced lift a steeper approach flight is possible. Spoilers become also the support - in certainFlying ranges also as replacement for - aileron uses. After the landing the spoilers are fully driven out, so that it can work no more (more positively) lift. This is done usually via an automatism, that among other things with bouncing the main landing gearthe landing one introduces.

There are also control surfaces with repeated functions:

like suggested, before also special forms exist to airplane apart from the conventional arrangement of the control surfaces:

Control members

of control members are those levers and pedals, which can to be operated in the Pilotenkanzel by the pilot and for the controlling of the airplane serve.

Control sticks, control wheel or simmering stick

control stick, control wheel or simmering stick serve the roll attitude and the pitch attitude for the control andsteer the aileron and the elevator.

The control wheel is a control unit, which is central arranged before the pilot and had handles for both hands.

A simmering stick is a control stick, which not central before the pilot, butis laterally arranged; it can be served therefore with only one hand.

Rudder control pedals

the pedals for lateral control operate the rudder and usually at the soil also the brakes. With gliders the brakes (if available) become usually by pullingthe air brake lever operates.

Serve

trim of the trim concerning two axles

  • for the pitch trim: a trim wheel or a trim lever to the reconciliation from head or tail heavy
  • to the side trim: a rudder-trim to reconciliation with lateral force differences, e.g. with multi-engine airplanes for the compensation of an engine breakdown

signal transmission

the transmission of the control signals can take place

instruments for recognizing the situation in the area

its situation in the areathe pilot recognizes either by observation of the details of the overflown area and the horizon or by indicating instruments (foilborne). With poor visibility the artificial horizon serves the announcement of the flight attitude regarding the pitch axis, thus the angle of incidence of theFuselage and concerning the roll axis, the so-called roll attitude (bank situation). The sky direction, to which the airplane flies, shows the magnetic compass and the gyroscope compass, also course indicators (after the English designation „directional gyro”) mentioned. Magnetic compass and course indicator complement each other mutually,there the magnetic compass with sinking, climbing and turning flights to trick and acceleration errors does not bend, the course indicator however. The course indicator has however no own „northlooking for” characteristic and must at least before the start (in practice also in regular intervals with the straight flight)with the magnetic compass to be calibrated. The turn and slip indicator serves the direction of rotation for the announcement and for the measurement of the rotating speed of the airplane around the vertical axis (English. guess OF turn). It mostly contains a ball spirit level, which indicates, how coordinates a curve is flown.

For the altitude control at least two instruments are important: The absolute height regarding the sea level is represented over the barometric altimeter, the relative change of the height, the so-called climbing rate and/or. Descent rate, expressed as difference in height per time unit, gets the pilotover the rate of climb indicator signals. Additionally with larger airplanes in the approach flight the relative height above ground is indicated over the radar altimeter.

further classifications

apart from the close lying classification after the building method or the drive system have themselves further classificationsestablished.

civilian ones or military use

of civil aircraft serve civilian aviation, in addition belong general aviation and the line and charter traffic by the airlines (airlines).

Military aircraft are airplanes, which are subject to the military use. Those is completely cleanNot to pull border however always. Many airplanes experience both military and civilian use.

classification after intended purpose

of civil aircraft are classified mainly according to the following pattern:

The first airplanes were experimental airplanes. Experimental airplanes, also attempt airplanes mentioned, serve thatInvestigate from techniques or testing research realizations within the range of aviation.

Very early in the history of the airplane also the sport airplanes developed. A sport airplane is a light airplane for the practice of a sporty activity, either for recovery or with onesporty match.

Still before the First World War it came to testing and to the building of the passenger airline. Passenger airlines serve the civilian transportation of passengers and also as airliner are designated. Today smaller passenger airlines are designated also than business aircraft.

An air freighter is inAirplane to the transport of (commercial) freight. Seats are therefore only for the crew inserted, usually contain them today a transport system for pallets and airplane containers.

A Unterkategorie of the air freighter is the Postflugzeug. Early Postflugzeuge could also the transport of individual personsserve.

