Photography

as photography (older way of writing: Photography; out altgr. φως, φωτo „light [the heavenly body] “, „brightness “and γραφειν, „“, „writes “) designates one paints:

  • a technical procedure, with by optical procedure a photo on an photo-sensitive medium projects and theredirectly durably one stores (similar procedure) and/or. into electronic data one changes and one stores then (digital procedure);
  • the durable photo (colloquially briefly photo called, also departure, enlargement or Ausbelichtung), which is manufactured by photographic procedures; it can either a positive or a negative concern.


table of contents

definition

the term photography (original photography) originates from the Greek one and means literally: Scratch „with light scratched/. “As photography one designated to in 20. Century all those pictures,which by light on a chemically treated surface develop purely.

The photography is a medium, which is used in very different connections. Photographic illustrations can be for example articles with primarily artistic (artistic photography) or a primarily commercial character(Industrial photography, advertising - and mode photography). The photography can be regarded under artistic, technical (photography method), economic (photo economy) and social-social (amateur , workers - and Dokumentarfotografie) aspects. The moreover one photographies become also in the journalism andin the medicine uses.

The photography is partly a the subject of the research and teachings in the history of art and the still recent picture science; the art character of the photography was however long time disputed, however for some years is increasingly recognized. SomeResearch directions arrange the photography of the media - or communication science too (for example Werner putrid pass), however are also this allocation disputed.

Nowadays with the digital photography (or photography after the photography) and other photography-similar imaging possibilities a new definition discussion was inflamed, thosesome time the spirit will probably still separate.

Photography can be learned as teaching profession (photographer), in addition, at academies of arts and professional schools or auto+didactically (photo designers) (see photographic organizations). The photography is subject to the complex and multilayered photo right; during the use of existing photographies the picture rights are to be considered.

The photography is a marvelous discovery, a science, which the largest spirit attraction, an art, which the most intelligent philosophers are nevertheless operated lively - and by each foolcan (Nadar, 1856).

photography method

in principle becomes with the help of an optical system, the objective, which projects sent or reflected light from an object on an photo-sensitive medium, for example the photo-sensitive layer of a film,and as (latent) image on it fixes.

camera

of the photographic admission serves a camera and/or. a photo camera. By manipulation of the optical system (among other things the attitude of the screen, focusing, color filtering, the choice) to the photographer numerous organization possibilities are open to the exposure time , the objective focal length, the lighting and not least the copy material. As the most versatile camera design both in similar - and digital range became generally accepted the mirror reflex camera, however become for many tasks furtherthe most diverse special cameras needs and assigned.

photo-sensitive layer

with the conventional photography (analog photography, silver photography) is the photo-sensitive layer on the image plane a dispersion (generally linguistic usage emulsion). It consists of a gel, in that evenlysmall pellets of a Silberhalogenids (for example Silberbromid) are distributed. The smaller these pellets are, the less photo-sensitively are the better the layer (see ISO 5800), are however the dissolution („grain “). This photo-sensitive layer becomes througha carrier stability lent. Substrates: Zelluloseacetat, in former times Zellulosenitrat (Zelluloid), plastic foils, metal plates, glass plates, textiles (see film).

With the digital photography the equivalent of the photo-sensitive layer exists sensors of chips such as CCD - or CMOS -.

developmentand adjustment

by developing is made visible on chemical way the latent picture. When fixing the not exposed silver halide pellets are out-washed, so that a picture can be regarded also with daylight, without it after-darkens.

A further older procedureis the dust procedure, with which burnable pictures on glass and porcelain can be manufactured.

A digital picture does not have to be developed; it is stored electronically and can afterwards worked on with the electronic treatment of pictures at the computer and if necessary up Photo paper to be out-exposed or for example with an ink jet printer be printed out.

history of the photography

see: History and development of the photography

13. Century

the name camera leads itself from the forerunner of the photography, the Camera obscura („darken chamber “)off, the end 13. Century one used from astronomers to the sun observation. In place of a lens this camera exhibits only a small hole, by which the rays of light fall on a Projektionsfläche, of (on the head standing) the picture drawnwill can. In Edinburgh and Greenwich with London an accessible, room size Camera is obscura a tourist attraction.

16. - 17. Century

a break-through is 1550 the invention of the lens, with which produces brighter and at the same time sharper pictureswill can. 1685: Deflection mirror, an image can be drawn in such a way on paper.

18. Century: To forerunners and prehistory

see also Laterna magica, panorama and Diorama. Chemists such as Humphry Davy began already to examine photo-sensitive materials andto look for fixing means.

