Franz Joseph I. (Austria Hungary)
Franz Joseph I. (* 18. August 1830 in Vienna Schönbrunn; † 21. November 1916 in Vienna Schönbrunn) from the house having castle - Lorraine, was emperor of Austria and Apostoli king of Hungary 1848 - 1916.
Its name in the other languages of the Danube monarchy:Francesco Giuseppe (Italian), František Josef (Czech), I. Ferenc József (Hungarian), František Jozef I (slowakisch), Franciszek Józef (Polish), Franjo Josip (Croatian), franc Jožef (Slovenian), franc Josyp I (ruthenisch/Ukrainian)
table of contents
During striking down the March revolution of 1848, by the resignation of its uncle Ferdinand I. and the abdication of its father it already became with 18 years of new emperors of Austria. From the outset sawit its major task to prevent a further revolution and relied thereby mainly on the military and the church. Hardly a representation shows it differently than in the uniform of the highest war gentleman.
1853 survived Franz Joseph an assassination attempt and learned in its summer residencein Ischl know its only 15jährige cousin Elizabeth. Elizabeth was the second daughter of duke max of Joseph in Bavaria and Ludovika Wilhelmine, daughter of the Bavarian king Maximilian I.and sister of Franz Josephs nut/mother Sophie. Actually it was agreed upon between the mothers that the Elizabeth's olderSister Helene the attention of the 23jährigen Franz Joseph I. to win should. Instead Franz Joseph fell in love with Elizabeth, who he to 24. April 1854 in Vienna married.
Within a short time three children came to the world: Sophie (1855 - 1857), Gisela (1856- 1932) and Crown Prince Rudolf (1858 - 1889). Elizabeth was refused however to each influence on the education of her first three children. 1868 were born its fourth child Marie Valerie (1868 - 1924).
Emperor Franz Joseph held the Crown Prince Rudolf of allAffairs of state far. After Rudolf was allowed to break its strictly military training off - only after several interventions of his nut/mother Elizabeth with the emperor -, he dedicated scientific studies and cooperated themselves in Brehms to animal lives . It was actively, naturally anonymous also as a journalist in the liberal press andwithout knowledge of its father. On pressure of the emperor he married 1881 princess Stephanie, Tochter of the Belgian king Leopold II.. A daughter, came of to the marriage Elizabeth, born 1883. Crown Prince Rudolf died to 30. January 1889 by Suizid.
The right of the succession to the throne wentafter the death of Franz Josephs brothers, Maximilian (the luckless emperor of Mexico) in the year 1867 and ore duke Karl Ludwig in the year 1896, on the son of the latter one, ore duke Franz Ferdinand over. Franz Ferdinands of children were however, there not entitled to inherit he with SophieChotek, realm countess was married by high mountain, the Czech Uradel came of, but was not equal the emperor house.
The 60-Jahres-Jubiläum of the accession Franz Josephs was still celebrated in the year 1908 in the entire monarchy being entitled.
To 28. June 1914 experienced the emperor however also still the death by force of its successor to the throne Franz Ferdinand. In Sarajevo that becameSuccessors to the throne and its wife in its automobile of a Serbian assassin shot. The ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia for the distribution of the backers of the assassination attempt and the declaration of war of Austria Hungary at Serbia, following on it, solved to 28. July 1914 „the large war” (later First the World War called) out.
Two years later the 86jährige Franz Joseph I. deceased. in the middle in the war to 21. November 1916. The pompösen funeral ceremonies were overshadowed by the war and the initiating decay of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy, the many people state, which had been held together by the emperor. His successor Karl I.governed itself only two years up to the end of the large war expanded to a world war 1918.
after the government assumption by emperor Franz the Joseph I. (in the revolution year 1848) to 4. March 1849 issued realm condition (Oktroyierte March condition)never fully one accomplished and to 31. December 1851 with the “Sylvesterpatenten” completely abolished. From now to governed the young emperor again absolutist and decided centralistic. Only the defeat 1859 against Napoleon III. of France and the troops Piemont Sardiniens in the bloody battle ofSolferino and Magenta, with which Franz Joseph had taken over the supreme command, prepared the way for constitutional reforms: followed 1860 the October diploma and 1861 the February patent, which - against the resistance Franz Josephs - which introduced return to constitutional conditions.