For the range of the land and forestry special airplanes are used, the fertilizers, soil-improving materials and plant protection agents in containers to carry to be able and over spray nozzles, strewing plates or similar mechanisms to spread be able. They are generally called agricultural aircraft.

Fire-extinguishing airplanes,also „water bombers” mentioned, are airplanes, the water and delete additives in in or cultivated tanks to carry and over harming fires throw off can.

There are different different categories under the term medical airplane (officially „air rescue means” mentioned) such as Rettungshubschrauber, intensive transport helicopters, Notartzteinsatzhubschrauber or airplanesto the return of patients from the foreign country. Under the over term search and Rescue (SAR) fall airplanes, which for looking for and saving accident victims are used.

There are numerous special designs like e.g. A research flight witness with special equipment (special radar, photo cameras, otherSensors).

of military aircraft are differentiated according to the following intended purposes:

A fighter is primarily for fightother airplanes assigned military aircraft.

A bomber is a military airplane, which serves for it, ground targets with aerial bombs to attack air-to-surface rockets and cruise missiles.

A liaison aircraft is a small military aircraft, with which commanders are usually transported. In addition it can serve the battlefield clearing-up(today only with maneuvers), when smaller outpatient clinic airplane to serve or for messenger services are used. Today as liaison aircraft mostly light helicopters are used.

Air refueling designates the delivery of fuel from an airplane to another during the flight. Usually is thatAirplane, which makes the fuel available, a Tankflugzeug developed particularly for this task.

A reconnaissance plane is converted or equipped a military aircraft, which designs for the task, is to procure information for the military clearing-up. Sometimes reconnaissance planes become also asEspionage airplanes designates.

A ground combat aircraft is a military type of aircraft, which is intended particularly for the fight against ground targets. This type represents its own aircraft type, which is to fulfill completely specific tactical tasks. Since the attacks in low to middle flight altitudes take placeand on strong defense fire to count is, special preventive measures are seized, like armoring the cab and engines against soil fires. Transport aircrafts, which are equipped with laterally aligned automatic weapons or tube artillery, call themselves Gunship. Rotary-wing aircraft as ground combat aircraft become as „combat helicopters”designated.


A coach is an airplane, which is used for the training by pilots.

Transport aircrafts are special air freighters, which are developed for the military load transport. They must durably, reliably, variable for the person, material or freight transport suitably as well as fast in andunloadable its. To be transported can, also in combination, for example auxiliary goods, the parachutists, vehicles, tanks, troops or equipment.

The classification is not to be separated in practice always strictly between civilian and militarily, because some purpose can independently of the employment givenits. For example can freight and/or. Transport aircrafts depending upon freight, medical airplanes depending upon physician/patient and coach depending upon teacher/pupil both in the civilian and within the military range occur.

classification after structure of the airplane

of airplanes,the rigid wing possess, frequently also according to the number and situation of the wings to the trunk are categorized.

A Eindecker is an airplane with only one bearing area and/or. a pair wings. Eindecker again partitioned in

  • low-wing aircraft, with those thoseLower surface of the bearing area with the lower surface of the trunk locks;
  • Midwing monoplane, with which the bearing area is arranged in the center of the trunk sides;
  • Shoulder-wing monoplane, with which the bearing areas on or in the top side of the trunk are arranged;
  • Hochdecker,those the bearing area over the top side of the trunk are braced arranged.

double-decker is the name for an airplane, which possesses two vertically graduated arranged bearing areas. A special form of the double-decker is „the Anderthalbdecker one”. Around the time of theThe First World War were there also Dreidecker.

Twin-boom aircraft possess two trunks, it are to a certain extent the Katamarane under the airplanes. The cockpit pulpit is usually attached at the bearing area between trunks. Two trunks become in this case also asDouble tail boom marks. In rarer cases everyone of the two trunks a cockpit possesses.

Asymmetrical airplanes are a very rare type of aircraft, the bekannsteste copy are those Blohm & Voss BV 141 of 1938. Here is the airplane pulpit on the bearing area, duringthe propeller and engine alone occupy the trunk. The bearing areas are asymmetrically trained.

