Franz Nissl

Franz Nissl (* 9. September 1860 in Frankenthal (Pfalz); † 11. August 1919 in Munich) was a German neurologist and psychiatrist.

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after medicine study and graduation in the year 1885 began Nissl its psychiatric training as an assistant with Bernhard von Gudden in Munich, the body physician of king Ludwig II. by Bavaria, with which v.Gudden 1886 in or at the Starnberger lake died. Starting from 1889 Nissl was an upper physician with Alois Alzheimer in Frankfurt, changed 1895 however to Heidelberg to Emil Kraepelin to the psychiatric university clinic, at which he should be 23 years long active then.

1896 it habilitierte with Kraepelin, became 1901 a.o. Professor appointed and 1904 its indirect successor as a director meanwhile world-famous of the hospital become, after the Karl Bonhoeffer appointed first had again given the hospital line up after few months. Nissls working in Heidelberg was characterised particularly by lucky personnel decisions, from which for Karl the Jaspers stands out. Illness Nissl 1918 gave its chair and was up to its death still briefly a department manager at the German research institute for psychiatry, created by Emil Kraepelin in Munich, to the today's institute for Max-Planck up for psychiatry in Munich.

Admits became Nissl by its histopathologischen brain studies due to the 1894 Nissl Schollen discovered by him as well as by the Nissl colouring.


as a tidy professor at the medical faculty Heidelberg attained a doctorate or habilitierte to Nissl among other things the following well-known personalities:

  • Karl Wilmanns: 1906 Habilitation with one already under Kraepelin study begun to the Psychopathologie of the vagrant - 1918 became Wilmanns Nissl's successor;
  • Karl Jaspers: Graduation to 8. December 1908 with its thesis over homesickness and crime - 1913 it habilitierte itself with Nissls assistance as well as from max the weber with its well-known during its time general Psychopathologie for psychology in the philosophical faculty, compiled as an unsalaried employee physician with Nissl, at which it received 1921 in the follow-up from William diaper volume a chair for philosophy;
  • Otto Meyerhof: Graduation in December 1909 with the iii. part: The psychology of the illusion of its basictheoretical contributions for the psychological theory of the mental disorders. - thirteen years later Meyerhof kept because of its innovative work for the biochemistry of the cellulose change to the Nobelpreis for medicine, without giving ever its philosophical interests, which he than friend of the philosopher Leonard Nelson with his fellow student
  • Arthur Kronfeld divided, the Nissl up nearly at the same time to 7. December 1909 with a contribution for the study of the Wassermann reaction and its diagnostic application in the psychiatry. I. To methodology and theory to the reaction attained a doctorate as well as then from 1910 - 1913 first as Assistenz and then like Jaspers as an unsalaried employee physician busy - 1912 compiled crowning field at its hospital the first systematic overall display and (already so mentioned) “science-theoretical” investigation of the psychological theories Freud's and related opinions by it;
  • Hans's walter Gruhle: Habilitiation at the 3. March 1913 for psychiatry and medical psychology with a work over perception falsifications - Gruhle had attained a doctorate, since 5. May 1905 with Nissl worked, in January 1907 on the University of Munich with 1904 there a work over Ergographi studies, begun with Emil Kraepelin.


  • 1903 the neuron teachings and its trailers. A contribution for the solution of the problem of the relations between nerve cell, fiber and grey. Gustav Fischer, Jena
  • 1904 to the Histopathologie of the paralytischen crust illness. In: Histological and histopathologische work over the cerebral cortex with special consideration of the pathological anatomy of the mental disorders. Volume 1. G. Fischer, Jena, S. 315-494.
  • 1908 with Alois Alzheimer: Histological and histopathologische work over the cerebral cortex. Fischer, Jena
  • 1921 with Alois Alzheimer: Histologie and Histopathologie. Posthum appeared in: Work over the cerebral cortex with special consideration of the pathological anatomy of the mental disorders. Fischer, Jena

Web left

short one outline for the history of the neuropathlogy

S.A. Karl Jaspers: Philosophical autobiography. Extended New edition. Piper, Munich 1977, ² 1984, S. 17-31 (series of Piper Bd. 150) ISBN 3-492-00450-4


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