Form teachings (music)

the musical form teachings are a subsection of the music theory and concern themselves with history and characteristic of musical forms with special emphasis on those of the evening country. Within the epochs musical forms experience often numerous variants and extensions; therefore a large number more in music can Forms (z. B. the Motette) by the music science epoch-spreading meaningfully to be only lit up.

The scientific form teachings of the evening country are based on documents, which are either describing, or even notations.

Table of contents

historical outline

the Middle Ages

in the early Middle Ages finding the first such notations in works of the Gregorian singing. With the beginning of the Mehrstimmigkeit, howit by Leonin and Perotin at the church Notre Dame in Paris, develop the Organon and the Conductus were invented. Parallel to it also already exist to these art-musical forms the first popular music in form of the singing of Trobadors, Trouvères and Minnesängern,those usually on simple song forms are based. When notationless, verbally passed on singing can do them only is today reconstructed, because they were often tropiert by composers .

The epoch that of acre antiqua advances in particular the development of the Dreistimmigkeit. Here Pastoralen are and religious works asForms; with the Cantus and tenor the Discantus associates as the third voice.

The following of acre new facts almost brings an abundance out at new forms, whose most important apart from the brought fair is the church-musical Motette. Also the political Singspiel as gathering mold of the opera takes here itsAt the beginning of. In addition develop the Virelais, the Ballade, the Caccia and the Rondo; most mathematically and modern seeming develops besides the composition technology by means of modaler Figurationen. The partial extreme Melismatik of acre new fact works finds its high point in that of acre subtilior, a kind Musica riservata, which full branched out, high-complex ornamental art is.


the conception of the world of the acres new facts mechanistical in extreme forms sets the Renaissance the human expression, in particular that to the human voice against. This particularly happens into that often homophonen forms of Madrigal and music drama(a gathering mold of the opera taken up many later). In addition develop a set of art-musical dances and masks (Masques), which were given despite their Raffinessen to lay causes. When secret teachings deliver, only verbally from teacher to pupil, begins in this epoch alsothe systematic investigation of expressionful idioms in form of the figure teachings.


the baroque is a split epoch, in which kontrapunktische forms prevail such as Triosonate and joint, which retain spirit property of the Renaissance however also as Nebenstrang, approximately in works like that A piece of character, the Fantasie and works feeling seeds of the style. The Suite grows up from a consequence of loose pieces of dance to its own form. The Toccata becomes the expression of highest baroque mechanical anise TIC. As an epoch with large weight on the ornamental art forms in the baroque besides that Concert and Concerto grosso from the religious concert . Passion and Oratorium contain Rezitative and airs. The opera in the actual sense develops and particularly is in Italy and Hungary.

Sonate and symphony developed classical period in the classical period and with themthe Sonatenhauptsatzform. The emergence of the art song falls likewise into this epoch. Originally as instrument valley piece of exercise meant, develops the Etüde, which separates however already soon from these Funktionalistik and grows up to the independent musical category. The opera experiences a long set of transformations andVariants. It is particularly remarkable at the classical period that she is conscious as a first epoch of the music history of their historicity. This points itself in particular to “quoting” or “Allusionieren” from music and styles, which are not originally classical, but decrease/go back on medieval church music as well as music of the baroque.This concerns in particular naturally also the form world, for instance the experiments late Ludwig van Beethoven with the joint or the particularly spirit-rich Sonaten of the often underestimated Joseph Haydn. To that extent a set of works is from the classical epoch already formally hybrid.

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in the romantic epoch develops beside the symphony the Sinfoni seal and the rhapsody. Sonate, song and chamber music are further maintained and extended partly extremely. The opera becomes on the one hand the through-composed form; on the other hand the Operette splits itself off it. Nocturnes and arabesques develop from the piece of character, which besides independently continues and finds in piano cycles entrance. The ballet develops. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner goes with its music dramas into action (a term, which reports the Dramma in musica the Renaissance and which synthesis of the arts focuses). The thought of the Synthesis of the arts plays at all in the late romance a large role, in which already of the technical extension of the music by light organs and smell organs one thinks. At all particularly also the interest in non-European music exists, by world exhibitions and starting from the middle and in the late romanceForschungsreisen at influence wins. The musical Impressionismus about, how it is exposed by Claude Debussy, is inconceivable without these influences. Other composers again set their emphasis musikethnologisch.

modern trend

20. Century and/or. the modern trend (as “classical modern trend “for works1945 ago) brings out in the art music numerous new forms and styles. After an early expressionistischen phase Neoklassizismus and Dodekaphonie dominate; after the Second World War Serialismus and Aleatorik develop. Which the form teachings 20. Century concerns, then the structure is often the center of attention;the classical forms of the music are only sufficient in individual cases of the complete formal classification of works, because the different structure systems work often already even form-forming. Thus are the forms 20. Century, similarly as hybrid in the classical epoch, often likewise. A rownew instruments develop besides; these are either strange unique pieces or come of to the technical world. The view of a music instrument as machine and therefore also a machine as music instrument bring out Futurismus and Bruitismus . Also the splitting off of the electronic music instruments from pure laboratory instruments begins in this time.It remains remarkable with the fact that composers of the modern trend straight with increasing industrialization of the music often take paths by disk companies beyond the large consumer stream and for new, open possibilities of hearing to look. The entrance to this thought world remains usually locked for the music-academic universities, but is considerable thatthe straight relatively early works of the contemporary music starting from center of the 80's-years on a large scale by numerous U-musicians to be taken up and reported, which witnesses from awakeness and openness. Also the computer music plays at the beginning 21. Century already a large role. The history of the U-music and the jazz form own historical strands, which, although they brought their own forms out, form numerous points of contact with the music of the modern trend.

alphabetical list of musical kinds and forms

kind and form are two itself frequently overlapping terms, which besides are often synonymously used.

  • Kinds determine themselves in the generic teachings according to the criteria occupation, text, function, performance place and sentence structure.
  • General forms are for example song form and Rondoform.

Further one Criteria for the systematic classification of the music are

systematic arrangement beginning

see also


  • Jacques handseemed: Music history in the overview. Heinrichshofen, Wilhelmshaven 1981
  • Guido eagle: Manual of music history. Cutter, Tutzing 1930. New edition: dtv, Munich (3 Bde.)
  • Günter Altmann: Musical form teachings. Bulkhead, Mainz 2000
  • Ulrich Dibelius: Modern music. Piper, Munich
  • Klaus Swiss: Orchestra music 20. Century since beautiful mountain. Reclam, Stuttgart 1976
  • Werner Oehlmann: The music 20. Century.deGruyter, Berlin 1961
  • Hugo Riemann: Riemann music encyclopedia. Special part bulkhead, Mainz 1967
  • Friedrich flower (Hrsg.): Music in history and present (MGG). Bear rider, Kassel
  • Eberhard Thiel: Special dictionary of the music. Kröner, Stuttgart 1977

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