Francisco Franco

of these articles is concerned with the person Francisco Francos. To the system and for the ideology of his rule see. Franquismus.

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo (* 4. December 1892 in Ferrol, Galicien; † 20. November 1975 in Madrid) was a dictator and a general.

In the time of 1939 up to its death Franco was a head of state of Spain. It governs the country after the victory the insurgent in the Spanish civil war toto its death diktatorisch. Franco was called in Spain el Caudillo (“the leader”). Following this title its birth city El Ferrol was called from 1938 to 1982 El Ferrol del Caudillo.

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Persönliche Standarte von Francisco Franco 1940 - 1975
personal banner of Francisco Franco 1940 - 1975

Franco as a son of the naval officer Nicolás Franco and its Mrs. María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pedo de Andrade was born. At the agefrom 15 years Franco occurred in the year 1907 the military academy Toledo . In the year 1910 Franco was shifted to Spanish Morocco, in order in the there colonial war to be used. Franco took part among other things in striking down a rebellion thatRifkabylen living Berberstämme called in the calling Atlas. For its achievements in the Morocco war Franco at the age of 23 years of king became Alfonso XIII. appointed the youngest major of the Spanish army. This was the starting point of a steep career in the SpanishMilitary. In the year 1922 Franco was appointed the commander of the Spanish Fremdenlegion. One year later he married Carmen Polo Meléndez Valdés, with which he had a daughter. 1926 became Franco the youngest general of a European army and after thatEnd of the war in Spanish Morocco in the year 1927 appointed the director/conductor of the highest military academy in Saragossa.

With the second republic in Spain in the year 1931 the locking of the military academy led by Franco came. Franco becomes successively the military governor in La Coruña and on the Balearen. In the year 1934 it struck down a large worker rebellion in Asturien, which was directed against the new right-conservative government of Spain as a commander of the Fremdenlegion. Due to its compromiseless procedure against the insurgent ones Franco receivesAcknowledgment in right political circles. In the consequence Franco was appointed 1935 the commander in chief of the Spanish army in Morocco.

In July 1936 it came into Morocco to a military revolt of nationalistic forces, those on the motherland spread immediately and to Spanish civil war led. The leaders of the rebellion formed a junta, the Franco at the 1. Octobers 1936 to the boss of the nationalSpanish government and of insurgent controlled part of the Spanish state appointed and him as the Generalissimus (Generalísimo) appointed. InNovember 1936 was recognized its government of Germany and Italy and supported by these both politically and militarily.

A goal at the beginning of its rule was first the victory over the Spanish republic. With the end of the Spanish of civil war to 1. April 1939 established Franco gradually its power base and proceeded against its political opponents with extreme hardness. Franco and/or. extensive politically motivated crimes are accused to the leaders of the national movement stated by him (and. A. Torture and murder ofpolitical opponents).

The regime, which developed Franco starting from 1939, was based on the close connection of traditionally conservative conceptions with fascist principles, the latters became v. A. of the most important wing of the franquistischen state party Movimiento Nacional, which defended Falange. Democratic one andregionalistic tendencies (v. A. in the Basque country and Katalonien) were suppressed.

During the Second World War Franco referred a neutral position of Spain in relation to the war parties. However he preserved without a doubt sympathies for the Axis powers. Franco Spain was since 1939 member in Antikominternpakt, later also in the steel pact. The only considerable military support of the Axis powers Germany and Italy existed in the supply of the blue division (División Azul) at the east front in the war against the Soviet Union until 1943. A militaryOccupation of Gibraltar, Hitler von Franco with a meeting to 23. October 1940 in the French place Hendaye required would have led and to the entrance of Spain into the Second World War, rejected Franco categorically. Hitler meant after the meeting, itcould be rather pulled several teeth than negotiating again with Franco. Franco let Germany supply however until 1944 with war-important raw materials (tungsten etc.).

With the end of the Second World War Franco of one saw itself in particular from the USA and Great Britain forced in relation to isolation. The economically extremely precarious situation sought to bridge Franco with its good relations with peronistischen Argentina and with the Arab world - Spain had not recognized the new State of Israel -. The situation changed itself as well onlythe cold war, which induced above all the USA to it, more intensive, to look for also military contacts to Spain. Harry S. Truman, which had seen Franco first still in a row with Hitler and Mussolini, took after outbreak of theKorea war rather against-willingly diplomatic relations with Spain up. The negotiations over US-Militärbasen in Spanish area dragged on also owing to Francos persistent taktierens until 1953. President Eisenhower came in the year 1959 on state visit.

Into the 1960er years saw itself Francoboth with a dynamic economic development and increasing social and political tensions confronts. Owing to a stable support in the military, in addition, in the important catholic church of the country and with the large basic owners, it succeeded to Franco the situation politically intact tooproject. For the follow-up Francos had been already planned 1947 the re-establishment of the monarchy.

1961 are Franco to have considered, Otto von Habsburg after its death as king have used. According to own statement of Otto von Habsburg Franco submitted this suggestion. Ottoit leaned off with the reason that he was not an usurper. Otto suggested Franco Juan Carlo. Franco determines 1969 that Juan Carlo de Borbón, who is to preside grandchild Alfons XIII., after its death of the government as a king. With thatDeath Francos to 20. November 1975 was thus already marked the restoration of the monarchy in Spain.

Over the end of the dictator the Franco opponent Luis Buñuel wrote: “I finally pitied even Franco, which one for months under dreadful sufferingartificially alive held.“The Spanish “Caudillo” (leader) had been in-supplied after a cardiac infarct in October 1975 to the Madrider hospital La Paz. To 20. November the life-supporting machines were turned off when desired the family. Among the treating physicians founditself also the son-in-law of the dictator, Marquis de Villaverde. Franco is loosely Caídos in the Sierra de Guadarrama buried in the Valle de. From 1940 to its death Franco in the former king palace El Pardo lived northwest from Madrid.

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the peaceful transition of Spain from the Franco regime to the democracy took place to a large extent without processing of the Franco time.

Thus became only at the night to 17. March 2005 the seven meters high franc east atue on the Plaza San Juan de la Cruzin Madrid removes. In run the night and the daily had the police against some excited opponents of the action to intervene. Representatives of the oppositional Partido popular of the ex Prime Minister José María Aznar criticized this politics. With the elimination „historical symbols on thatRoads “were only opened „wounds “.

To 9. February 2005 had decided the Spanish parliament (Congreso) the disassembly of the rider fixed image Francos in the military academy of Saragossa, still remained. Partido popular and Coalición Canaria contained here of the voice. In the meantimehowever all Franco symbols from the townscapes of Spain disappeared. Also all after Franco designated roads were renamed. Alone the tomb of the dictator north of Madrid near the El Escorial remained as memorial and from far away visibly.

ThoseGovernment Zapatero announced in March 2005 to rehabilitate Franco victims to clear human right crimes up and to banish symbols of fascism from the public.

see also

to literature

  • Juan Pablo Fusi Aizpurúa: Franco. Spainunder the dictatorship 1936-1975. 1. Edition. dtv, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-423-04576-0
  • Claude Martin: Franco. A biography. Stocker, Graz 1995, ISBN 3-7020-0731-8
  • Paul Preston: Franco. A Biography. Fontana press, London 1993, ISBN 0-00-686210-1 (also in Spanish available)
  • Eberhard Straub: The SpanishCentury. Publishing house: Settler, 2004, ISBN 3886807398

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