The oldest received photo of Nicéphore Niépce of 1826

19. Century: The early procedures

the first photography 1826 were manufactured by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. 1837 used Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre a better procedure,on the development of the photos by mercury - was based to steams and following adjustment in a hot saline solution or a Natriumthiosulfatlösung normally kept at a moderate temperature. One called in this way manufactured pictures , all together Unikate on silvered copper plates, Daguerreotypien. Already1835 invented the Englishman William Fox valley-offered the negative positive procedure. Also today still some of the historical procedures are used as noble compression matters in the forming art and artistic photography.

20. Century: The formats become small

photographies could firstonly as Unikate to be manufactured, with the introduction of the negative positive procedure also a duplication was in the contact procedure possible. The size of the finished photo corresponded to the photograph format, which required usually very large, unmanageable cameras in both cases. With that And 1925 imported 35mm camera, which used the conventional 35-mm-Kinofilm, developed roll film and in particular of Oskar Barnack with Leica developed completely new possibilities for a mobile, fast photography. Although, by the small format causes, additional devices were necessary for the enlargement,and the image quality with the large formats by far not to keep up could, became generally accepted the small picture within most ranges of the photography as standard format.

end 20. Century: Introduction of the digital photography

the first CCD (Charged coup LEDDevice) Still-Video-Kamera wurde 1970 vonBell konstruiert und 1972 melden Texas Instruments das erste Patent auf eine filmlose Kamera an, welche einen Fernsehbildschirm als Sucher verwendet.

1973 produced Fairchild Imaging the first commercial CCD with a dissolution of 100 x100 pixels.

This CCD was used 1975 in the first functional digital camera by Kodak. Developed it the inventor Steven Sasson. This camera weighed 3.6 kilograms, was larger than a toaster and needed still 23 seconds, in order to transfer a black-and-white picture with 100x100 pixels dissolution to a digital magnetic tape cassette; in order to make the picture on a screen visible, required it further 23 seconds.

1986 placed Canon with the RC-701 the first commercially available quiet video camera alsoto magnetic recording of the graphic data forwards, Minolta presented quietly the video bake SVB-90 for the Minolta 9000; by exchange of the rear wall of the small picture mirror reflex camera a digital mirror reflex camera became from the Minolta 9000; the graphic data on 2-Zoll-Disketten were stored.

1987 followed furtherModels of the RC-series of Canon as well as digital cameras of Fujifilm (ES-1), Konica (KC-400) and Sony (MVC-A7AF); also Chinon presented a rear wall for the digital picture recording with the CP9-AF. 1988 followed Nikon with the QV-1000C and 1990 and/or. 1991 Kodakwith the DCS system (digital Camera system) as well as Rollei with that digitally Scan luggage. Starting from beginning of the 1990er years can the digital photography to the commercial picture production department as introduced be regarded.

The technology of the digital photography revolutionized also the possibilities the digital art, in particular by the technology of the photo manipulation.

See also: Chronology of the photography, history of the photography, list of important inventions, noble compression matters

of differentiation ranges

the photography leaves itself in different style directions and after technicalDifferences divide. Organizations are for example possible after

photography as art

the art character of the photography was for a long timeTime disputed; the art theoretician Karl Pawek in its book formulates “ the optical age” intensified (oiled/Freiburg i. Break. 1963, S. 58): „The artist creates the reality, the photographer sees it. “

Also the photographer Henri Cartier Bresson, as painterstrained, the photography saw not as art form, but as handicraft: „The photography is a handicraft. Many want to make from it an art, but we are simply craftsmen, who must make their work good. “Simultaneous became straight Cartier Bressons photographies very earlyshown in museums and art exhibitions, so z. B. in the MoMa - retrospective (1947) and the Louvre - exhibition (1955).

Photography was operated already early as art (Julia Margaret Cameron, Lewis Carroll and OSCAR Gustave Rejlander into the 1860ern).For the first time the photography stepped Ray into Germany into the work federation - exhibition 1929 into Stuttgart to noteworthy extent to the public, already with international artists such as Edward Weston , Imogen Cunningham and one; at the latest since the MoMa - exhibitions of Edward Steichen (The Family OF one, 1955) and John Szarkowski (1960er) is photography as art generally recognition.

Today photography is accepted as adequate art form: Indicators for it are the increasing number of museums, collections and research establishmentsfor photography, the increase of the Professuren for photography as well as not least the risen value of photographies in art auctions and collecting tank circles. Numerous areas developed, so the landscape, act, industrie, theatre photography and. A. m., those within the photography own spheres of activityunfolded.

