Frigate

after today's understanding is the frigate a smaller warship. The term has however different meanings, z. B. became in the German linguistic area in 18. and 19. Century of ships with Vollschiffs - Takelage as frigates designates. In the Mediterranean area one called a type of small sail vehicles, thosealso to be gerudert knew, likewise frigate; evolutionary however no connection is provable between these and the later warships. This article is occupied further only with the frigate as warship.

Frigate USS bad clay/tone

table of contents

frigates in the time of the sailing boats

development of the type

the name „frigate “for relatively small,fast warships for instance 16 appears since end. Century in northern Europe. The characteristic of these ships was first the absence of high superstructures at nose and tail, which impaired the sea-characteristics with other ship types. Since however in close combat low ships were more easily too entern, turnedone to Ungunsten of the sail characteristics within certain framework to front and aftercastles back.

Into the center 18. Century a multiplicity of differently laid out warships was marked as frigate, both ships with only an armed deck and such with two. Into the 1740er years, after it with the Swedish Vita Ørn of already 1715 a little considered forerunners had given, the classical type of sail frigate developed. This Zweidecker (two completely from the front to deck going through aft) was constructional; contrary to earlier frigates the lower deck was unarmed, lay closely overor under the Wasserlinie and had no piece gates. Usually with warships only armed deck counted - although the frigate had two going through deck thus from the construction, possessed it only an armed and is thus considered as „Eindecker “.

The armament became„the classical “frigate only on the upper deck and on superstructures (thus afterdeck and bake - these were taken in account by the way not as deck) led. Due to this construction the frigates had a higher freeboard than many Zweidecker, so that them despite smaller cannon number with heavy lakean advantage over smaller Zweidecker possessed, if these could not use their closely over the water lying heavy cannons and the lower piece gates had to keep closed, in order not to fill. The first frigates of this design were armed with 24 or 26 nine-Pound he cannons. Later it gaveMain arming of 12, 18 - and 24-pfündigen cannons, with additional lighter cannons (6 - or 9-Pfünder) or Carronaden (e.g. 18- or 24-Pfünder) on superstructures. The first frigates armed with 24-Pfündern were sketched to Chapman (1721-1806) by Frederik Hendrik af and built in Sweden (the Bellona class of 1782).After the number of the cannons frigates were called 38er or 40's 28er, 32er, 36er, whereby additionally set up cannons or Carronaden on superstructures were only taken in account after the napoleonischen wars completely (a 38-Kanonen-Fregatte of the British LED-AClets e.g. became. during the war still as „38er “categorized, after the war as „46er “). Already end 18. Century in the USA particularly heavy frigates were built, which possessed a so-called „spardeck “- the cool, the area between bake and afterdeck, was to a large extent closed with these ships, so that a continuous deck developed.Practically these frigates were then Zweidecker; temporarily were equipped some the American frigates also on „the spardeck “with a complete battery. The 1834 of the pile French frigate run bark Poule were a Zweidecker of similar kind and with altogether 60 large-caliber cannons on two of complete battery deckarmed.

tasks of the frigates

from their function can be called the sail frigates cruisers. While it was the task of the larger warships, as battle ships in the line to fight (therefore it the term liner), the frigates served as reconnaissance aircraft for liner squadrons,as convoy ships, for the fast transport of important telegrams or officers and disturbed the hostile trade.

For the classification of the frigates see also the rank organization of the warships.

Takelung and sail characteristics

Getakelt were fundamental the frigates as Vollschiffe. Compared with the most balanced contemporaryLiner types, z. B. the 74-Kanonen-Schiff, frigates achieved absolutely no very many higher speeds, but they segelten in each situation a little better and could in particular with lighter hoists the heavier liner surely away sails. 12 knots, particularly successful were attainable for most frigatesDrafts brought it on up to 14 knots.