When an airplane designated CAN pool of broadcasting corporations or Entenflugzeug, with which the horizontal tail unit is not conventionally at the rear end of the airplane installed, but before the bearing area at thatAirplane nose; the flight picture reminds of a flying duck.

A only wing is an airplane without a separate elevator, with which there is no differentiation between bearing areas and trunk. Special forms of the flying wings are delta airplanes as well as hanging gliders. The trunk forms the floatand this no more does not have the typical dimensions of a wing, it than „Lifting Body” is designated.

a water airplane is an airplane, which for start and landing on water surfaces is designed. It has usually under each of the two bearing areas a light, boat-like float. With Flugbooten the entire trunk is buoyant.Water airplanes and Flugboote can start only from the water or land in the water. If these airplanes are provided with (usually retractable) chassis, with which they can start also from the country and land on the country, they are called amphibians.

starting and landing characteristics

of rigid wing airplanes and some types

of the rotary-wing aircraft a more or less prepared starting and runway of a certain length need Flugboot amphibian [work on]. The requirements reach from an even lawn without obstacles up to GET oresor concreted runway. Historically the GET ores runway was called in the procedure used at that time „Tarmac”.

Airplanes, which get along with particularly short starting and runways, become as short take-off and landing aircraft or STOL - airplanes types.

Airplanes, which can start and land perpendicularly, are VTOL aircraft or VTOL - Airplanes. They need no starting and runway, but only a firm underground of sufficient size, for which their weight can carry, and on that the descending wind, which is produced by the VTOL airplane (English. down wash-out), not too much damage arranges,e.g. a heli coil PAD.

VTOL airplanes, which start and land standing on the soil perpendicularly upward, are tail sitter aircraft.

unmanned airplanes

reconnaissance drone Luna of the German Federal Armed Forces

incivilian range are mostly common unmanned airplanes as model airplane and over radio telecontrol are steered, rarely over program controls. The combination of radio telecontrol and program control is more frequent with model helicopters, in which for example a gyroscope stabilization (gyroscope) intervenes.

As unmanned airplanes civilianUse in the broader sense also course kites can be regarded.

Unmanned airplanes in the military or national employment are called drones. The spectrum reaches here from model airplanes to the goal representation for air defense cannons over unmanned reconnaissance planes up to unmanned armed combat aircraft (combat drones). Innational range drones by police and tariff are used for the author search and pursuit, frequently with video and thermal image cameras, for which manned law enforcement helicopters are used. The control is made thereby likewise by radio far from or program control.

During drones usually re-usableare, unmanned airplanes also firmly inserted Sprengköpfen are called cruise missiles.

history

major item: History of aviation, chronology of aviation

the flight pioneers

1810 to 1811 designs Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger, the famous cutter ofUlm, its first airworthy glider, demonstrates it however the public over the Danube under unfavorable conditions (descending wind) and falls under the mockery of the people into the river. The fact that its airplane was airworthy was proven 1986.

The English scholarSir George Cayley (1773 to 1857) examined and described as the first in fundamental way the problems of the aerodynamic flight. It separated from the rocker flight and published 1809 to 1810 a suggestion for an aircraft „with employees surface anda propulsion mechanism”. It describes thereby as the first the principle of the modern rigid wing airplane. In the year 1849 he builds a manned Dreidecker, which flies a short distance.

1784 builds the Frenchmen Launoy and Biénvenue an early airworthy model helicopter with double rotor. Sir GeorgeCayley modifies the model 1796. These are the first well-known, admittedly primitive airworthy model helicopters with coaxial moving in opposite directions rotors. They were propelled with a twisting elbow, a control were not intended. 1842 build the Englishman W. H. The Phillips's first airworthyModel helicopter with tip jet. 1874 sketches Fritz and Wilhelm oh brook the first single-rotor helicopter with tail rotor to torque reconciliation. There is of it however no airworthy model.

, Like it Otto Lilienthal Otto Lilienthal
and Clement vein the flight pioneer

Otto Lilienthal flew glider models (1848 - 1896) it accomplished successful gliding flights according to the principle „more heavily than air” and differed from numerous forerunners by the fact that he tried not only one flight, but after detailed theoretical and practical pre-working clearly over 1.000 timesis gesegelt. The aerodynamic shaping of its wings he tested cyclic testing apparatus”, which was from the function a predecessor of the modern wind tunnels on its „.

