Franz Ferdinand of Austria Este
Franz Ferdinand of Austria Este (* 18. July 1863 in Graz; † 28. June 1914 in Sarajevo, murdered), Austria-Hungarian ore duke and successor to the throne, was as a son of Karl Ludwig of Austria and princess Maria Annunziataof Neapel Sicily the nephew of Franz Joseph I.. The assassination attempt of Sarajevo, with which the successor to the throne and its wife died, is considered as trip of the First World War.
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starting from 1878 received Franz Ferdinand military training at the böhmischen infantry, which became Hungarian Hussars and the upper-Austrian Dragoons , 1899it to the general of the Kavallerie carries. While it got sick to its military time several times with Lungentuberkulose, at which its nut/mother had already died, and had in the autumn 1895 even temporarily from the active service to separate.
From 1892 to 1893 it undertook on medical advice with oneGefolgschaft a voyage round the world on the torpedo ramming cruiser „empress Elisabeth “. The journey led it from Triest to India, Indonesia, Australia, Japan, Canada and North America. Its impressions and experiences developed in such a way described he in the book „diary of my journey around the earth “(Vienna, Alfred Hölder, 1895).
In the winters 1895 and 1896 he undertook cure stays in Egypt and recovered against many expectations from its illness. After the suicide of its cousin Crown Prince Rudolf in Mayerling to 30. January 1889 and the death of his father Karl Ludwig to 19. May 1896 became Franz Ferdinand AustrianSuccessor to the throne.
marriage with Sophie Chotek
at the 1. July 1900 married Franz Ferdinand Sophie countess Chotek, yard lady and daughter of a böhmischen Count, who was raised on the occasion of the wedding to the princess from high mountain and only 1909 to the duchess from high mountain. Despite its origin from the böhmischen Uradel it was not considered as the having citizen equally, in addition it became of their badly reflected Höflingen as simple, harsh,rarely smiling, serve-willingly, hausfräulich, grant and literally gottesfürchtig perception. There itself emperors Franz Joseph I. not to to overcome knew taking up its family to the list of the equal sexes permitted it after long Widerstreben only a morganatische marriage, on the condition that Sophie not „those“only „wife of the future emperor “, and the later descendants of the pair, which carried the surname of high mountain, do not separate future empress wife a requirement on the throne will have.
The wedding with Sophie brought Franz Ferdinand into a large conflict with its relatives. Franz Ferdinands younger brothers Otto and Ferdinand Karl do not appear to the wedding, just as little the sister Margarete Sophie. Only his stepmother Maria Theresa came with her two daughters Maria Annunziata and Elisabeth Amalie. Calculated the fraternal Moralapostel Ferdinand Karl later a civil one married and became therefore outthe house having castle impossible.
Three children issued to the marriage of Franz Ferdinand with Sophie of high mountain: Sophie, Maximilian and Ernst. The family had its seat on lock Belvedere in Vienna, their summer residence was lock Konopiště in Benešov, at that time Böhmen.
although it in the guidance of the double monarchy Austria Hungary was involved officially never, participated it actively in the imperial policy. In addition it resided with an advisor staff in the Belvedere. After its accession it would have the name Franz II.selected. It forced the military structurethe armed forces and planned among other things to reform the double monarchy by „the Trialismus “.
The reforms would entail the union from Croatia, Bosnia and Dalmatien to a their own be enough had, which would have competed with the interest of Serbia, a südslawisches kingdom under more SerbianTo base guidance. These plans and the heated up public discussion stirred up the hate of the Serbs against Franz Ferdinand and the having citizens. Turned around there was at the Austrian-Hungarian middle class and aristocracy a anti-Serbian hate („Serbia - must sterbien “), that from the officially controlled newspapersemsig one fed.
„The Trialismus “was meant as a step toward the United States launched of Aurel Popovici from large Austria. In any case ones would have had these plans the state-legal dissolution of the union from Hungary and Croatia to the consequence, which Franz Ferdinand the enmity thatHungary would have tightened.