The defeatagainst Prussia Franz Joseph brought 1866 after tough struggle to the “reconciliation” with Hungary, from which a material union both of the handing hurry resulted. To 8. June 1867 was crowned Franz Joseph in Budapest to the Apostoli king by Hungary; the non-Hungarian (cisleithanischen, i.e. on this side of of theRiver Leitha of lying) countries obtained to 21. December 1867 a constitutional condition (December condition). To this condition Franz Joseph up to its death held - he rejected all plans for reform (also its designate successor Franz Ferdinand). Above all gave its reform inabilitythe independence efforts people shanks of its realm of the new food and led finally after its death and after the lost war to the decay of the many people state.
with regard to foreign policy gave it during the reign to emperors Franz Josephs I. a series of small victories and large military defeats.In the Italian war against Napoleon III. and above all Sardinien Piemont were driven out its soldiers made of Italy; after the defeat in the Austrian-Prussian war 1866 the having citizens from the all-German policy separated. Military achievements such as Tegetthoffs victory in the sea-battle of Lissa remained insignificant.
After 1879the having citizens monarchy leaned against the 1871 again created German empire , whereby it got a powerful allied one (for instance in Balkans questions), at the same time however into the coming alliance systems (1914 ago) were closely involved. 1878 became Bosnia of the troops k.u.k. Monarchy occupies, 1908 annektiert. The political involving on the Balkans, together with the automatisms of the alliance politics, brought also the calamity of a second European large war, which expanded to (first to 1914) the world war. Without the war to have operated actively, Franz Joseph placed underneath its signature neverthelessthe declaration of war at Serbia, whereby the unresolved nationality problems of its many people realm, which it had protected with large tenacity so far the fall, became uncontrollable and its realm went down last.
culture and economics
particularly the economic upswing of the Danube monarchy are with Franz JosephsI. Name connected, which is still to be read on many Viennese buildings of splendour from this time as inscription. After sharpening the medieval city attachments of Vienna on arrangement of the emperor place for the entire city center a comprehensive splendour road had become. Along this road, that Viennese struggle race, developed not only the palaces of the rich bankers and industrial magnates, but also the extension building of the imperial yard castle, large museums, which accommodated the imperial art and nature collections, for parliament building for the realm advice, the new University of, the new city hall, that Yard castle theatre and to the memory to the Errettung of the emperor before an assassin in the year 1853 donated Votivkirche.
The Suizid of the architect Van of the zero, tenant farmer of the Viennese opera, as reaction to a criticism of the emperor, arranged Franz Joseph, to cultural affairsto take only very reservedly position. It means, the emperor has himself with all possible cultural causes only with the stereotyped cliche:„It was very beautiful, it me very much made happy! “ expressed.
Often as black reactionary and grey Bürokrat described, particularly flowered inthe years around 1900 under its regency the spirit culture in Austria Hungary like never before and never thereafter without the monarch certainly - contrary to its son Crown Prince Rudolf - actively at these cultural and intellectual currents, which remained completely strange for it, portion takenwould have.
Vienna was point of attraction for many scientists such as Christian Doppler and Ludwig Boltzmann, under it also a number of later Nobelpreisträger such as Albert Einstein, who had been appointed by Franz Joseph 1911 briefly the university professor in Prague. Philosopher of the modern trend such as Ludwig joke gene stone, thatfrom a Austrian-Hungarian industrial magnate family originated, and, the work of the members of the Viennese of circle into the 1920er years affected Ernst Mach. Coincidentally also victory mouth Freuds most important work on the medical faculty of the University of Vienna do not fall into the time around 1900.
