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The forest or forestry as part of the national economy refers to regular acting of themanaging humans in the forest. A goal of these actions are today apart from the raw material production also furnishing immaterial achievements like the preservation of the forests, in particular as protection and recreation region.
The goals of forestry can vary regionally and over the time strongly.In Central Europe has itself after century-long excessive use before the beginning 19. Century the lasting form of the wood use with consideration of the social needs interspersed.
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All aspects of forestry to consider is a large challenge for the science and practice of the silviculture and the forest policy. Here it depends to manage the forest in such a way that its functions as source of raw material and as basis forthe kind, soil, climatic and water protection as well as for spare time and recovery of the population to be lastingly maintained.
In the course of international processes lasting forest management defined as
- „the treatment and use of forests in a way and in oneExtent, which their biological variety, productivity, tapering ability, Vitalität as well as their ability, which ensure to fulfill relevant ecological, economic and social functions at present and in the future on local, national and global level, without causing to other ecological systems damage. “(European conference of ministersfor the protection of the forests in Europe (MCPFE) in the Helsinki resolution H1, „", 1993) the silviculture constant weighing between economic and ecological
interests, around the different requirements requires general guidelines for the lasting management of the forests of Europe to the forestconsider to be able. That and an interlacing of socio-economic, ecological and technical realizations therefore is an important task of the silviculture brought together.
In this in Europe come the many functions of the forest and striving for lasting development of nature recognized definitionand economics to the expression. The forest-structural activity covers thereby goal-oriented planning, decision and conversion in the range of the renewal, care and reorganization of forest ecological systems with simultaneous view of ecological, socio-economic and technical realizations. Forestry knows thereby the lasting treatment andUse of the forests guarantee.
major item: Lastingness (forestry)
after catastrophic forest destruction in Central Europe in the Middle Ages by excessive use of the forests developed the principle of the forstlichen mass lastingness: One does not infer any more wood mass from the forest, than regenerates at the same time (s. A.: History of the forest in Central Europe). Following generations are at least comparable, if not better use possibilities will leave. The lastingness that management became already in 19. Century expanded since ecological and later social lastingness. Since in the middle of the 1990er flowsthis in certifying (see also: FSC, PEFC).
Franz alto: „The entire economy must learn from forestry, what means lastingness - the wood path is a good way.” (Source: AFZ 22/2004, S. 1209)
Forest as restaurant economics
Germany has approx. 10,7 million hectar forest (~ 30% of the total area). Of it 9 millions become hectar through approx. 28,000 forest enterprises and 1.5 millions hectar through approx. 230.000 agricultural enterprises manages. (Source: Federal Statistical Office (data report 2004))
- The federal forest stocktaking showed that we have in Germany enormous Holzvorräte - it regenerates more woods than we uses. Wood is itself a renewing source of raw material with various ranges of application and many advantages for our environment. This is inecological and also economic Potenzial, which applies to open and use it. With the straight adopted Charter for wood the goal was formulated of increasing the use of native woods in the next ten years by 20 per cent which is ambitiously, but with united forces feasiblly. - Renate Künast, quoted from the preface for the edited version of the second federal forest stocktaking
forestry in Germany differentiates three kinds of property from forest
see also: Forest prospective customer shank
around the functions of the forest to secure, is important it that functioning structures are created. This is incumbent on the individual Lands of the Federal Republic with own national forest laws. The federal legislation gives here only the frameworks with the federal forest law .
The state forest is divided in most countries into individual Forstämter. These again consist the one size of approx. of individual districts. 1.500 to 3,000 hectars have. The management of the districts becomes from the Förstern (Dipl. Forest engineer) accomplished.
due to the methodology of the statistic collection is completely underestimated the meaning of the forest and timber economy. This underestimation comes the German taxpayer expensively.
See on the wood path
in modern forestry enterprises are representatives of the most diverseTo find occupational groups. Apart from many administrative occupations one can differentiate however the following classical forest training with the appropriate career profiles:
study of the forest sciences at a university
of forest people with a university conclusion have to work the possibility as forest scientists or afterto occur a 2-jährigen junior lawyer time the higher forest service. Here they transfer usually leading positions in the Forstämtern or in the administration.
In Germany the forest study at 4 universities is offered:
- Albert Ludwig university Freiburg
- George August university Goettingen
- technical University of Munich in Freesing
- technical University of Dresden in Tharandt with Dresden
study of forestry at a professional school
after conclusion of a specialized technical and a following one year's candidate time can be put down the career examination for the elevated forest service. This occupation choice usually leads into the practical forest service, howapart from the line Forstreviers nowadays also frequently specializedtechnical or administrative activities to the vocational field belong.
- To professional school Weihenstephan in freesing
- professional school Eberswalde in Eberswalde
- professional school Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen in Goettingen (faculty resource management)
- Professional school gang castle in gang castle at the Neckar
- technical University of Dresden in Tharandt with Dresden
study of forestry at a professional training higher school
in Austria exists an upper stage school, which one locks after 5 years with maturing and diploma examination.After two-year practice a graduate knows a state examination for the forest service placing and has thereby the right a forest surface from 3600 hectares to to administer.
to June 2005 existedstill another second HBLA for forestry in Gainfarn with bath Vöslau.
of the forest technicians is a specialist of the middle forest management.
(Major items: Forest technician)
“Forstwirt” is the modern term for the earlierOccupation “forest worker”. The Forstwirt is a nationally recognized teaching profession.
(Major items: Forstwirt)
the protection of interests of the officials of forest is noticed by the following organizations:
do not see also
- to Exploitation - one forest-economical forest use form.
- Forest mechanism - an economic basis
- forest science
- portal: Land and forestry
- RAM timber economy - the production of stakes for common grape vines.
- Moving way - particularly for wood transport Waldwege put on.
- Dead wood taper ratio - growing small Bäumchen or Keimlingen on umgestürzten trunks.
- Forest work- the implementing activities of forestry in the forest.
- Reinhold Erlbeck, Ilse Haseder and Gerhard Stinglwagner: Cosmos the forest and forest encyclopedia. 880 S. Franckh cosmos, Stuttgart 1998. ISBN 3-440-07511-7
- Johannes fish-brook-a-hope, Ulrich Schraml and Andreas Katthagen: GermanForestry advice 1950 - 2000. 50 years for forest, forestry and environment. Agriculture publishing house, Münster 2000. 3-00-006273-4
Web on the left of
- forestry online.de - comprehensive link collection for the range forestry.
- On-line forum about all forest-economical
- Zukunftswald.de - information about lasting forestry, virtualExcursion ions, simulation play, forest knowledge
- chatbot - information offer for forestry
- the info. portal over environment, forest, wood, hunt, water…
- The economic Mammutbaum Infoholz.de wahrgenomme as
- Bonsai - restaurant economics forest & wood
- department for forest and soil sciences that univ. f. Soil culture, Vienna
- forest school(Higher federal institute for forestry)