Into the second half 19. Century still frigates of traditional sample were built, however first with additional impeller, then with screw drive. With these ships with merge drive the Takelage was often reduced, by it e.g. instead of thatusual Rah a Gaffeltakelung received. After 1850 new roles for the frigates appeared, with which the combat effectiveness was of secondary importance. Thus they served as school ships or as means, in order to show “and colonial interests intersperse in distant world areas „flag. Often frigates becamein addition, with a research contract on voyage round the world skillfully, e.g. the Austrian November era from 1857 to 1859. With the emergence of the modern steel battle fleets and the cannon list in towers the type of the frigate was generic term-oiled.

Still received wooden sail frigates are in Great Britain HMS Unicorn and HMS Trincomalee, in the USA USS Constitution. In France the straight Hermione is copied.

modern trend frigates

French frigate Courbet

toward end 19. Century took over the cruisers the tasks of the frigates.

For the safety device of the escort courses of the Second World War rosethe need of the Royal Navy at safeguard vehicles tremendously on. On British desire in the USA the type of the escort destroyer (more destroyer escort) was developed. At the same time the Royal Navy built a cheap high European Union hunt vehicle, which was called for obvious reasons of frigate as improved version of the corvette. Boththe high-quality, after warship standards with turbine or Diesel drive manufactured American escort destroyers and the British frigate manufactured after trading vessel standards with piston steam engine in the Royal Navy „frigate “was called, what to some confusion led. Into US Navy taken over British ships became against it „Patrol Frigate “called. After the war however the British designation became generally accepted world-wide.

Since the Second World War the frigate in most replaced marine one the destroyer as general-purpose unit. Frigates displace today between 2,000 and 5,000 t. One differentiates between antisubmarine chase and general-purpose frigates. First are for tasks of escort laid out, with strong antisubmarine chase component as well as tubing and guided weapons for the close defense. The latters have missiles for air defense and ship fight, handing far.

The camouflage cap frigates represent the most modern development within the range of surface war shipping. Due to the design, which is given by surface conditions, seemTo be most favorably balanced size and armament in the capacity of a frigate. In order of size the frigates lie between the destroyers and the new corvettes.


modern trend frigate classes

„frigate “there

are not frigates of the German navy the designation in the German navy from 1884 to 1965. The first frigates of the Federal Navy built after the war became in drafts stillwhen escort boats, a type of the war navy designates. In adjustment at NATO - the Federal Navy the designation took over standards „frigate “.

Frigate Cologne of the German navy

the first German frigates after the war were the six ships that Cologne - class (ex of escort boats) of 1965. It acteditself around submarine hunters with artillery armament without rockets.

These ships became in the achziger years by Bremen - class replaces, by which first six, later two further ships were activated.

In the 90's those came Brandenburg - class as replacement for the destroyers that Hamburg - class in service. This concerns an increased and improved version of the Bremen class.

The momentarily most modern class is the F124, type ship is „the Saxonia “.

As replacement for the destroyers of the Lütjens - class the frigates that become Saxonia starting from 2004 - classin service posed. Despite the classification as frigates these ships are larger and up to the reduced artillery armament also combatstronger than the old destroyers. Contrary to all other German frigates the task of this class exists in the air defense, whereby it above all that APAR - Radar in connection with SM-2 - air defense rockets use. This GermanDutch radar and fire control system are comparable with the American AEGIS.

In the future the class F125 will replace the Bremen class, whereby the exact details of this type still in navy, industry and politics one debates.

The People's Navy the GDR had likewise some ships, which were called at NATO frigate. The three ships of the Koni - class were the largest ships of the People's Navy. This type had been developed from the USSR as export model and became also from Bulgaria, Romania, Cuba, Algeria and Yugoslavia assigned, however not of the Soviet navy. In the People's Navy these ships were called „coastal protection ships “. The ships were taken over only briefly after the reunification and scrapped or sunk then.

The smaller ships of the Parchim class applied in NATO likewisesmall frigates, however in the People's Navy as „Ubootjagdschiff “were called. The entire class from 20 units was given away 1991 to the Indonesian navy.

See also: List of ship types

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