Woman Mrs

the term woman literature designates a category both belletristischer and essayistic literature, which - in the broadest sense of the term - when 'literature can be described of women and/or over women and/or for Frauen'. With view of extremely changeful term history dependent on different literature-scientific and toolistic paradigms however none of these criteria can be understood as perfectly obligatory.

Table of contents

to term history

the terms “woman literature” and “woman novel” were established as feuilletonistic and buchhändlerische categories in outgoing 19. Century, as if increases female authoresses on the plan stepped, who did not understand the Schriftstellerei any more than pure occupation of bread, but an artistically ambitionierten expression will with their work connected. Into the 1930er years the label “woman novel” was discovered as best seller, numerous publishing houses brought novel rows under titles like “woman novels”, “the maintained woman novel” among other things out, and the term became almost synonymous with “booklet or groschen novel “and” trivial literature “.

A double transformation experienced the term in the second half 20. Century. On the one hand it was extended to an indistinct general term, which so rather all designated, what somehow “with women to do” has, thus e.g. also Fontanes so-called “woman Mrs.”, youth books and Pensionatsgeschichten such as Emmy of Rhodens the defiance head, the writings of the medieval Mystikerinnen or also modern life assistance and councellor literature. (Every now and then became even all maintaining fiction 19. Century as “woman literature” designation, in accordance with - in the meantime it revised - the literature-sociological view that novels exclusively for women produced and also only by these were read.) on the other hand the term in the context of the” new women's movement “into the 1960er to 1980er years partly narrowed on tool-sneeze-table-emancipatorily aligned works, is it belletristischer or essayistic kind.

One wants an approximate general trend of the term development in the course 20. Century it fasten then one can perhaps say that the term designates written literature today rather from female authors, in earlier decades rather literature with female Protagonisten (e). Today become retrospectively also authoresses 18. Century (like e.g. Sophie of La Roche and Therese Huber), the romance (like e.g. Sophie Mereau), the boy Germany and the Vormärz (like e.g. Fanny Lewald and Louise Otto) and the numerous novel and novella producer inside civil realism as “woman literature” categorizes. A Kanonisierung of paradigmatischer authoresses 20. Century (not only German language) by starting from the 1980er years appearing rows “the woman in the literature” and “the century of the woman” were carried in the publishing houses Ullstein and Suhrkamp.

In the toolistic literature criticism of the 1980er years was there a long and in the long run debate led to no solution over it whether it writes one specifically “female” gives or not (and if, whether this is to be fastened at the category “Sex” or “ Gender”). To hold surely it leaves itself that an ever historically specific reality experience enters condition of a literary work and a “womanlike perspektiviertes” work thus significant differences perspektivierten opposite “male” contemporary work exhibit can. The debates led also to a critical reflection across the term “woman literature”, and one determined that the necessity for such a term was symptomatic already for the fact that the term “literature” (without the additive “woman”) is obviously no neutral term, but of view of reality goes out, in which the man and the male the standard explains, while the woman and the female as “the other one” - which “Abnorme” - deficit acre appears.

For the 1990er years the term in the course of the progressive “post office toolismexperiences itself again a tendentious extension, particularly in the newer derivatives of the term (like e.g. “Woman crime film “) makes noticeable. In the current literature criticism this measured and ambivalente category of the “woman literature” is avoided rather and one alternatively e.g. speaks. of “literary Ms miracles “, if one discusses new publications of female authors.

history of German-language woman Mrs

as one of the first important authoresses of the modern times stepped out Sophie of La Roche with its novel history of Ms von Sternheim (1771). It introduced the kind feeling seeds of the letter novel justified of Samuel Richardson as the first successful German example into Germany. Goethe schwärmte for this novel and supplied 1774 with suffering the young Werthers its own work in this category. Schiller promoted some female authors in its function as a publisher of literature magazines and - calendars (e.g. Karoline Louise breaking man), however was established in the classical period increasingly also a distinction of elevator comb and trivial literature, with which the women stood completely clearly on the loser side. For the authoresses of the romance it is therefore typical that it admits into the 1970er years only as a “woman of” and often enough only under its first name was. An exception feature, because already early kanonisiert, is an authoress Karoline of Günderrode.