Clement vein implemented the first (uncontrolled) motorized flight in history with its Eole. With thatEole concerned it a cantilever Nurflügel Eindecker, which was propelled by 4-Zylinder-Dampfmaschine an affecting a four-leaf propeller. The Eole main header to 9. October 1890 to their only flight off, flew approx. 50 m far, fell and becamedestroys.

The German-American flight pioneer Gustav white head is to have put one back of first steered powered flights in the year 1901 over a distance of a half mile. Unfortunately there was no photographic proof for this except testimonies.

To 18. August 1903 put Karl Jatho in a motorized Zweidecker a air route of approx. 18 meters back, with further attempts he reached even air routes of approx. 60 meters. The aircraft used by Jatho was not guidable however.

Wright Flyer
WRIGHT Flyer
of brothers WRIGHT

the outstanding achievementthe brothers WRIGHT consisted of as first an airplane to have built with a successful, continuous, steered powered flight was possible, and this powered flight to 17. December 1903 to have also accomplished. Beyond that they documented their flights in every detailand within short time in further flights the fitness of their airplane free of doubts proved. It is of outstanding importance that Orville WRIGHT could already fly 1904 with the WRIGHT Flyer a steered complete circle. At the edge it is noticed that the WRIGHT Flyer thatType after „CAN pool of broadcasting corporations” was, thus the altitude control before the main wing unit was.

Samuel Pierpont Langley, a secretary of the Smithsonian institute tried some weeks before the WRIGHT flight, its „Aerodrome” to flies to bring. Although its attempt failed, the Smithsonian institute statedsome time, the Aerodrome would be the first „flightworthy machine”. The WRIGHT Flyer was donated to the Smithsonian Institut with the edition that Institut was not allowed to recognize an earlier motorized flight. This edition was formulated by the founders, around the earlier representationthe institute, Langley would have accomplished first successful powered flight with the Aerodrome to prevent. This edition led again and again to the assumption that it had given successful attempts to Flyern before the WRIGHTs to powered flight, their acknowledgment however in connection withthe donation edition suppressed is.

The first power planes were mostly double-deckers. By way of trial also more than three bearing areas were arranged one above the other. Such Mehrdeckerkonstruktion came from the Englishman Horatio Frederick Phillips. With the Fünfzigdecker „Horatio Phillips No. ” succeeded to 2 to itin the summer 1907 first powered flight in England.

Blériot XI
first English Channel crossing

in the year 1909 set further practical milestones in the history of the airplane for Europe. To 25. July 1909 crossed Louis Blériot with its Eindecker Blériot XI as the first alsoan airplane the English Channel. Its flight from Calais to Dover took 37 minutes with an average flight altitude of 100 meters. Blériot could take thus the Mail for first channel crossing, DAILY of the English newspaper, against expenditure-praised interest on loan. With thatBlériot XI became their technical designer „father of the modern Eindecker”. The success of the machine made it the first commercial airplane manufacturer.

Of 22. up to 29. August 1909 found de la Champagne” one with „the Grande Semaine d'Aviation flight-looks with Reimsinstead of, gave the several records:Henri Farman flew a distance of 180 kilometers to 3 hours. Blériot flew the highest airspeed over 10-kilometer-stretches with 76,95 km/h. Stroke ore Latham reached Antoinette” of the airplane technical designer Levasseur with 155 m those on one „largest flight altitude.

Ludwig Prandtl: „the father of the aerodynamics”

1907 Louis and Jaques Bréguet under the co-operation of Charles build smell the Quadrocopter „a Bréguet smelling No. 1”. The helicopter lifts with a person approx. 1.5 m from the soil. The flight characteristics are however so unstably that the machine of four must become secured men at the arms. The first helicopter flight was thus a chain flight. The first compound helicopter was 1908 „Bréguet smelling No. 2”. It reached a flight altitude of approx. 4.5 m anda air route of approx. 20 M. To really useful helicopter constructions it came only in the 30's 20. Century, so 1933 the Gyroplane Laboratoire. In the meantime design features were developed, which have today still meaning, like tandem rotor, coaxial Rotor arrangement or tail rotor for the reconciliation of the torque.