Franz Ferdinand developed thereby to a dangerous opponent of all circles with yards, which would have been torn by its rule start from their contemplative, it hated Hungary and above all the Serbian nationalists.
Franz Ferdinand ensured also for the fact that the 1911 because ofpursuit from preventive war plans against Serbia from his uncle dismissed general staff boss Franz count Conrad von Hötzendorf 1912 to his office to return knew. However it was considered as an opponent of inconsiderate military three-beat and wanted to avoid a war with Russia, thus the Zar and the emperor of Austrianot mutually of the throne fall themselves and for the revolution the way free.
Despite its plans for reform and its morganatischen marriage he never became a popular figure, which might be described nature probably because of its as few to attractive. Karl Kraus, also, formulated it sympathized to it in such a way:It was not Grüsser. Its in reactionaries the going lack of understanding in relation to all new cultural developments contributed additionally to a bad Nachruhm.
assassination attempt of Sarajewo
major item: Assassination attempt was shot by
the 28. June applies in Serbia as a national mourning day. It is the day, onthat one struck the Serbian army 1389 on the blackbird field by the Turks. For the Serbs it was therefore a provocation, when the ore duke wanted to exactly visit the Bosnia annektierte recently of Austria Hungary and its capital Sarajevo on this day, around a maneuver thatk. and. k. To attend troops. The underground organization „Mlada Bosna “planned black hand “by members of the Serbian secret organization „for the cause an assassination attempt in Sarajewo. After a missed bomb assassination attempt the 20jährige pupil Gavrilo Princip killed the ore duke and itsWoman with two pistol shots.
Franz Ferdinand and Sophie Chotek became after one of yards III. held consciously „the funeral modestly because of the not according to rank marriage. Class “in family-close-calls the lock Artstetten buried in Lower Austria. From the deduction Franz Ferdinands became ofits descendant in the lock a museum establishes, which it not only when office holder and dignitary show, but also as a private human being.
the political consequences of the assassination attempt
as from minutes of meetings of the k. and. k. Council of Ministers for common affairs, wanted Austria Hungary Serbia comes outthereupon with a war, and placed for the Serbian government to 23 makes always innocuous. July 1914 an extremely hard on 48 hours limited ultimatum, in that it and. A. the suppression of any actions and propaganda against the territorial integrity of the Austria-Hungarian monarchy requiredand a judicial investigation of the assassination attempt under co-operation Austria-Hungarian civil servants demanded. The ultimatum was consciously in such a way written that no sovereign state could accept it completely. The ultimatum was however technically seen none, because it only the abort of the diplomatic relations and (still) not, a refinement threatened with the war, on their stress of the k. and. k. Minister of foreign affairs Leopold count Berchtold large value put. Serbia answered to the ultimatum within the given period, however not unconditionally did not accept it. Finally Austria Hungary with German cover Serbia explained to 28. July 1914 thatWar. At that time so the First World War was released by the alliance politics of the great powers.
- Erika of good-pure: Franz Ferdinand and Sophie of high mountain. Forbidden love at the emperor yard, Piper, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-04514-6
- Gordon Brook Shepherd: The victims of Sarajevo. Ore duke Franz Ferdinand andSophie of Chotek, angel horn publishing house, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-87203-037-X
- Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand, the prevented ruler, Piper, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-492-21532-7
Web on the left of
- lives and history of Franz Ferdinand
- genealogy of Franz Ferdinand
- ultimatum at Serbia
- answer of Serbia to the ultimatum
|NAME||Franz Ferdinand of Austria Este|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Franz Ferdinand d'Este, ore duke Franz Ferdinand|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Austria-Hungarian ore duke and successor to the throne|
|DATE OF BIRTH||18. July 1863|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Graz|
|DYING DATE||28. June 1914|