In the areathe forming art developed Gustav Klimt of the decoration painter of the buildings of struggle races over the Viennese Secession to the outrider of the modern painting. The restraint of the emperor permitted it to the architect Adolf Loos, exactly opposite the baroque internal Burgtor of the imperial yard castle in the year 1910 itsto build disputed first decoration and ornamentationless house. Franz Joseph is to have left the yard castle since at that time always by other gates.
emperor Franz Joseph is to today a figure extremely zwiespältige in the historiography, partly with nostalgic flair umwoben (so of Joseph Roth in its novel Radetzkymarsch), not last also because of the relationship with his Mrs. Elisabeth (well-known under their Kosenamen Sisi, in the film” Sissi” mentioned) and exchange of letters with the actress Katharina Schratt, with which it already during lifetimes of its wife onelong relationship maintained - by the way on the Elizabeth's initiative.
Its strokes of fate (1867 execution of its brother Maximilian in Mexico, 1889 Suizid of its son Crown Prince Rudolf, 1898 murder of his Mrs. Elisabeth, 1914 the murder of his nephew and successor to the throne ore duke Franz Ferdinand and its womanwith the assassination attempt of Sarajewo) let appear it in the eyes of its subjects as a man, who carried stoisch a heavy fate. “Also nothing remains saved to me! ” the emperor is to have said empress Elisabeth after becoming known the assassination attempt on his wife. Into the latterHe, also due to its outside appearance, was seen to years of its rule more and more as a good-natured older gentleman. This picture is brought today most frequently with its person in connection. Against after 1900 over-on-boardend nationality conflicts worked it as an instance of retaining and of theCo-operation.
- ore duchess Sophie Friederike (* 5. March 1855; † 29. May 1857)
- Ore duchess Gisela (* 15. July 1856; † 27. July 1932) - prince von Bayern , general field marshal Kronprinz Rudolf marries 1873 with
- Leopold , (* 21. August 1858; † 30. January 1889) - Tochter of the Belgian king Leopold II. marries 1881 with princess Stephanie..
- Ore duchess Marie Valerie (* 22. April 1868; † 6. September 1924) - 1890 marries with Franz Salvator, ore duke of Austria Toskana
socialhistorical lists of new publications
the society pyramid culminated in the social role of the emperor as more sakrosankter, nearly religiously superelevated point. “The highest official was God. God however was an invisible instance, to only the indirect official routine… was walk onable. God carried neither a civil service nora military uniform. Its k.u.k. Apostoli majesty, for who emperor carried a general uniform with oak leaves at the collar in Vienna, as next in rank, whereby he differed from the other generals. From the emperor went the ladder continuously downward… “ (Franz Werfel, high school graduate day)
the training more hierarchicallyStructures socialpsychologically partly with the thesis it is often not explained that a child, after it recognized is “as limited actual the omnipotence of the father,” differently can to look for each other than “again and again a new father”: In the teacher, in the minister, in the mayor, in kings andEmperors. “With a certain regularity the father picture on several persons is divided, whereby the fear-exciting characteristics in the educators a well-known and most desired choice will transfer to the police man, corridor guard and other office holders.” Emperor Franz Joseph was the link between from thatChristian tri rivet RKs coming göttlichen father shape and the human fathers: “God and emperors have the special position in the father row together that one attaches them, without measuring and their height to reach want with them… The child has the demand, from one…To depend nature, whose size, power and knowledge it absolute security and protection grant. The desire for such a father lets the real father fall evenly and remains as condition for the choice of the father shapes. It creates the intensity of the admiration and dependence for the laterAuthorities, as last terrestrial image, for the king and emperor. The safety gain of the age-old desire fulfilment, which retained the Paradies of the childhood with its incomparable father in the deepest soul, kept despite the criticism of the understanding. “(Paul Federn, for the psychology of the revolution)
in the society, like among other things Stefan if branch counted descriptive reported, the older, ripe man, less the young person. The Greisenhafte of the old emperor strengthened the mythische consecration of his Patriarchenrolle.“Locked from the age to soil pressed and the close end consciously, in its isolation… the emperor seems…to embody the heroische Mediocritas. “ (Claudio Magris, that Habsburgi myth)
the socially institutionalized father role of the emperor was most effectively supplemented by individual courses. Franz Joseph presented itself as static, wrong-examined shape, which sat “with obligation neuro tables the Pedanterie of a machine” at the desk, documents studiedand, means Erwin Ringel signed. “The man was destroyed in the childhood by his nut/mother and the education, was already governed then 68 years, (and) has in this excessive time not one constructional idea had… “This diagnosis results out the emperor Pessimismusand the knowledge around the own Erfolglosigkeit, however paired with performance of duties to last and the desire to go with honours at the basis furthermore the “shyness at decisions, reforms and changes.” Urge not some of it also into the administration, which administered efficiently, but above allin the end of the epoch dahinwerkeln left the administrative machinery without élan vitally, without real future prospects?
