as research reactors nuclear reactors are designated, which do not serve the generation of current, but to research purposes (core and material-technical investigations, isotope production for medicine and technology) to be used predominantly. The neutron radiation of interest is main. The reactor core surrounding water serves for the cooling and at the same time as moderator for the neutrons. In addition research reactors for training purposes are used. That there are accordingly different types of research reactors:
Table of contents
materials testing reactors (MTR reactors) are for the investigation of nuclear fuels and of radiation damage in structure materials by fast neutrons intended. They possess a very compact reactor core, in order to obtain as large a neutron flux density as possible.
isotope production reactors
the isotope production reactor one uses for the production by radioactive isotopes and sources as well as the doping with stable elements.
jet pipe reactors
led with the jet pipe reactors normally the slow neutrons produced in the reactor over jet pipes into one experiment-resounds, over there z. B. at samples of a material to be strewn. One of the most efficient plants of this kind represents the 58 MW high river reactor RHF of the international institute ILL in Grenoble .
training reactors serve training purposes and are usually at universities. They possess only a very small achievement. In Germany still 9 training reactors in enterprise are, of it 7 of the type SUR (Siemens training reactor) with an output of 0,1 Watts.
tri refining actuators
the tri refining actuator (TRIGA = training, Research, isotopes Production, general Atomic) is a special, type of research reactor developed by the US firm general Atomic. This concerns a research reactor of the Swimmingpool type, which is characterised by inherent security. Inherently it means that security is ensured by laws of nature, not by engineer measures, which one could bridge. It becomes for the training, research and isotope production, e.g. used in the medicine. World-wide more than 50 tri refining actuators are in enterprise.
research reactors in Germany
according to data of the federal office for radiation protection (BfS) are in Germany the following research reactors with a thermal continuous duty of over 50 KW in enterprise:
- BER II (citizen of Berlin experimentation reactor II, cock Meitner institute Berlin; Achievement: 10 MW, start-up 1990)
- FRG-1 (GKSS research center Geesthacht; Achievement: 5 MW, start-up 1958)
- FRJ-2 (DIDO, research center Jülich; Achievement: 23 MW, start-up 1962)
- FRM-II (technical University of Munich, Garching; Achievement: 20 MW, start-up 2004)
- FRMZ (tri refining actuator of the University of Mainz, Institut for nuclear chemistry; Start-up 1965)
The following research reactors with a thermal continuous duty of over 50 KW were already shut down:
- FR 2 (research center Karlsruhe; Achievement: 44 MW, enterprise 1961 - 1981)
- FRH (medical university Hanover; Achievement: 0.25 MW, enterprise 1973 - 1997)
- FRJ-1 (Merlin, research center Jülich; Achievement: 10 MW, enterprise 1962 - 1985)
- FRM (technical University of Munich, Garching; Achievement: 1957 - FRMB ( the Federal Standards Laboratory, Braunschweig replaces 4 MW ,
- enterprise to 2000), by FRM-II; Achievement: 1 MW, enterprise 1967 - 1995)
- FRN (research center for environment and health (GSF), Oberschleissheim (new harsh suppl.); Achievement: 1 MW, enterprise 1972 - 1982)
- TRIGA hp I (German cancer research center, Heidelberg; Achievement: 0.25 MW, enterprise 1966 - 1977)
- BER (citizen of Berlin experimentation reactor, cock Meitner institute Berlin; Achievement: 1973 - TRIGA hp II (German cancer research center, Heidelberg replaces 5 MW
- , enterprise to 1984), by BER II; Achievement: 0.25 MW, enterprise 1978 - 1999)
- RFR (research center Rossendorf (FZR); Achievement: 10 MW, enterprise 1957 - 1991)
of the research reactors in the sense from neutron sources prototype reactors are to be differentiated. These serve the development of new nuclear power station technologies and play today internationally only in individual cases a role.