Franz Mark

of Portrait of Franz Mark, painted 1910 of August Macke
Franz Mark: Blue horse I
horse in landscape
elephant (1907)
the bull (1911), Solomon R. Guggenheim museum, New York.
Deer in the snow (1911)

Franz Mark (* 8. February 1880 in Munich; † 4. March 1916 in the war before Verdun, France) was a German painter and joint founder of the artist combination “blue rider “. It is considered as one of the most important painters 20. Century and as joint founders of the Expressionism in Germany.

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Franz Marks became as a son of the painter William Mark and his Mrs. Sophie (geb.Maurice) born. After short study (1900 to 1903) at the academy of the forming arts Munich it opened its first studio to 1904 in the Munich Kaulbachstrasse.

Its first single exhibition had Franz Mark in the year 1910. Over the membership in of the “Neuen Künstlervereinigung" lernte er Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, August Macke und Gabriele Münterkennen. When with the third exhibition of the “new artist combination” the jury Kandinskys rejected nearly completely abstract “composition V”, stepped it as well as Kandinsky andLively from the artist combination and 18 opened to. December 1911 the first exhibition of the again created artist combination “blue rider “in the gallery Thannhauser in Munich. Likewise 1911 he married the painter Maria Franck in London. 1912 gaveMark as well as Kandinsky the yearbook “the blue rider” out. An exhibition “blue riders” in the same year in the citizens of Berlin gallery “the storm” celebrated large successes. The group of artists represented the view that each humans an inside and an outsideExperience reality possesses, which should be united by the art. The work of the group in the years 1911 to 1914 was away-preparing for the entire modern trend art 20. Century.

1914 it acquired a house with Kochel at the lake. Brieflywhereupon with beginning of the First World War became Mark, which at first for the war became enthusiastic, when to the front called up reservist. The Franz Mark promoted to second lieutenant fell to 4. March 1916 by a garnet double shot at an alarm unit CCIT before Verdun.Only 1917 were transferred and buried its body after Kochel at the lake.


1916 was already shown in Munich the Franz Mark memory exhibition, the most extensive retrospective of its works. His Mrs. Maria Marc was a deduction administrator, the 1920published also numerous letters of the artist. 1936/37 the national socialists Franz Mark diffamierten as “degenerated artist " and seized 130 of his works from German museums. Its art of works shown degenerated in the propaganda exhibition at the end of of 1937 became again suspended, because that German officer federation against it protested. A part of its works was destroyed in the consequence, others were sold abroad. Verschollen is among other things the work “tower of the blue horses”, which is to have been last in the possession of Hermann Göring.

OneTotallook the pictorial and graphic work of Franz Mark became to 17. September 2005 in the resident of Munich Lenbachhaus and in the associated structure opens and marked up to 8. January 2006 with approximately 300,000 visitors record attendance.


To its naturalistischen training it changed to the expressionism. It used techniques such as Ölfarben, Gouachen, pencil and water color. Marcs of preferential motives were animals as a symbol of originalness and purity. They embodied the idea that for itCreation, since they live in conformity with nature. Mark wanted to express thereby its utopia of a paradiesischen world. The color employment in its works is not only expressiv but also symbolic, since Mark set up own color laws, after those blue for thatMale one, yellow for the female and red for the subject actually stand.


  • 1908, “jumping dog”, oil on canvas, 67 x 54 cm
  • 1909, “deer in the dawn”, oil on canvas, 100 x 70 cm
  • 1910,“Grazing horses”, oil on canvas, 94 x 64 cm
  • 1911, “small one blue horses”
  • 1911, “the bull”, Solomon R. Guggenheim museum, New York, oil on canvas, 135 x 101 cm
  • 1911, “blue horse I”
  • 1911, “large one blue horses”, Walker kindGallery, Minneapolis / Minnesota, oil on canvas, 181 x 104 cm
  • 1911, “fox”, of that Heydt museum, Wuppertal
  • 1911, “deer in the snow”, national gallery of Lower Saxony, Hanover
  • 1911, “red horses”, oil on canvas, 182 x 121 cm
  • 1911, “yellow cow”, oil on canvas,189 x 140 cm
  • 1911/12, “two horses”, Tempera on paper, 21 x 14 cm
  • 1912, “small one yellow horses”, state State of, Stuttgart, oil on canvas, 104 x 66 cm
  • 1912, “yellow tiger”, urban gallery in the Lenbachhaus, Munich, oil upCanvas, 111 x 111 cm
  • 1912, “in the rain”, urban gallery in the Lenbachhaus, Munich
  • 1912, “red deer”
  • 1912, “red deer II”, Franz Mark museum, Kochel at the lake, oil on canvas, 100 x 70 cm
  • 1912, “pigs”, oil on canvas, 83x 58 cm
  • 1912, “ape”, oil on canvas, 100 x 70 cm
  • 1912, “deer in the monastery garden”, oil on canvas, 101 x 75 cm
  • 1912, “red and blue horse”, Tempera on paper, 43 x 26 cm
  • 1913, “animal fates”, art museum Basel,Oil on canvas, 195 x 263.5 cm
  • 1913, “foxes”, art museum Duesseldorf
  • 1913, “small composition III”, Hagen, Karl east house museum
  • 1913, “the one twisting”, state gallery of modern art, Munich
  • 1913, “painting with cattle”, oil on canvas, 130 x 92 cm
  • 1913, “long yellow horse”,Oil on canvas, 80 x 60 cm
  • 1913, “sleeping horse”, water color and ink on paper, 46 x 40 cm
  • 1913, “deer in the forest I”, oil on canvas, 104 x 100 cm
  • 1913, “the tower of the blue horses”, oil on canvas,since seizure by the Nazis verschollen, most important work 1913/14, “
  • deer in the forest II” is considered, national arts center, Karlsruhe 1914 ,
  • “landscape with house, dog and cattle”, private property 1914,
  • “Tirol”, state gallery of modern art, Munich 1914,
  • “fighting forms”, state gallery of modern art, Munich as Marcs,Oil on canvas, 131 x 91 cm
  • 1914, “small composition IV”, Franz Mark museum, Kochel (at the lake)
  • 1913/14, “composition III”, Karl seriousness east house museum, Hagen


the written deduction Franz Marcs became 1973 of archives for screen end art in Germanic national museum available acquired. The deduction covers also some designs and water colors.


  • Claus Pese: More than only art. Archives for screen end art in the Germanic national museum, Ostfildern Ruit 1998 (culture-historical walks in the Germanic national museum, Bd.2), S.62-69.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Franz Mark - pictures, videos and/or audio files
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Franz Mark in the catalog of the DDB



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