Frankish realm

the Frankish realm was a kingdom in west and Central Europe between that 5. and 9. Century, which formed in the Western European area of the Roman realm.

The Frankish realm decreases/goes back to several Germanic peoples of the people migration time .

By fate and luck the realm of Franconias became within three centuries the most important country of Central Europe. The Frankish realm developed after the decay of the antique Roman realm to the center of power and later to the great power in Central Europe. It became throughthe dynasties of the Merowinger and Karolinger governs. It reached the high point of its power and expansion under Karl the large one.

Karte: Das Frankenreich beim Tode Pippins 768 und die Eroberungen Karls des Großen
Map: The Franconia realm with death beep pin 768 and conquests of Karl large

table of contents

Web on the left of [work on

]

history [work on

] the merowingische

Franconia realm at the beginning 4. Century settled in the area of the Roman realm Germanic trunks as Föderaten. These due to the military problems of Rome the settler's claim was given, in expectation that they would then defend the realm borders. At the northeast end Galliens settled Germanic Franconias, which the collapse of the WestRoman realm (in order 476, whereby Gallien already entglitten after the death of the army master Aëtius of Roman control more and more were) used, in order to increase their area, similarly as the Westgoten in the south. In the north Galliens had itself inRoman remainder realm under the Roman governor Syagrius, Aegidius can hold son of the army master for who, in the area around Soissons, which was cut off of the remainder of the Imperiums (since 464). 486/487 defeated Franconias under Chlodwig I.Syagriusand conquered its rule area. Thus the border of the Franconia realm to to the Loire shifted. Chlodwig, which was before only one of several Frankish small kings, used so the chance to eliminate the partial kingdoms and to create a Germanic-Roman state.It led 506 a Alamannenkrieg and struck 507 the Westgoten with Vouillé, whereby it displaced the latters thereby nearly completely out of Gallien.

The possession of the basic gentlemen, who were killed or driven out during the Frankish conquest wars, arrived to that into the possessionCrown (king property). Thus Chlodwig financed its further campaigns and strengthened its king power. The king became gradually largest basic owner. By land donations it brought other princes into direct dependence, from which the leaning nature developed. The king lent the country upTime, because that more largely becoming royal property, which was result of the constant wars, had to be also administered. On the other hand it gave as well as no money economy in the Frankish realm. Thus the Frankish, frühfeudale society develops from these conditions.

Chlodwigin addition, took over the functional lateantique Roman administrative machinery (their core particularly in the south those civitates were). The power of the local bishops, who had often transferred functions of the administration to that civtates, played an important role, so that itself the catholic churchto a further power support of the king to develop should. By the influence of the Burgunderin Chlothilde Chlodwig I. stepped. to the catholic Christianity over. With its baptism (perhaps 498; the exact date is disputed) secured itself he the support by the catholicChurch and made possible such a with one another of Franconias and gallo Roman population. Soon thereafter also late ancient times transition period passed in Gallien, the early Middle Ages accepted slowly shape. The royal messengers (counts and bishops) were certain intersperse Chlodwigs royal arrangements. BesidesChlodwig 511 implemented a relevant influence of Frankish kings on the Bischofsinvestitur on the first Reichsynode and tried to create a uniform church legislation for the Franconia realm. In early 6. Century (after 507) developed latin collection of the people rightFranconia (Lex Salica).

the ascent of the Pippiniden

after death Chlodwigs (511) was divided the realm among its four sons. The realm unit could be manufactured by Chlodwigs successor again and again (howabove all Theudebert I. of importance, the one expansive policy in Italy operated ), but brought it is the Germanic tradition with itself that it came again and again to handing hurrying among the sons with the death of the father. 639 Dagobert I. died., the last important Merowinger, and left the realm to its united again son. True power was however with the house Meier Aega and the widow Dagoberts.

The house Meier strove now also for entire power in the realm. A Intermezzo brought thoseYears 657 - 662, in those the son of the house Meier Grimoald, which entered under the name Childebertus adoptivus history, of the Merowinger Sigibert III. one adopted and in these years on the throne sat. In that Finally battle with Tertry (687) defeated the austrasische house Meier beep pin II. and so the condition for the further ascent of the Pippiniden and later that created the legal ruler of the Frankish total realm the Karolinger. Beep pin dares it howeverafter in the final result “coup d'etat” Grimoalds did not fail yet to rise to the king because it does not have the ererbte king welfare.

