Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933

Franklin Delano Roosevelt [ˈfɹæŋklɪnˈdɛlənoʊˈɹoʊzvɛlt] (* 30. January 1882 in Hyde park, New York; † 12. April 1945 in warm jump, Georgia) was from 1933 toto its death 1945 of the 32.President of the United States of America (the USA). He was candidate of the democratic party and after his first term of office three times was red-elect (1936, 1940, 1944) - he is thereby an only president thatThe USA, which officiated longer than 2 electoral periods; because only since a constitutional amendment in the year 1951 there is a formal delimitation on two terms of office, the presidents before Roosevelt this however everything as informal principle had recognized.

Table of contents

lives

Franklin D. Roosevelt was with republican 26. US president Theodore Roosevelt related. It came of to one the wealthiestand most distinguished families new Yorks. Its father James Roosevelt was predominantly in the building of railways active. It undertook frequently European journeys, usually in company of its entire family. Therefore Franklin spent D. Roosevelt a part of its childhood in Europe, among them between 1891 and 1896several months in the German cure city bath Nauheim, where it visited time also for some the school.

Roosevelt was member the Holland Lodge No. 8 the Freimaurer in New York. Since its 40. He suffered Lebensjahr from Poliomyelitissince that time and was usually dependent on the use of a wheelchair. Married it was since that 17. March 1905 with Eleanor Roosevelt, likewise relatives (niece of Theodore Roosevelt). It became later even a well-known person of the public life.

politics in the 30's

„new Deal “

the collapse of the stock market of 1929 (black Friday) followed a world economic crisis. In US-American forming out it became as „Great depression “(dt. „Large depression “) designates.In the course of this crisis Roosevelt, before since 1929 governor of the State of New York , won the choice 1932 against the republican candidate harsh ore C. Hoover, to which the debt at the crisis and courage lacking was given was accused to decisions.From Roosevelt one expected above all radical reforms, in order to set the wide-spread social emergency in motion too lindern and the economy again. Under the key word new Deal it accomplished drastic restaurant reforms in favor of larger social responsibility. Generally it gave to that1930er-Jahren a left social movement minted strongly for US conditions, popular the front.

„Good Neighbor Policy “

Roosevelt is particularly for its state-interventionist social and economic policy and as a leader personality during time 2. Admits of world war. In addition,for a long time before the war it had rendered services around the establishment of a fairer world order. In the office introduction speech before the congress in March 1933 it announced its vision with regard to foreign policy „of the Good Neighbor Policy “(„Aussenpolitk of the good neighbourhood “). Its guidelinewas based thereby on the categorical imperative. Roosevelt was convinced of the fact that the world-wide imperialistic overstretching of the USA the revolutionary origin ideals of its country contrary-ran.

The cooperative, gutnachbarschaftlichen and equal exchange relations of the rural municipalities Americas among themselves was the model, after thatthe USA under Roosevelt also the international relations furnished to know wanted. From this very pragmatic, from „COMM on scythe “(reason) the coined/shaped beginning out was for Roosevelt the foreign policy always also a direct function of an human social policy created on reconciliation, development and justiceon the inside.

This had to make the presidents inevitably a natural antagonist of the European dictators Hitler and Mussolini and the Japanese empire.

In place of a close nationalism Roosevelt the thought of the global dependence of all of all („One World “) searched in itsTo help foreign policy to the validity. Also the world-wide industriellen and the financial interests of the American companies should subordinate themselves to this:

„Incoming goods now realize, as incoming goods have more never realized before, our interdependence with each OTHER that incoming goods CAN emergency merely take but incoming goods mustgive as wave. “(„we determine now, how we it never before determined have that we depend from each other - that we can not only take, but also to give to have. “)

Few months before it Roosevelt died, wrote:

„incoming goods CAN emergency live thatalone, RK peace; that our own wave being is dependency on the wave being OF OTHER nation-far away. Incoming goods have learned ton citizens OF the world, members OF the human community. Incoming goods have learned the simple truth OF Emerson that `theonly way ton have A friend is tons one. ' “(„that we cannot live alone in peace; that our own well-being being issued of the well-being being issued of other nations depends - far nations removed. We learned to be citizens of the world membersthe human community. We have the simple truth Emersons that ‚the only way to have a friend is, one to be learned `. “)

With these words Roosevelt has its vision of the international relations and of the foreign policy of the USA tomost concentrated in summary.

It is therefore no coincidence that Roosevelt near-went still in the war years to the elaboration of a fair postwar order and in San Francisco 1944 advanced the establishment of the United Nations ( 1945).

the Second World War

defiance more formallyNeutrality supported Roosevelt Great Britain since beginning of the Second World War 1939, among other things with the borrowing and lease law, which made those on loan for supply of weapons and material possible up to whole warships at England. Only the Japanese attack on thatUS fleet base Pearl Harbor on Hawaii and the German declaration of war of 7. Decembers 1941 provided for a tendency reversal in the USA and made it for Roosevelt possible to occur directly at the side of Great Britain and the Soviet Union the war.

During the war appointedit itself with a conscious objective against Hitler and the Nazis gladly on its “Jewish ancestors”. It does not concern a purely rhetorical empty phrase. Jewish ancestors became in his family immigrated in the 17.Jahrhundert from the Netherlands to North Americaproven by Heraldikern, however generations were past.

With the British Prime Minister vienna clay/tone Churchill he agreed on the principle „Germany roofridge “, thus on the priority of the war against Adolf Hitler German Reich (see time of the national socialism). To the conferencefrom Casablanca in January 1943 it implemented the demand against Churchill's doubts after the unconditional military surrender of the German Reich.

In the Atlantic Charter, which anticipated the establishment document of the United Nations, he agreed with Churchill on the principles of onePostwar order. It should be justified onthe four liberties “. It had these already in a speech of 6. January 1941 outlines:

„Of the future, which we want to make a future of security, we expect a world, thoseon four crucial liberties of mankind is based.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, Washington, DC
  1. the first liberty is the liberty of the speech and the expression of opinion - everywhere in the world.
  2. The second liberty is the liberty of everyone, God upto serve its way - everywhere in the world.
  3. The third liberty is liberty of emergency. That means, seen of the criterion of the world, ensures economic communication, those for each nation a healthy, peaceful life everywhere in the world.
  4. FourthLiberty is liberty of fear. That means, seen of the criterion of the world, world-wide disarmament, to attack any neighbour with force of arms so thoroughly and so to a large extent that no more people will be able, - everywhere in the world.
That is no vision of a far thousand-year old realm. It is a firm basis for a world, which can be carried out in our time and for our generation. This world stands for the tyranny, which in deepest contrast to the so-called “new order”the dictators in cracking the bombs to establish look for. “

As the most important means to realize these liberties in the international political order after the war it regarded the establishment of the United Nations. In order to merge also the Soviet Union into the world-wide organization,it was ready to the conferences from Teheran and Jalta to substantial concessions at Stalin.

Few weeks after the conference of Jalta, briefly before the end of the Second World War in Europe, Franklin Delano Roosevelt died to 12. April 1945 inOlder of 63 years surprisingly at a brain bleeding. Its office took over its third vice-president Harry S. Truman.

literature

  • Dirk Bavendamm: Roosevelts way to the war: American policy 1914-1939. 1989, Ullstein TB-publishing house, ISBN 3-548-33115-7, ISBN 3-7766-2058-7
  • Detlef Junker: Franklin D. Roosevelt, power and vision: President in crisis periods. Sample Schmidt publishing house, ISBN 3-7881-0105-9

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