1910 succeed to French engineer Henri Fabre with CAN pool of broadcasting corporations Hydravion the first flight with a water airplane, designed by it.

Monocoque

1912 invents Louis Béchereau the Monocoque - building method for airplanes. ThoseTurn other airplanes consisted of a stand covered with painted material. The Deperdussin Monocoque sketched by Béchereau - running airplane possessed however a streamline trunk from a timber shell without internal stand. Again also „the DEP was” - control, with on the control stick for thosePitch motion a timing gear for the rolling motion sat, a principle, which finds today still often use. As engine the airplane possessed a special aircraft engine, the Gnôme rotary engine. The Deperdussin Monocoques was the fastest airplanes of their time.

more substantiallytechnical break-through succeeds briefly before the First World War to the Russian technical designer and pilot Igor Iwanowitsch Sikorski, which admits later rather than manufacturers of Flugbooten and technical designer of helicopters in the USA becomes. 1913 to 1914 it proves with thatfirst of it designed „large airplanes”, the twin-engine Grand Baltiski, the four-engined Le Grande and its successor, the four-engined Ilja Muromez that such large airplanes can fly surely and stably, even if or two engines are turned off orfail.

the First World War

Fokker Dr-i fighter

during the First World War lost the dream of flies its innocence. First the airplanes were used as observation airplanes. The airplane was improved as weapon, and the bases of the air war were developed. On-board machine guns were synchronized with the aircraft propulsion with the help of a circuit breaker transmission, so that one could shoot with the weapon by the own propeller circle at the opponent. Thus useful fighters were invented. From the airplanes shells , Flechettes became later andfirst special blowing up and incendiary bombs, first on the hostile lines and later also on hostile factories and cities thrown off.

During the First World War an aircraft industry from the soil was rammed, which first airfields developed, the technology of the aeronautical radio one developed, aircraft engines became ever more efficient.

1915 tested Hugo Junkers the first complete metal airplane of the world, the Junkers J 1. Hugo Junkers built also the first complete metal airliner of the world, the Junkers F 13, their construction principles for 1919 indicatively forthe following airplane generations became.

intermediate wartime

during the First World War had been strongly set in motion the aircraft production. After this war the airplane manufacturers had to fight around surviving, since any longer so many military aircraft were not used. Straight ones in Europe went many to thatformer airplane manufacturer in bankruptcy, if it did not succeed to them to change their production over to civilian goods. In the USA combat aircraft were to be almost bought to under-cost prices. Former pilots of combat aircraft had to look for each other a new occupation.

Commercial civilian aviation

both in the USA and in Europe developed many new civilian services and airlines, like e.g. air Hansa 1926. The most well-known passenger airlines of this time were the Junkers F 13, the Junkers G 38, the Dornier whale, the Handley PAGE H.P.42 and the Junkers Ju 52/3m.

Langstreckenflüge
Curtiss NC-4

the large challenge after the war were Langstreckenflüge, above all the crossing of the Atlantic. This task cost someHuman life, to a Curtiss started of three in Newfoundland - Flugbooten of the US-Navy, the Curtiss NC-4, after 11 days to 27. May 1919 in Lisbon landed.

The Vickers Vimy of Alcock and Brown after the crash landing in Clifden

in thatTime of 14. to 15. June 1919 succeeds to the British fliers Captain John Alcock and lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown the first non-stop flight over the Atlantic von West after east. Their airplane was a twin-engine modified bomber type Vickers Vimy IVwith open cockpit.

Charles Lindbergh succeeds between 20. and 21. May 1927 with its airplane „Ryan NYP” mirror-image-guessed/advised OF pc. Louis der erste Nonstop-Alleinflug von New York nach Paris über den Atlantik. It wins thereby since 1919 expenditure-praised Orteig Prize. However this overflight/flyover brought a clear upswing to the US-American aircraft industry and the US-American airlines. Journey Lindberghs financed one of Guggenheim by all US Federal States led generally speaking country to the building of airfields. To 12. April 1928 succeeds thoseTransatlantlik crossing of east (Baldonnel in Ireland) after west (Greenly Iceland - Newfoundland) by Hermann Kohl, James Fitzmaurice and Ehrenfried Günther baron von Hünefeld with a modified Junkers W 33.