714, after death beep pins, been inflamed struggles for power, in those itself 719 his illegitimate son Karl Martellinterspersed. The Karl well-known for its hardness and its ability of getting through stood for problems with regard to foreign policy before difficult interior and. Some leaders of the old realm aristocracy sexes in the Franconia realm tried again and again to revolt itself against its rule. The year 732 represented a turning point. Inand Poitiers Karl defeated, together to the battle with route with its former enemy Eudo of Aquitanien and supports from the Langobarden, the Arabs. For this he was celebrated as a rescuer of the evening country. Also the fights against Friesen, Saxonia, Bajuwaren and Alamannen strengthened its rule. Besides it supported the mission work of bishop Bonifatius in these areas. Starting from 737 it prevails after the death of the merowingischen king Theuderich IV.however over the Franconia realm, like already its father without king titles.After Frankish tradition Karl Martell divided the realm briefly before his death among its sons Karl man and beep pin III. up.

the Franconia realm under the Karolingern

beep pin III. became autocrat, after its brother had gone into the monastery andit likewise the last merowingischen king, Childerich III., there had sent. it left itself to 751 then after alttestamentlichem model to the king ointments. Three years later it Pope Stephan III. salbte. a second time. In the contract of Quierzy (754) beep pin promised to return the former Exarchat of Ravenna to the Pope (Pippini donation); in response the Pope legitimized the Karolinger as kings of the Franconia realm. The Frankish king the request already overtook 755 to follow the contract. Up to itsBeep pin of two successful campaigns leads and gave death against the Langobarden to the Pope the conquered areas. Beep pin III. is considered in such a way as a founder of the church state. With its death 768 it left a realm, that to its sons politically as economical inStructure was understood.

Die Krönung Karls des Großen in Rom, Historiengemälde von Alfred Rethel (Krönungssaal des Aachener Rathauses, 1944 zerstört)
The coronation/culmination of Karl of the large one in Rome, history painting of Alfred Rethel (coronation/culmination hall of the Aachener of city hall, 1944 destroyed)

short time (771) died later the younger brother of Karl the large one. This became thereby autocrat. ThroughKarl was committed the contract with the Pope, closed of its father, to this. Since the Langobarden did not recognize the donations beep pin, Karl far against her war led and conquered their realm in the year 774. Beside the Langobardenfeldzügen those walkedMissionierung in the east in front. Particularly the wars against the Saxonia determined the policy of Karl to 785, that year, in which Widukind was subjected to the Frankish king. The Saxonia wars lasted still to 804 away (last campaign of Franconias after Nordelbien).

The numerous wars caused a progressive Feudalisierung, a stabilization that realms and a rise of the feudalabhängigen farmers. In the result this development possession and power of the Feudalherren, in particular the king (and later emperor) and the dukes grew. Also the churchtheir power could strengthen. Karl consolidated the Staatsmacht outward by the establishment of limit marks. These were bulwarks for the realm defense and marching-up areas for wars of aggression. For administration it used Mark counts, who were equipped with special rights, there thoseMarks part of the realm were not direct and thus also outside of the realm condition stood. In the marks a militaryful population of farmer was settled as well as built castles. The marks were particularly important in Kärnten (Karantanien) and the Marcha Orientalis (Awarenmark),from those late Austria followed (see also Ostarrîchi).

For the further consolidation of his rule inward Karl centralized the king rule by an administrative reform (around 793). The king rule was based on the royal yard, the Pfalzgericht and the Kanzlei. InRichly counts administered the king goods (Pfalzen). Both the counts and the Mark counts were controlled by king messengers (missi dominici) and spoke royal right. Aachen became the imperial palace and the center of the Franconia realm under Karl.

The high pointits power reached Karl with the emperor coronation/culmination in Rome to 25. December 800. The Franconia realm was now final beside Byzantine empire and the Kalifat of the Abbasiden a recognized great power.

the fall of the Franconia realm

after 46-jähriger ruleKarl 814 in Aachen died. His son Ludwig the pious one became emperor. This tried, against the Germanic tradition, which planned the allocation of the inheritance and like it also the large one in the Divisio Regnorum of 806 had determined Karl, thoseRealm unit to protect and issued handing hurrying or better to 817: Realm unit law (Ordinatio imperii). Finally was considered also as indivisible. Therefore Ludwig intended his son Lothar for the Mitkaiser. The law planned that always the oldest son of theEmperor inherited the title of the Roman emperor. Ludwig decided for the realm unit thought, although under church influence, which saw the unit of the realm as counterpart to the unit of the church. Thus the bishops played also a special political role: Itplaced themselves against the sons of the emperor, who were for the allocation of the realm. Since 829 these tensions led to military conflicts between the emperor and its sons.