- How was it? Was it stupid? Was it clever?
- How fühlt' it? Did it really make it happy?
- Was it a body? Was it only one dress?
- A soul was inthe state garb?
- Did the country form it? Did it form the country?
- Who, which could do him, also knew it?
- Did a face it carry or a beard?
- From tubs he came and from which kind?
- Did nothing remain it, only the nature saved?
- The figure was heor only the picture?
- Was it so cruel, how it agemildly?
- Zählt' it pleasures like fresh game?
- Er's considered or freshly dared?
- Did it have trouble also, not only the world?
- Wollt' it the action or only the act?
- Wollt' it the war? Wollt'actually it only
- soldier, and of these the Montur,
- of that the button only? Does it have a trace
- of death and love and of the people wrong?
- More powerfully ever their picture never coined/shaped
- the impersonality into its time.
- (Karl Kraus)
the large one Title
Franz Joseph was not only emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, but held still another number of further crowns and titles, some of it (like most on Italy the referred became, e.g. the Grand Duke of Toscana) anyhow after the battle of Solferino andMagenta only as requirement titles, again different, like those of the king of Jerusalem, alone for historical reasons, than inheritance of the high baptism over the Trastamara to the having citizens, why also the king of Spain still leads this title.
These became were (by the way also there fully, as from the title with the “etc.” in several places does not result) in the so-called large title in summary. The large title had to be by heart learned by all school children of the monarchy. It reads:
- Its imperial and royal Apostoli majesty
- Franz Joseph I.
- of God grace emperor of Austria,
- king by Hungary and Böhmen, of Dalmatien, Croatia, Slawonien, Galizien and Lodomerien, Illyrien, Lombardo - Venetien;
- King of Jerusalem etc.;
- Ore duke of Austria;
- Grand Duke of Toskana and Krakau;
- Duke of Lorraine, of Salzburg, Steyr, Kärnten, Krain and the Bukowina;
- Large prince by filter defiency guarantee, Mark count von Mähren;
- Duke of upper and Niederschlesien, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Auschwitz and Zator, of Te, Friaul, the rising up USA and Zara;
- Gefürsteter count von Habsburg and Tirol, of Kyburg, Görz and Gradiska;
- Prince of Trient and Brixen;
- Mark count von Ober- and Niederlausitz and Istrien;
- Count von Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.;
- Mr. von Triest, of Cattaro and on the windischen Mark;
- Grosswojwode of the Wojwodschaft Serbia
- etc., etc.
- Its imperial and royal Apostoli majesty
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Person data NAME Franz Joseph I. of Austria ALTERNATIVE NAME SHORT DESCRIPTION emperor of Austria and Apostoli king of Hungary DATE OF BIRTH 18. August 1830 PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna Schönbrunn DYING DATE 21. November 1916 DYING PLACE Vienna