A new beginning appeared in the politically moved time of the boy Germany and the Vormärz . Here a earlytoolistic literature developed after English and French model (e.g. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelleys and Olympe de Gouges '), when their most important representatives Fanny Lewald and Louise petrol Peter can apply. In the restoration time the lyric works sting out Annette of Droste Hülshoffs. These promising beginnings came however again to a large extent into oblivion, when in civil realism a before never dagewesenes female Brotschriftstellertum was established. Women discovered the Schriftstellerei as source of income. A high percentage of the enormous novel and novella production in the second half 19. Century (particularly for so-called “family sheets” like the arbour or Westermanns of monthly magazines) owes itself female feather/spring. To the edition increase of the “arbour the Marlitt '” particularly 'contributed. Further best-sellers - authoresses of this epoch were Nataly of Eschstruth, Marie Nathusius, Louise of François and Hedwig of Courths meals.

Around the turn of the century 1900 a new female art literature developed, now consciously to forerunner inside the early 19 within this mass production. Century tied. It developed increased artistically ambitionierte novels and narrations, usually on the basis of the sample of the development and education novel. As trips and milestone to this development Gabriele Reuters novel from good family ( 1895) can be considered. Nevertheless also the authors of individual innovative works were dependent often still to make with the letter their money so that the work lists of the authoresses concerned fail often very extensively and heterogeneously. The mode wave of female telling literature was accompanied by a high number of essayistic publications to the contemporary “woman question “(e.g. of Hedwig Dohm or Käthe Schirmacher) and biographies of historically meaning women. This generation of authoresses, who were socialized predominantly still in the Wilhelmini age, lost however again strongly at meaning, when into the 1920er years the “new woman” was discovered as novel topic. Best-seller - authoresses of this time e.g. are. Vicki tree and Ina Seidel. In the areas of the lyric poetry and drama TIC still hardly literary successes of women could be registered around 1900. There were not few, which tried it, but them by the contemporary literature criticism just like of the later literature historiography was to a large extent ignored. Only in middle 20. Authoresses created century as for instance Marie Luise Kaschnitz, Marieluise Fleisser and Else Lasker pupil the jump in the literary canons.

A completely new form of German-language woman literature emerged into the 1970er years. It concerned empiric reports out of the female everyday life, which along-reflected and on it pounded the problem of female productivity by their often experimental literary form, to notice itself to a large extent. This literary development stands in connection with emerging other emancipatory literature like e.g. Catching, homosexual and Migrantenliteratur. Influential books of this time e.g. were. Striking doing gene by Verena Stefan and Klassenliebe von Karin Struck.

important authoresses

international classical authors

German-speaking authoresses 1750-1870

German-speaking authoresses 1870-1945

German-language one contemporary authoresses


  • Gisela Brinker Gabler (Hg.): German literature of Mrs., 2 Bde., Munich (manufacturing costs. Beck) 1988
  • Gisela Brinker Gabler, Karola Ludwig and Angela Wöffen (Hg.): Encyclopedia of German-speaking authoresses 1800-1945, Munich (dtv) 1986
  • Günter Häntzschel: “Woman literature”, in: Dieter Borchmeyer and Viktor Žmegač (Hg.): Modern literature in fundamental ideas, 2. , again treatment. Aufl., Tübingen 1994, 157-162
  • Inge Stephan: “Woman literature”, in: Harald Fricke among other things (Hg.): Material encyclopedia of the German literature science, Bd. 1, Berlin 1997
  • Sigrid Weigel: The voice of the Medusa. Ways of writing in the present presence of Mrs., 1987
  • Jutta Osinski: Introduction to the toolistic literature science, 1998

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see also


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