Franz Grillparzer

Franz Grillparzer (* 15. January 1791 in Vienna; † 21. January 1872 in Vienna) was a Austrian dramatist.

To tomb at the cemetery Hietzing
Franz Grillparzer, Lithographie von Joseph Kriehuber 1841
Franz Grillparzer, lithography of Joseph Kriehuber 1841

table of contents


Grillparzer as a son of a very much regarded attorney and studied on the university Vienna the rights was born. After the study conclusion 1811 he was first a private teacher, then civil servants and joined 1813 as a concept traineethe imperial yard chamber into the Austrian government service. 1821 it applied unsuccessfully for the place of the Skriptors in the imperial private library (elib full text of the request on eLibrary Austria). It was shifted 1821 in the Treasury, 1832 became it a director of archives with the imperial yard chamber, thatlater Treasury. He dressed this place, until he stepped 1856 into the retirement.

Its education years fell into the times of the French revolution and the Napoleoni epoch, whose effects themselves from Austria were to be kept away all the less, than the traditions of the Josephini epoch still away-lived at that time.Who zuneigte like Grillparzer the Konservatismus and nevertheless the mental pressure, the Bildungsreaktion by force under the government of the emperor Franz I. felt, who on side the mental achievements the storm and urge - period and the classical literature in itself took up and on thatothers each conflict with the system dominant in Austria, even with the dominant view of life to avoid trachtete, however a strong urge of the work and poetic forming in itself felt, saw themselves in a zwiespältigen situation.

artistic work

Grillparzers poetic beginningsbecame of the romance (it the lasting preference for the Spanish dramatists stamped) and of temporary erring of the Schicksalstragik, which it brought in the “ancestor woman” its victim, affects. If it knew to emanzipieren itself from these influences relatively rapidly, then this succeeded to itnot likewise with those of its native conditions and education conditions.

First it was an important act creative Kraft and Selbständigkeit that the poet of its 1817 with extraordinary success specified fate tragedy “the ancestor woman “, who went immediately over all German stages a so completely different workas “Sappho “(1818) follow to let was able. In the “Sappho” (Vienna 1819) it placed itself first on the soil of the purely human one, as it understood and understood it. Unmistakably a quietistisches moment lay in its view. Who the soil thatgiven as simple a conditions as possible leaves, the circle of the next obligation exceeds, purges to powers, which it cannot defeat.

Not the measure of the human one, which includes the noble, highly carrying, undreamt-of forces arousing, loudable passion with, but that one, which excludes the passion, ward the measureof Grillparzers world. Therefore it could attach on the one hand closely to the clear design and organization of the material, to the form beauty of the classical seal and remained themselves on the other hand nevertheless by a deep gap separate from the same. Only in the representation of the love, as the most natural, most inevitableand noblest passion took place a switching. The main strength Grillparzers was appropriate for a dramatic in the development of the dear feeling to action, why in certain sense the tragedies “Sappho” and “the sea and the love waves” (where the legend is treated by Hero and Leander) as itsmost completed works to apply can.

From 1821 on , where in the Viennese yard castle theatre the Trilogie “the golden fleece “(Vienna 1822) was specified with success, their last part, the tragedy “Medea”, rapidly over all German stages came up itself and by the heroin role of the titlethe boards maintained, ranked Grillparzer about one decade long among the favoured dramatists.

1825 became the tragedy “king Ottokars luck and end " (Vienna 1825), 1828 “a faithful servant of its gentleman” (1830), 1831 “of the sea and the love waves” (1840), 1834 the drama“The dream a life” (1840) specified with success in the Viennese castle theatre. The criticism, which had become after 1830 in the German states dominant and determining, showed up against Grillparzer hostilely; its advantages did not apply for it anything, its lack knew the young-recent criticism sharplyto emphasize. Grillparzer suffered under the Ungunst of its domestic conditions.

Its limited material situation permitted it lifelong only bridegroom of its youth-loved, Katharina merry, to remain. Each larger journey (1819 Italy, 1826 Germany, 1838 Paris, 1843 Athens and Konstantinopel) moved itthe contradiction of its ideals and domestic conditions clearly before eyes.

Despite its unquestionable loyalty it had to fight to it with the stupiden censorship pressure of the Sedlnitzky time, several of its best lyric poems was suppressed and the desire for the publication of a collection suffered.

Finally associated 1838 still another formal defeat of its comedy “pain that, lie” (Vienna 1848) with the first performance in the castle theatre in addition. Grillparzer decided to withdraw itself from the public and kept this resolution unverbrüchlich, without renouncing therefore to the practice of the poetic art. Into the nextThe dramas developed for decades: “Libussa”, “the Jewess of Toledo”, “a Bruderzwist in the house having castle” as well as the tendencyful fragment “Esther” and numerous lyric seals.

From its narrations the framework narrations are the monastery with Sendomir (1827) as well as the poor play man (1847) well-known.