When Ludwig 840 died, Lothar I. became.united exclusive ruler, butitself the sons 843 in the contract of Verdun to divide the Franconia realm. Later the realm was continued to divide by the Prümer division (855) and the contracts of Mersen (870 ) and Ribemont (880). The realm unitnever one repaired. Different customs, customs, languages developed and became the individual handing hurry in such a way independent states. Some one spoke time on it of west and eastFrankish realm, until this reference to the common origin disappeared one century later.From the old Franconia realm only the western part should take over the nameFrance “and the central state. Germany developing from the east Franconia realm - or: the holy Roman realm of German nation - the tradition of the Roman continued dock ore around.

allocation of the Frankish realm

Divisio Regnorum (806)

the will of Karl of the large one saw the allocation among its sons beep pin, Ludwig the pious one and Karl the younger one forwards (see Divisio Regnorum). There howeverBeep pin and Karl the younger one already 810 and/or. 811 deceased, this plan was given up and to Ludwig instead 813 to the Mitkaiser raised, which could begin its follow-up so now after the death of its father of 814 all rights imperial in the possession.

contract of Verdun (843)

Die Gebietsaufteilung im Vertrag von Verdun 843
the dismemberment in the contract of Verdun 843

The allocation of the Frankish empireludwig I. decreased/went back to the partly martial succession controversy, the emperor., the pious one, with its sons led. After a palace revolution and a capture emperor Ludwig I. became. Beginning of the 30's of its sons entmachtet. Starting from 831/832 those verselbstständigtenSons increasingly their rule ranges in the realm federation and left its father in the function of a Titularkaisers. Three years after the death of their father led emperors Lothar I., King Karl the bald one, and king Ludwig the German 843 in Contract of Verdun the division and the end of the Frankish empire; the realm unit was not to be ensured no more and ended actually with the contract of Verdun.

Prümer division (855)

855 caused Lothar I. in that Prümer division the allocation of the central realm among its sons.

contract of Mersen (870)

after the death of the sons Lothar I. the former central realm divided under Karl the bald one and Ludwig the German. - Contract of Mersen

contract of Ribemont (880)

after futile attempts of Karl of the bald one, which received whole central realm to conquer (battle with other oh one 876), to Ludwig III.the west half Lotharingiens. Thus the allocation of the Franconia realm was provisionally final, the border betweenthe west and East part remained over almost unchanged the whole Middle Ages.

After the death of the westFrankish kings Ludwig III. (882) and Karl man (884), became the eastFrankish king Karl III. (the thickness) to 888 still last emperor of the total realm (except Niederburgund).The controversy between (later) the succession states (Germany, France) around parts of the central realm handed as so-called “hereditary enmity “to in 20. Century inside.

literature

to the Merowingern

  • Eugen eternal: The Merowinger and thatFranconia realm, 4. supplemented edition, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne 2001.
  • Eugen eternal: Lateantique and Frankish Gallien. Collected writings, 2 Bde., Munich, Zurich 1976-79.
  • Michael borrow-oiled: The counts Alemanniens in merowingischer and karolingischer time. A Prosopographie, sigma rings 1986.
  • Franz Irsigler: Investigations for the history of the earlyFrankish aristocracy, Bonn 1969.
  • Patrick J. Geary: The Merowinger. Europe before Karl the large one, Munich 2003. (orig. Before France and Germany, 1988)
  • Ian Wood: The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450-751, London 1994.

to the Karolingern

  • Rudolf Schieffer: The Karolinger, 3. revised edition, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne 2000.
  • Gunter G. Wolf (Hg.): To the Kaisertum Karl D. Gr., contributions and essays, Darmstadt 1972.
  • Pierre Riché: The world of the Karolinger, translates and. Hg. of Cornelia and Ulf Dirlmeier, Stuttgart 1981.
  • Peter Classen: Karl the large one, the papacy and Byzanz, Duesseldorf 1968.
  • Dieter Hägermann: Karl the large one, ruler of the evening country, Munich 2003.

article used

Web on the left of

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)