French Guayana

Guyane française
French Guayana
Flagge Französisch-Guayanas Wappen Französisch-Guayanas
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
(French - „liberty, equality, fraternity “)
capital Cayenne
Arrondissements of 2
cantons 19
municipalities of 22
inhabitants 195,506 (July 2005)
surface 91,000 km ²
population density of 2 inhabitants per km ²
Präfekt Ange Mancini
time belt UTC - 3 h
internet TLD .gf
preselection +594
Position von Französisch-Guayana in Südamerika
Landkarte Französisch-Guayana

French Guayana (also French Guyana, French Guyane française [gɥiˌjanfʀɑ̃ˈsɛz] or Guyane) is a Überseedépartement and a region of France and lies in the north of South America to Atlantic ocean between Brazil and Suriname with 4° northern latitude and 53° of western length.

French Guayana is an integral component of the French state and concomitantly part of the European union. The euro is as in the French motherland the legal tender.

Table of contents


the Département covers a surface of 91.000 km ² and is nearly as large thereby as Portugal. It has one 378 kilometers long coast at the Atlantic as well as 673 kilometers of border to Brazil and 510 kilometers to Suriname.

The area has portion of the Guayani mountain country, itself over 1.5 million km ² in the northeast of the South AmericanContinent extends.

The highest collection is the Mont Bellevue de Inini with 850 m sea-height. In the south of the country a smaller low mountain range with maximum collections extends around 800 m, the Massif Tabulaire. The most important rivers are from westafter east of the Maroni, which forms the border to Suriname, the Sinnamary, the Approuague and the Oyapok, at the same time the border to Brazil.

French Guayana exhibits the largest coherent forest area of France and the European union. 90% of theCountry are covered with tropical rain forests. The by far largest part of the population lives at the coast, where the largest cities are.

The climate is tropical. Over the entire year it surrounds constant temperatures, on the average28 °C lies. From August to Decembers drying time, in the remaining months - excluded March - is rain time prevails. The average relative air humidity lies between 80 and 90%. The coastal region profits from the trade winds of the Atlantiks and the coolnessthe rain forest in the south and the west. Differently than in the Karibik is there no Zyklone.


major item: History French Guayanas

already 1498 discovered Christoph Kolumbus the coast Guayanas. There but only about hundred years later settled themselvesEuropean emigrants on first Dutchmen and starting from 1604 Frenchmen and Englishmen.

1947 became French Guayana as Überseedépartement an integral component of France and received so a reduced autonomy. In the French national assembly and in the senate is the Département since then alsotwo members represent.

French Guayana for „the archipelago of the condemned ones became famous and notoriously “on the Îles you Salut (belonged to those also the devil island), a French penal colony, which existed from 1852 to 1951. Up to 70.000 humans from allsocial layers had under most adverse conditions there their existence periods.

1968 built the Europeans in Kourou a rocket launching area, which was constantly extended in the course of the time. The success of the Ariane - program and carried a skillful enterprise strategy of the operator company Arianespace substantiallyin addition.


like all other Départements are also French Guayana in the French legislation by people and Gemeindevertreter present, then it possesses ever two mandates in the national assembly and in the senate.

All French laws find in GuayanaApplication. However consideration can be taken according to the article 73 of the French condition on local characteristics.

French Guayana forms since the decentralization laws of at the same time 1982 a Département and a region of France. Guayana is divided into two Arrondissements, one around Cayenne,the other one with the Unterpräfektur Saint Laurent you Maroni. Further the area is arranged into 19 cantons and 22 municipalities.

The citizens select every six years the Conseil général (for the Département) with 19 members and the Conseil régional (for the region;see in addition:List of the regional advice presidents) with 31 members. Präfekt is since 2. September 2002 Ange Mancini.

French Guayana is part of the European union. Therefore the borders are to Suriname and Brazil at the same time European Union external borders.

military use Guayanas

Franceoperates in Rochambeau a military base. In March 2004 from there soldiers of the Fremdenlegion started to an employment on Haiti. Also is there a Dschungelcamp of the Fremdenlegion, in which several hundred fighters are trained.

administrative arrangement

Arrondissement Inhabitant
(km ²)
Bev.Dichte of cantons municipalities
Cayenne 119,660 42,589 3 16 14
Saint Laurent you Maroni 37,553 40,945 1 3 8


the space station Centre Spatial Guyanais of the ESA in Kourou is the most important column of the economy of French Guayana.

Forestry is due to the tropical rain forest an important industry of the country. Agriculture is operated only near the coast. At remaining industries only the crab fishery and the dismantling of gold are worth mentioning.

Most important trade partners are the French motherland, Trinidad and Tobago and Italy. Are exported above all fish, rice and gold, most important import products from French Guayana are and. A. Machines and vehicles.

space station Kourou

meanwhile is also the space travel area in Kourou to a routistic enginethe Binnenwirtschaft become.

The ESA starts its booster rockets of the type Ariane with communication satellites and other pay loads of the space station Kourou (Centre Spatial Guyanais - CSG) from French Guayana. By the proximity to the equator the rockets need with a start ofhere from less fuel than of Europe, around a pay load, z. B. a satellite to carry on a certain course height.

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