Only since 1848 penetrated againindividual poetic achievements Grillparzers to the public, so its famous poem “at Radetzky “. Since 1850 one began itself then in Austria to become conscious isolated also in the remaining German states what a poet one in Grillparzer possessed. The aging man experienced honours and, 1847 were lent 1859 to acknowledgments appointed the member of the imperial Academy of Sciences, by several medals distinguished , from the University of Leipzig on the occasion of the Schiller anniversary the honour doctor, raised 1861 to the lifelong member of the Austrian manor-house , 1864 to the honour citizen of the city Vienna.

It died at the age of81 years to 21. January 1872 in Vienna and was buried at the Währinger local cemetery ( today Währinger thrust ore park). After the dissolution of the cemetery its Gebeine were transferred on the Hietzinger cemetery. The total expenditure of its works appeared 1909-1942 in 42 volumes.

See also

of works (in selection)


  • Blanka of Kastilien, youth drama (1807-1809)
  • the ancestor woman (1817)
  • Sappho (1818)
  • the golden fleece (1819)
    • 1. Part: The guest friend
    • 2. Part: The Argonauten
    • 3. Part: Medea
  • Melusina (1823)
  • king Ottokars luckand end (1825)
  • a faithful servant of its gentleman (1830)
  • of the sea and the love waves (1831)
  • the dream a life (1834)
  • pain that, which lies! (1838)
  • Libussa (1848)
  • a Bruderzwist in having castle (1848)
  • Esther, drama fragment (1848)
  • the Jewess of Toledo (1855)


  • the monastery of Sendomir (1817)
  • the poor play man (1848)


  • Raoul Auernheimer: Franz Grillparzer. The poet of Austria. Vienna and others: Amalthea. 1972.
  • Humbert finch: Franz Grillparzer. Innsbruck: Penguin among other things 1990. ISBN 3-7016-2336-8
  • Franz Forster: Grillparzers theory of the seal and humor.Vienna:Herder. 1970.
  • Ulrich abundance fount: The dramatic happening in the work Franz Grillparzers. A contribution for epoch regulation D. German seal in 19. Century. Munich: Finch. 1966.
  • Armin Gebhardt: Franz Grillparzer and its dramatic work. Marburg: Tectum Verl. 2002. ISBN 3-8288-8352-4
  • Franz Grillparzer. History and presentness, hrsg. ofGerhard Neumann. Freiburg in mash gau: Rome brook. 1994. (= Rome brook science; Litterae lines up; 19) ISBN 3-7930-9075-2
  • keyword: Grillparzer, hrsg. of Hilder Haider Pregler and Evelyn German carpenter. Vienna: Böhlau, 1994. (= Grillparzer forum; 1) ISBN 3-205-05564-0
  • with Franz Grillparzer in the third millenium, hrsg. by Robert Pichl. Vienna:Loosely. 2002. (= yearbook of the Grillparzer society; 3) ISBN 3-85409-366-7
  • the Grillparzer picture 20. Century. Anniversary publication D. Austria. Akad. D. Wiss. to 100. Day of death of Franz Grillparzer, hrsg. by Heinz child man. Vienna and others: Böhlau into come. 1972. (= Austrian academy D. Sciences. Philos. - hist. Kl. Minutes of the meeting;275)
  • Helmut Hasenkox: The Epigrammatik Franz Grillparzers as a sign of literary reflection in the political and social surrounding field 19. Century. Frankfurt/Main and others: Long. 1989. (= Bochumer writings to the German literature; 7) ISBN 3-631-40836-6
  • Birthe Hoffmann: Victim of humanity. To the anthropology Franz Grillparzers.Wiesbaden: DUV.1999.ISBN 3-8244-4343-0
  • Friedrich Kainz: Grillparzer as philosophers. The yield of its work for the world and Lebensweisheit. Vienna: Österr. Akad. D. Wiss. 1975. (= (Austrian Academy of Sciences. Minutes of the meeting. Philos. - hist. Kl. ; 280,2)
  • Peter von Matt: The sketch of Grillparzers stage art.Zurich: Atlanti. 1965. (= inhabitant of zurichContributions to German the history of ideas and literature; 24)
  • Walter Naumann: Franz Grillparzer. The dichterische work. 2. Aufl. Stuttgart and others: Kohl hammer. 1967 (= language and literature; 42)
  • Heinz Politzer: Franz Grillparzer or abgründige conventional Meier. Vienna and others: Zsolnay. 1990. ISBN 3-552-04237-7
  • Gunter Schäble: Franz Grillparzer.VelberHanover: Friedrich. 1967. (= Friedrichs dramatist of the world theatre; 28)
  • Konrad foam: Grillparzer studies. Berne and others: Long. 2001. ISBN 3-906758-92-3
  • Gerhard Scheit: Franz Grillparzer. With self certifications and picture documents. Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1989. (= Rowohlts Monographien; 396) ISBN 3-499-50396-4
  • Alessandra Schininà: “I would be dead, lebt' I alsothis world ". Franz Grillparzer in its diaries. Pc. Ingbert: Röhrig. 2000. (= Austrian and international literature processes; 8) ISBN 3-86110-234-X

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