Away Niagara

away Niagara is one in 17. Century decreasing/going back fortification at the delta Niagara of the River in the Ontariosee in the area of the city Youngstown in US - the Federal State New York. Due to its strategic meaning it played a key role in several wars.

Table of contents

under French rule

away Niagara during a historical production with British soldiers from the time of the war of 1812

as the first attachment at the location from away Niagara let the away Conti establish the French discoverer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in the spring 1679, since it was suitable as stopover for ships, which brought supply over the lake after away Frontenac, an important basis La Salles. It was designated after of Louis arm and de Bourbon, Prince de Conti. The away was destroyed however still in the same year by a fire. To the building of a second Forts it came in the summer 1687 by Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville, the governor of new France (Canada). Denonville led a campaign against the Seneca belonging to the master group of the Irokesen; the away should serve their subjecting. The 100 men comprehensive garrison however by cold weather, hunger and diseases were dezimiert in such a way that the separation found only 12 survivors in the spring 1688. Thereupon the away was given up and destroyed because of its isolated situation.

In the course of the colonial wars with Great Britain at the end 17. and at the beginning 18. Century began the Frenchmen the building of a set of attachments, with which they wanted to keep the British away from the area of the large seas. In this connection they built 1726 with the permission of the Irokesen in the proximity 1720 of an address at the location from away, put on by the dealer Louis Thomas Chabert de Joncaire, Denonville a stone house with a Palisadenbefestigung (today French Castle). It served a small French garrison as address for the lucrative fur trade and location. During Austrian succession war did not strengthen the Frenchmen the attachments, to fights came it however.

During the following peace away Niagara was starting point of different enterprises, with which the Frenchmen put on their rule in the valley Ohio to secure of the tried and a chain by Forts from the Eriesee to away Duquesne ( today Pittsburgh). After the outbreak of the Frenchman and Indian war (seven-year-old war) 1754 was the away of one of the most important French bases at the large lakes. Therefore there were already 1755 a raid of British Miliztruppen under general William Shirley, which came however due to numerous delays only to away Oswego and had to be broken off. Thereupon the Frenchmen began with extensive reinforcement of the Forts, which became to surround with bastions, provide increased and with capacities for more troops. In the following years away Niagara was basis for numerous attacks of the Indians allied with the Frenchmen on the British colonies. For the security of the Frenchmen the neutrality of the Irokesen was necessary. After it succeeded however to the British Indian Superintendenten Sir William Johnson at the end of of 1758 to pull these on its side the British hesitated not for a long time with an attack on away Niagara.

The Frenchmen expected an attack and prepared for by sending reinforcement and strengthening the attachments. In the summer 1759 a British army would advance under Brigadier General John Prideaux of Albany toward the large seas. A part of this army from 2.000 soldiers and 1,500 Irokesen under the command of Johnson, which took over the total command after the death of Prideaux, began to 6. July the FE storage of 600 Frenchmen defended continuations. 1,500 Frenchmen and Indian tried to 24. July, the FE storage ring to break through, suffered however an involving heavy losses defeat and had to withdraw itself. Thereupon nothing else as the surrender, remained for the commander, captain Pierre Pouchot, to 25. July 1759 took place.

under British rule

the British garrison from away Niagara was first in a delicate situation. The supply of this isolated outguard was so difficult that in the winter 1759 broke 1760 a scurvy epidemic disease off, which until spring 1760 150 soldiers fell to the victim. With the collapse French resistance in the course of this yearly the role from away changed Niagara to some supply depot and traffic junction for the settlements and Forts within the range of the upper seas. At the same time here also negotiations took place, with which the relationship to the Indian trunks of the large seas allied before with the Frenchmen should be improved. These efforts remained unsuccessful, and the rising Unwille of many trunks over their treatment by the British led them in the spring 1763 to the Pontiac rebellion, meanwhile eight British Forts ran over, which besieged large fortresses away Pitt and away Detroit and which over the Ohio valley to the collapse brought British rule. Away Niagara was not attacked and played an important role as starting point for supply to Detroit. Far far away the British did not suffer the heaviest defeat of this argument, when a car course with supply for Detroit in the proximity of the Devil gets' s with the cases of Niagara into an ambush of the Seneca turned out, which destroyed also a troop from away fitter, sent to assistance, whereby altogether about 80 soldiers fell. In the summer 1764 the British pulled an expedition together among Colonels John Bradstreet in away Niagara, with which Detroit frightened and which should be terminated rebellion at the large lakes. At the same time Sir William Johnson with the trunks of the upper seas negotiations continued to, which led to the fact that many of them renewed their friendship with the British. Bradstreets troops could advance without large resistance to Detroit, and the Indians gave their fight up, without it would have come still to larger arguments.

Away Niagara one was limited the next ten years after to keep the attachments so far intact that they could resist Indian attacks (without artillery). Therefore disintegrated parts continuations. Renewed one military meaning began it at 1775 with the open outbreak of the American war of independence. The garrison secured - similarly as its French predecessors - the way to the large lakes, protected the trade, as far as it had not come by the war to succumbing, and served the support of military operations in the west. From away out the Irokesen and loyalistische allied with the British led Niagara (i.e. the British crown faithful Kolonisten) free corps - in particular the 1777/78 set up Butler' s Ranger - a set of devastating attacks on settlements in the States of New York and Pennsylvania out. By the American raid to Canada (battle with Québec) away Niagara was 1775 long isolated a time, was however not directly threatened. 1777 was parts of the garrison in a raid into the valley Mohawk River involved, the general John Burgoynes unfortunate Saratoga campaign to support should. American troops under general John Sullivan advanced 1779 into the region, in order to punish the Irokesen for their attacks, did not attack the away however not. The British had to supply this yearly the Irokesen from away in the winter Niagara out, since their villages and harvests had been destroyed to a large extent by Sullivans campaign. Up to the end of the war away Niagara remained however a starting point for assaults into American area, a passage station for from the USA the refugees „Loyalisten “and likewise for prisoners of war on the way to Canada. Here also hundreds of by the Irokesen kidnapped American civilians by the British were redeemed. An important role played the away also for intelligence purposes; from here American troop movements were spied and continued to lead messages to Canada.