Flugboote

starting from end of the 20's beginsthe age of the large Flugboote, whose most well-known representatives were the Dornier DO X and Boeing 314. Main area of application were far transatlantic and Pacific flights.

Die Junkers Ju 46 nach Katapultstart
The Junkers Ju 46 after catapult takeoff

with the arising of the large passenger liners was used ever more catapult planes,by means of a steam catapult were started. The airplanes served usually for the fast mailing, the most well-known types were the Heinkel He 60 and the Junkers Ju 46. As a pioneer in the building of catapult planes Ernst Heinkel is considered, to that already around 1920Catapult plane on the Japanese battle ship HIJMS Nagato installed.

Rotary-wing aircraft

a crucial physical restriction of rigid wing airplanes it is that it comes at low speeds at the wings to flow separation and the airplanes fall. Such an accident large dreimotorigen designed one of itBomber aircraft brought the Spanish airplane technical designer Juan de la Cierva to develop the autogyro. 1922 it develops the joint rotor head: The rotor blades are fastened over flapping hinges to the rotor head, as consequence of it become the lift difference between forward-moving and backward-moving rotor blade balanced. Off de la Cierva uses 1927 except the flapping hinges also still drag hinges and designs drag absorbers and so today still often usual installing of the rotor blades at the rotor head for rotary-wing aircraft. With its autogyro de la Cierva crossed C 8 L to 18. September 1928 the English Channel. Apart from the semirigid sheet connection of Bell most technical designers of rotary-wing aircraft used the principle of the rotor blade connection of de la Cierva. Only modern composite materials for rotor blades permitted hingeless sheet connections, which take place impact and laggingnow by deformations of the more flexible rotor blade (e.g. starting from 1970 with BO-105).

Helicopters

in the early 30's probably build Louis Bréguet and Rene Dorand with the Gyroplane Laboratoire that for first usable helicopter, which flew over longer time stably. Itregarded all international records as helicopters, until in June 1937 the Focke Wulf L.G. 61 transferred the top position. Both models were however prototypes and remained Unikate. In series still during the Second World War of the Sikorsky R4, a successor was builtthe Sikorsky VS-300.

With the flight boat combination Short Mayo starting from 1937 in England for transatlantic flights one had experimented. The sense of the Short Mayo combination was, with an easily refuelled Flugboot, in this case of a Short-S.21, a heavyloaded water airplane (a Short-S.20) on flight altitudeto carry and release there. This combination should optimize the relationship between achievement, pay load and fuel.

Already at 1937 Luftwaffe began these with the building of Höhenflugzeugen, was equipped with pressurized cabins and reached heights between 12.000 and15,000 M. The most well-known representatives were later the Junkers Ef 61, the Henschel Hs 130 and the Junkers Ju 388. They served as elevator reconnaissance aircraft and/or. Elevator bombers, however were built them only in few copies. As the first passenger airline alsoto a pressurized cabin permitted Boeing B-307 a flight over the weather and thus a substantial comfort increase for the passengers.

from 1939 to 1945

To 20. June 1939 starts the first experimental aircraft with adjustable liquid rocket drive with the Heinkel He 176. This airplane possesses also as the first as rescue means a separable cockpit cap with drag parachute. The pilot had itself in emergency then however of the caprelease and with the parachute jump off. The airplane achieved a maximum speed of approx. 750 km/h.

The Heinkel He 178 was the first airplane of the world, which was propelled by a turbine jet engine. The first flight took place to 27. August 1939.

By the air battle around England the fighter came first into the center. The two out-stinging types of this time were the Messerschmitt ME 109 and the supernavy Spitfire, those by improvements of the aerodynamics and also the efficiency of the engines inRun its development substantially in its efficiency were increased.

