Francis de Rottenburg

Francis de Rottenburg, eigentl. Franz baron von Rottenburg (* 4. or 8. November 1757 in Danzig; † 24. April 1832 in Portsmouth, England) was German a British general and military writer - Polish origin.


Franz (of) gang castle was born in November 1757 in Danzig as a son of Franz Gottfried gang castle, a wealthy buyer and landowner of German origin. The origin of the title of nobility led by it is not well-known. Over its youth white one few, but permitted certainly it the fortune of its father to him to acquire a good education. It made it for it possible to occur 1782 with the rank of a vice-second lieutenant the French army. 1785 he became a second lieutenant, acknowledged however in September 1791 the service and returned to Poland. Here he took part in Tadeusz Kościuszkos unsuccessful rebellion against the Russian foreign rule, kommandierte themselves an infantry battalion and 1794 in the battle with Praga was wounded. After the end of the rebellion gang castle at the end of of 1795 occurred a mercenary unit of the British Royal Army as a major the Hussar regiment Hompesch . it helped 1798 with the list of a regiment light infantry (Tirailleure/Füsiliere, English. Rifles). As from this unit 60. British infantry regiment was formed, received to gang castle the rank of a lieutenant colonel and the command over 5. Battalion. Here it concerned the first unit of the British army, which was equipped not with mash ketene, but with that far basic rifles and trained for the employment in dissolved formation ( as a sniper , Plänkler among other things). With this battalion gang castle was involved in striking down a rebellion in Ireland and in conquest by Surinam in August 1799.

During this time gang castle wrote a set of instructions for the training more easily infantry. It 1798 of „was to Office “under the title “regularization for the exercise OF riflemen and light infantry” published, several times again presented and developed substantial influence on military thinking of the British army. Sir John moorlands, the British officer of this time most brilliant beside Wellington, used it as basis for the list of an easy division, which played Wellingtons with its and campaigns in Portugal and Spain a prominent role. 1805 were promoted gang castle to Colonel, received to 1808 the command over a brigade and participated 1809 as a commander of the light infantry in the milling ago EN expedition .

Gang castle had been appointed already 1808 the Brigadier General in the general staff for North America, began this position in Quebec only 1810 after his transport to the major general . After the outbreak of the war of 1812 with the USA it received the command in July 1812 over the strategically important district from Montréal, temporarily represented it also governor general Sir George Prevost. After the separation of Sir Roger resound to Sheaffe as administrator and a Commander-in-Chief of upper Canada took over it in July 1813 its office. Gang castle hardly brought interest for the affairs of the civil administration up and proved militarily as a careful commander, who avoided it to die risks. On the main theater of the war at the Niagara River tried he, the Americans as far as possible on away George back urge, avoided however an open battle. By its refusal to place additional troops ready it prevented major general Henry Procter and the naval commander Robert Heriot Barclay to attack the US fleet basis Presque Isle at the Eriesee. With a success this attack would have prevented the following defeats in the battle on the Eriesee and at the Thames River, by which British position in the west broke down to a large extent. On the message of the defeat Procters at the Thames River considered gang castle the evacuation whole western Canada to Kingston, was limited however to a retreat up to the Burlington - heights on the Niagara peninsula. Gang castle was still in Kingston, when in September an American army advanced under major general James Wilkinson along the sinking Lorenz stream on Montréal. Of gang castle with a small, v.a. from career soldiers knew existing contingent detachierte Colonels Joseph Wanton Morrison the far superior aggressors however at the 11. And force they add November in the battle with Chrysler's to farm a sensitive defeat to the retreat. It afterwards the imposition of the martial law for some districts of upper Canada acted large annoyance in, with which it wanted to force the Farmer to sell to the army of supply goods.

After the arrival of his successor lieutenant general Gordon Drummond in December 1813 gang castle received the supreme command over troops in Niederkanada at the sinking Lorenz stream. Governor general Prevost, which estimated him as a reliable Untergebenen, transferred it for his campaign from September 1814 against the USA the command over three brigades. In the battle with flat castle it played nevertheless no considerable role and was probably therefore affected by the substantial criticism hardly, which had to let Prevost be issued after this failed enterprise over itself. At the end of of 1814 represented gang castle Prevost as administrator and a commander in chief in Niederkanada, held the presidency of the court martial against major general Henry Procter and in the summer 1815 to Great Britain was temporarily recalled. He did not come any longer in the active service to the use, received several honors, under it also 1819 the transport to the lieutenant general, and died to 24. April 1832 in Portsmouth.

Francis de Rottenburg was married since 1802 with July IANA Wilhelmina Carolina von Orelli, the daughter of Johann Ulrich of Orelli, a neapolitanischen general. From the marriage the son George Frederick de Rottenburg and a daughter originated.

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