After the British defeat in the battle with Yorktown 1781 the war was decided hostilities, however still dragged on at the border up to the conclusion of the peace treaty of Paris 1783 . According to, specified, in the present Treaty the fixing of the boundaries away Niagara was on American area and had to be vacated by the British. Due to disputes over the clauses of the contract the evacuation of the Forts and other British bases retarded such as Detroit substantially. Only in the Jay contract of 1794/95 it came to an agreement, according to that away Niagara and other British bases to the 1. June 1796 to the USA to be handed over should. Therefore 1796 American troops drew in away Niagara into the summer.

under American rule

into so far only the area inhabited by Indians over away Niagara flowed in the following years numerous American settler. Several cities developed. Militarily the US garrison was in a delicate situation, since the British on the other side Niagara away of the George established, which consisted of Holzpalisaden, but more highly lay and therefore the position from away Niagara artillery-like controlled, its attachments besides to an attack from the land side were aligned and therefore little protection offered. The next US troops were appropriate however in Oswego, for 150 miles far away.

When the British-American war of 1812 broke out, away Niagara was understaffed and in bad condition and thus hardly for a war prepares. Considering his precarious situation the commander Nathaniel Leonard locked an armistice with the Britisher, who it this permitted to withdraw and conquer with this Detroit troops. After running off the armistice the Americans used away Niagara as starting point for an invasion in Canada, however 13 suffered Niagara in the battle of Queenston of the Heights after the crossing to. October 1812 a heavy defeat. In the course of these engagements it came to an artillery duel between away Niagara and away George, with which first came under so heavy fire that the US soldiers had to vacate the away. Further combat of this kind occurred to 21. November.

After intensive preparations the USA turned into again in the spring 1813 to the attack. After a violent bombardment from away George, to 25. May began, exceeded an army under major general Henry Dearborn to 27. May the Niagara and drove out the British from the ruins from away George. The invaders became with their raid however in the battles with Stoney Creek (6. June) and Beaver Dams (24. June) struck and to the retreat on the Niagara in a forced manner. In December US troops vacated also away George and burned not only this, but also the city Newark down, which caused the British to appropriate acts of revenge. Since also away Niagara was weakened by the departure of numerous soldiers, the British undertook at the night of 18. on the 19. December a surprise attack, which was facilitated by laxe American safety precautions. To the Britisher it succeeded to occupy the gate during the being awake change and the garrison at a hard fight, with which 65 of of the 433 Americans was killed, to the task to force. The commander Leonhard, which had stayed overnight at its family in the close Lewiston, was imprisoned taken on the next morning by the British gate guard, when he wanted to again begin its service. Its capture protected it a court martial. For retaliation for the American excesses in Newark the British destroyed systematically the places in the surrounding countryside from away Niagara. There was not an American back conquest attempt; the fortress remained up to the end of the war in British hand. To 22. May 1815 transferred again American troops the away, the British withdrew themselves after away George and to away the Mississauga again put on . The rapid end of the tensions with Great Britain prevented that large-scale development plans for away Niagara were converted.

After the completion of the Eriekanals 1825 the Niagara lost its meaning as transport and trade route, with which also a substantial meaning loss for away Niagara, which were therefore given up one year later. 1826 played the abandoned plant a main role in a scandal around the former Freimaurer William Morgan, which excited its anger with the relinquishment of secrets of its medal and therefore by Freimaurern was kidnapped and temporarily kept imprisoned in the powder magazine from away Niagara. From here it disappeared finally without trace. The whereabouts Morgans are not today well-known until. The case played an important role, in order to stir up in New York and the USA aversions to the Freimaurer. 1828 occupied the US army the away again, whose attachments were substantially strengthened after unrests in Canada 1837 and rising tensions in the years after. After abating these tensions the away up to the outbreak of the civil war was not again temporarily occupied. Due to fears that Great Britain on sides of the Konföderierten would intervene in the civil war, it began extensive, attachment work again finished not placed; Starting from 1865 the away was again location of a garrison, which had to prevent the activities of Irish partisans (Fenier ), outgoing from American soil, under others against Canada, who had led to substantial tensions between the USA and Great Britain. Away Niagara remained in the consequence a location of the US army and was substantially developed. During the Kolonalkriegs on the Philippines (1899) it served as Trainingscamp for troops before the combat mission. The same function had it also during the First World War. Meanwhile the historical part of the Forts disintegrated, until finally 1927 away Niagara Association, a union of citizens interested in the receipt of the historical building, the restoration of the buildings and the mechanism of a museum took the old into the hand. During the Second World War the new part of the Forts served again as training centre, partly also than prisoner-of-war camps for member of the German Africa corps. Those already 1945 existing plans for a final task from away Niagara were retarded by the Korea war and converted only 1963.

The complete plant was taken over now by the old away Niagara Association, which cares for it since then in co-operation with the New York State Office OF park, Recreation and Historic Preservation. The plants were explained as national the Historic land Mark and placed thus under monument protection. Most buildings 19. and 20. Century tore one 1965 and off 1966, in order to convert the area into a recreation park. A station of US Coast Guard is the last remaining military mechanism on the area from away Niagara.

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)