|of these articles treats the begging medal, for the residents of Munich beer mark „Franziskaner “sees a spade Franziskaner brewing.|
The Franziskaner (OFM), lat. ordo fratrum minorum, dt. Medalthe inferior brothers, form - beside the Kapuzinern OFMCap and the Minoriten OFMConv - one of the three branches of the first medal of the holy Franz of Assisi.
Table of contents
requests and characteristics
the Franziskaner are a so-called begging medal. They live in poverty and earn their living costs by work of, more socially, more pastoraler relating to crafts and more educationallyKind. Franz of Assisi writes also in its will its brothers: “I worked with my hands and want to work; and it is my firm will that all other brothers perform a manual work, which is respectable. It cannot do,are it to learn… “. If need be Franziskaner are to live also on begging. They worried more strongly about the Seelsorge than other one, kontemplative medals. God word of the peace and the release they are particularly by their example, in addition, throughLecture announce.
Their churches accommodate hardly art treasures and the life of the Franziskanerbrüder actual anyhow ideally - much grant. Closely with the break with terrestrial wealth the self requirement is connected to lead a conscious life with the creation. Throughthe Franziskaner attains the stress of this aspect since beginning of the ecological movement in the 80's 20. Century an intensified reputation.
establishment and early propagation
of the Franziskanerorden were created 1210 and rank among the four (large) Begging medal of the Middle Ages. The holy Franziskus wanted to actually create no medal. As a charismatische personality he found however inspired trailers, which selected a life after its model.
With the time it turned out however that as too with all medals onelarge liberty to secularization and dissolution led. Therefore the brothers were gradually ever more firmly organized and the medal rules more strongly at „the classical “ benediktinischen rules were oriented.
With the chapter 1219 one decided to visit also heidnische countries and the heaths missionieren. With this mission Franziskus pulled into those„Province of the holy country “, which re-clamped the entire southeast Mediterranean area at that time. It was the time of the crusades, and a cross driver army was broken open 1217 to Egypt, in order to conquer the port Damiette (see fifth crusade).
Franziskus saileditself therefore first to Egypt. With some companions it applied unarmed from the camp of the cross drivers, in order to preach to foot to Israel too pilgern and „the disbelieving one “. Arab soldiers capture it. As it Sultan aluminium-Kamil, preached he was demonstrated to this unerschrocken his gospel of the poverty and the peace. The impressed Sultan let Franziskus go intact.
Franziskus continued its Pilgerreise and was several months in Jerusalem. It had little success, „the disbelieving ones “to bekehren, met however Christian knights, whose cruel behavior and their plunderings it verleideten the stay. It preached in vain the forceless way of the love.
it hurried 1220 due to messages over controversy and difficulties in the medal back and determined Pietro Cattanei as successors in the medal line.
1221 died Pietro Cattanei. Break. Elias became Generalvikar.
1223 wrote Franziskus in Fonte Colombo a second version of the medal rule. It was treated in June on the general chapter and to 29. November von Papst Honorius III confirms (around it Bullierte rule). A scarce year later withdrew itself Franziskus to the mountain La Verna, in order to hold a Michaels chamfering. To 14. or 15. It received Septembers the excessive quantity after the Wundmale Christi (Stigmata).After its return after Portiuncula Franziskus on a donkey undertook a lecture journey by Umbrien and the marks. In the coming years its eye suffering to nearly worsened for complete going blind; other diseases weakened it additionally.1226 died Franziskus; it becamealready two years later of Pope Gregor IX. holy spoken.
after the death of Franziskus was established in its hometown over its grave a monastery with Basilika. Some the trailer disturbed the splendour of the building, therethis with the poverty ideals of the medal to agree did not leave itself. Zur Beendigung des daraufhin entbrennenden sogenanntenArmutsstreits verfügte Papst Gregor IX., dass eine gewählte Ordensverwaltung Gelder besitzen dürfe und der Bau von Klöstern den Absichten des Ordensgründers nicht widerspräche.
Thisled to splitting the Franziskanerordens. In the year 1517 became this of Pope Leo X. recognized. It divided the medal into
- the Konventualen (Minoriten), to which a joint possession was permitted, and
- which Observanten (Franziskaner), one as close an observance of the rule as possiblethe Franziskus aimed at. They form up to today the larger group; them a little later the Kapuziner split itself off , in order to organize itself than independent medal.
Observanzbewegung, 14. /15. Went
to century the today's braungewandeten Franziskaner out of the Observanzbewegungwithin the original less brother medal out. First groups originated in approximately around the center 14. Century in Italy, soon in addition, in Spain and France. For this movement, which arose at this time also in other medals, the return was characteristicto a stricter attention (lat.Observanz) of the original medal rule. In addition belonged a strict observance of the poverty ideal, a prevention of the cities and the address in Einsiedeleien. These groups, to those in 15. Century for example Bernhardin of Siena, Johannesfrom Capestrano, Albert von Sarteano and Jakobus of the Mark belonged, received move inlet and became, also under the attenuation of the original master medal, to the so-called. Konventualen, by different external influences (hundred-year war, the plague inthe cities, the Abendländi Schisma), fast to a majority in the less brother medal.
partitionings of the medals
the communities on the holy Franziskus destined, divide intothree groups up:
- The first medal, which decreases/goes back to the less brother medals created by Franziskus, covers the Franziskaner (OFM), the Kapuziner (OFMCap) and the Minoriten (Konventualen, OFMConv).
- The second medal consists of the different branches of the Klarissen, of themRule on the holy Klara of Assisi, a close trusted friend of the holy Franziskus, decreases/goes back.
- To 1221 justified third medals belongs to groups of laymen, which organized themselves in Germany as Franziskani community (fG). From the third medal have themselves a multiplicity more againCommunities develops, particularly in 19. Century, which form the adjusted third medal as Franziskusbrüder and Franziskanerinnen.
Today all regard themselves these communities as branches of the Franziskani family; in the German-speaking countries they have itself in the INFAG, which organizes Interfranziskani working group.
Also in the except-catholic area there are franziskanische communities, thus z. B. the Ökumeni Franziskani brother shank (OFB) in the brandenburgischen Zehdenick, anglikanische Franziskaner and Evangelist tertiary ones.
buildings of churches
- harsh ore basic man: Religious movements in the Middle Ages. Investigations on the historical connections between the heresy, the begging medals and the religious women's movement in 12. and 13. Century and over the historical bases of the German Mystik. 4. Aufl., Darmstadt:Scientific book company. 1977.
Web on the left of
- http://www.franziskaner-werd.ch/ Franziskaner, pc. Otmar in becomes
- http://www.infag-zentrum.de/ Interfranziskani working group
- http://www.ofm.org/ Curia generalis OFM, Roma
- http://www.ofs.de/ Ordo Franciscanus Saecularis/the franziskanische community, D. i. the layman community thatFranziskaner
- Franziskani meeting center Bautzen, left: http://www.klarabaum-bautzen.de.vu