The Heinkel He 280 was the first twin-jet airplane of the world; it possessed two turbojets. It was also the first airplane, which was equipped with an ejection seat. The first flight found to 2. April 1941 instead of. The ejection seat had its first employment as evacuation equipment probably to 13. January 1943, when the pilot from a He 280 had to catapult himself, which had become flight unable because of freezing up.

thoseAllierten used large four-engined bomber aircraft for the strategic air war. There attacks because of the German air defense to be often at night flown had held the avionics into the air war introduction. Devices to positioning, like the GEE - procedure, radar for navigation and forNight interception and also radios drew into employment. The fight led to ever larger flight altitudes and speeds. Around the bomber aircraft effectively to protect to be able fighters with large range, for instance the North American P-51 North

the Arado acre 234B-2 from 1944 had followed the first four-jet bomber with an autopilot (Party of Democratic Socialism). Briefly before end of war the twin-jet Nurflügler strongholds Ho IX developed. The outer hull was alsoa mixture from coal dust and glue coats, in order to absorb radar jets.

With the Messerschmitt ME 163 in the middle of was developed 1944 a rocket glider, on the basis of a glider, to the operational readiness. As a security hunter assigned the airplane captivated by its climbing achievement, was however due tothe employment circumstances practically ineffectively.

During this time the airspeed into the transonischen range increased. Extensive research projects, in particular on German side, led the application of the sweep of bearing area or the discovery of the Flächenregel to fundamental discoveries in the high-speed aerodynamics, for instance. Product of these efforts was the heavy jet bomber Junkers Ju 287 with negative sweep of the bearing areas and application of the Flächenregel.

The Japanese achieved successes outstanding first with its easy and agile Mitsubishi Zero Sen in the Pacific. Only later developments thatThe USA permitted it to proceed against the opponent with chance of success. When the situation became ever offering no prospects at the end of of 1944 for Japan, they invented Kamikaze airplanes, whose pilot steered that fully explosive packed airplane suicidally on allied ships.

starting from 1945 to today

1947 those broke through Bell X-1 as the first airplane officially the sound barrier, unofficially by mistake already was after reports of German combat fliers 1945 with a Messerschmitt ME 262 successfully. The X-1 was an experimental airplane with rocket propulsion of which of a B-29 in approx. one carried for 10 km height there and one released, whereupon the rocket propulsion ignited and the sound barrier broke through the airplane.

With the cold war and that Korea war (1950-53) began the arms race of the jet aircraft. To 8. November 1950 succeeded to that world-wide first victory in an aerial combat between jet aircraft, with which a MiG-15 was shot by a Lockheed P-80. The P-80 and Republic of F-84 the Russian were fundamentalJets however grown and were not replaced therefore soon from the F-86 Sabre.

with the start-up British De Havilland DH 106 „Comet” at the airline BOAC 1952 seemedto start the age of the turbo-jet engines also for airliners. However the available materials had not been up to to the new loads yet - traffic took place now in larger heights and the changing pressure load led to hair-cracks in the trunk. As 1954several machines of this type fell and the machines at the soil to remain had, were only once interrupted this age in the western world. Differently in the Eastern Bloc: With Tupolev Tu-104 established the Soviet Union starting from 1956 of successful airline services. The British were ona phenomenon failed, which was at that time still hardly investigated:Material fatigue. The Comet had to a large extent again to be designed. As the successor I.E. 106 4B after four years its service again took up, had Boeing with the 707 already a jet aircraft forpassenger transport developed and successfully sells, which had a higher range and more than twice as many passengers carry could. The 707 starting from 1962 the employment of the higher performance and consumption-poorer turbofans (English gave final success. Turbofan). Beginning of the 70'sThe introduction of the region passenger airplane Boeing 747 began years „jumbo jet”, whose dominance within this range will probably only decrease to new airbus A380 with that.

with beginning of the 50's began the development long-range strategic bomber, which could carry also atom bombs. The bekannstesten representatives were Boeing B-52, Convair B-58, Mjassischtschew M-4 and Tupolev Tu-95. The B-58was the first combat aircraft with a central on-board computer, which summarized the numerous building groups.