Fotografinnen and photographer

photographer in the Studio, around 1850

the photography as object of the art science coined/shaped by outstanding Fotografinnen and photographers as for example - without valuation across the time and style history of the photography - W. H. Valley-offered, E. S. Curtis, Henri Cartier Bresson, Ansel Adam, August Sander before that 2. World war, Otto stone ore, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Avedon, DIANE Arbus and innumerable different up to “modern ones” like Helmut Newton, Thomas Ruff, Jeff barrier and Andreas Gursky. With everyone of these famous photographers are connected certain time, certain view by photography, personal style - possibly within a certain field of activity of the photography - and its own topic.

Some photographers organized themselves in groups of artists such as f/64 around Edward Weston in the USA in the first half 20. Jh. or worked together in photo - or picture agencies such as Magnum photo or picture mountain, other one work against it preferentially alone.

Often artistically well-known photographers are rather inconspicuous in their “occupation of bread” and average “craftsmen”, only in their free work step them with exhibitions or by awards of the prize into the focus of the public. As example only the mode photographer Helmut Newton is, thatAdvertising photographer Reinhart wolf and the landscape and architecture photographer Robert Häusser mentioned: they became with completely different Sujets than those their daily work admit, i.e. act photography, Food and architecture photography and with artistic self-willed black-and-white photography.

The photography is however noneexclusive art form, but is operated also by countless amateur photographers; the amateur photography is the engine of the photo economy and motivation for the production of the very most pictures, whose number goes world-wide monthly into the billions.

See also: List of important photographers

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Theorie und Praxis

Die Fotografie wird in zahlreichen Einzeltheorien diskutiert, eine einheitliche und umfassende Theorie der Fotografie existiert jedoch bisher nicht. Photo practice is characterized by the formative burr migration between the photographic technology and the desired picture statement; it hasin the past approximately sixty years out-differentiates themselves and covers countless ranges from snapshot photography and vacation photography over aerial photograph photography and scientific photography up to Studiofotografie, mirror-image-guessistic photography and digital art.

special ranges to the photography

givessome ranges of the photography, within which partially with special Gerätschaften or special films one works or in those problems to arise, with which the “normal” photographer is not confronted. For this count and. A. :

Röntgenfotografie
Roentgen photography

see also

literature

of books

  • Ansel Adam, the camera, Christian 2002 - ISBN 388-472-070-8
  • Ansel Adam, the negative, Christian 1998 - ISBN 388-472-071-6
  • Ansel Adam, the positive, Christian 1998 - ISBN 388-472-072-4
  • Roland Barthes, the bright chamber. Remark on the photography, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1994
  • Pierre Bourdieu, a illegitimeArt: the social usages of the photography, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1983
  • Bernd shrubs, exposed world: a perception history of the photography, Munich: Hanser 1989
  • Gisèle friend, photography and society, Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt 1993
  • Judith Freyer Davidov, Women's CameraWork: Self/Body/Other in American Visual Culture, Duke University press 1998
  • Stefan hard TIG, organization and perception of publicly relation pictures. Theories from the science. In: [1]
  • Wolfgang Kemp (Hrg.), theory of the photography, 3 volumes
  • Hans Michael Koetzle, the encyclopedia of the photographers:1900 until today, Munich: Knaur 2002
  • Therese Mulligan, David Wooters, history of the photography from 1839 to today, bags publishing house 2000
  • Beaumont new-resound, history of the photography, Schirmer, Mosel, Munich 1998
  • (Franz Xaver Schlegel) the work. Technical photo studies (1931).Preface of Eugen Diesel (1931). Reprint of the first edition 1931 together with materials to edition history. Introductory essay of Franz Xaver Schlegel (2002). Hrsg. of the Albertina, Vienna. King stone i. Ts. 2002 (= the blue books).ISBN 3-7845-3560-7
  • Franz Xaver Schlegel, the life of the deadThings - studies to the modern special photography in the USA 1914-1935, 2 volumes, Stuttgart: Kind in would run 1999
  • Sigrid cutters and Stefanie Grebe, real truely!: Reality promise of photographies, Ostfildern Ruit: Hatje Cantz], 2004
  • Susan Sontag, over photography, Vienna:Hanser 2002
  • Susan Sontag, which others regard a suffering , Frankfurt/Main: Fischer 2005
  • Tom! Stringer-wipe, the large Humboldt photo training course, Humboldt publishing house 2005 - ISBN 389-994-017-2
  • history of the photography - from 1839 to today. 25 years bags. Expenditure for anniversary, bag publishing house 2005- ISBN 382-284-775-5

magazines

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