1955 prepared the French company Sud aviation its helicopter Alouette II with 250 KW-Turboméca-Artouste-Wellentubineout and built thereby the first helicopter with gas turbine drive.

With the Hawker Siddeley Harrier began the series production vertical take-off that VTOL - airplanes at 1966. However nearly all other VTOL airplanes did not come beyond the prototype stage. The USA develop at present (2005)with the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter a new generation of SVTOL/VTOL airplanes.

with the Viet Nam war met one another again Soviet and American airplanes. The MIG 21 provedconsider opposite the American McDonnell F-4 Phantom II in many cases as. Boeing B-52 to wide Bombardements one used. The extensive use of helicopters, like the CH-47 Chinook and Bell UH-1, became ever more important.

With the maiden flight that Tupolev Tu-144 to 31. December 1968 and the Concorde to 2. March 1969 began the episode of supersonic passenger air traffic. The Americans had reached a monopolistic position with conventional civilian passenger airlines propelled with power plants. These wanted Englishmen and Frenchmen by the building thatConcorde break through. High energy costs and higher environmental awareness limited however economy and usefulness of this model. The last flight of a Concorde found to 26. November 2003 instead of.

The Lockheed F-117 A Nighthawk of the United States air Force was world-wide thatfirst operational airplane, which made itself the camouflage cap technology consistently. The first F-117A was delivered 1982. During the building of the F-117 it was called of American engineers „more hopelessly” case, since they assumed that the airplane due to its formnever able to be would fly. Before they got an official name, engineers and test pilot called the unorthodox airplanes, which were hidden during the daily, in order to prevent discovery by Soviet satellites, „Cockroaches” (Kakerlaken). ThisDesignation is still frequently used, because these airplanes belong according to opinion of many to the hässlichsten, which were so far built. The airplane is called also „Wobblin Goblin”, particularly because of their jerky flight characteristics with air refuelings. It leaves itself due toits unstable aerodynamic characteristics probably only with aid of computers fly.

With the rocket plane SpaceShipOne succeeded to 21. June 2004 first privately financed suborbitale space flight over 100 km height. The machine became of the company Scaled Composites in the context of the project Animal One develops, in order to be able to decide the competition Ansari X-Prize of the X-Prize Foundation for itself. This provided ten million dollar for that in prospect, to that as first with an aircraft beside the pilot two persons or appropriate ballast ina height of more than 100 kilometers carried and this with the same aircraft within 14 days repeats.

airspeeds

the following table gives an overview of from airplanes reachedSpeed records:

Year Geschw. Pilot nationality airplane
1903 56 km/h Orville WRIGHT the USA Flyer 1
1910 106 km/h Leon Morane France Blériot XI< small/>
1913 204 km/h Maurice Prevost France Deperdussin Monocoque
1923 417 km/h Harold J. Brow the USA Curtiss R2C-1
1934 709 km/h Francesco Agello Italy Macchi MC.72 (Schwimmerflugzeug)
1939 755 km/h Fritz spiral Germany Messerschmitt ME 209 V1
1941 1,004 km/h Heinrich Dittmar Germany Messerschmitt ME 163 (rocket-driven fighters)
1947 1,127 km/h
Mach 1.015
Charles Elwood Yeager the USA Bell X-1
1951 2,028 km/h Bill Bridgeman the USA Douglas Skyrocket
1956 3,058 km/h franc Everest the USA Bell 52 X-2 (rocket)
1961 5,798 km/h Robert White the USA North American X-15 (rocket plane)
1965 3,750 km/h W. Daniel the USA Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird (jet)
1966 7,214 km/hWilliam Joseph Knight the USA North American X-15 (rocket plane)
2004 11,000 km/h unmanned the USA Boeing X-43A (ram-jet engine)


see also

literature

  • Ludwig Boelkow (Hrsg.): One century of airplanes: Historyand technology of flying VDI publishing house, Duesseldorf 1990, ISBN 3-18-400816-9
  • R. G. Grant: Flies: the history of aviation Dorling Kindersley, star mountain 2003, ISBN 3-8310-0474-9

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