A free democratic party

of these articles describes the free democratic party of the Federal Republic of Germany. For the party of the same name of the GDR, see free one a democratic party (GDR).
Chairman Logo
Base data
Gründungsdatum: 11. December 1948
establishment place: Heppenheim
of chairmen: Guido Westerwelle
Rainer Brüderle,
Andreas Pinkwart
Cornelia Pieper
Secretary-General: Dirk Niebel
treasurer: Hermann Otto Solms
of members:
Wolfgang Gerhardt,
Sabine Leutheusser
Birgit Homburger,
Philipp Rösler
honorary chairman: Walter cross-eyed,
Hans Dietrich Genscher,
Otto count Lambsdorff
members: approx. 67.000
(conditions: June 2005)
Woman portion: about 23%
party financing:
9.584.877, 36 €
party arrangement: 16 regional organizations,
485 circle federations,
approx. 3,150 local federations
address: Thomas Dehler house
Reinhardtstrasse 14
10117 Berlin
Website: www.fdp.de
E-Mail address:

The free democratic party (FDP and/or. 1968 - 2001 F.D.P.) a liberal is a party in Germany.

Table of contents

Contentwise profile

the present guidelines of the FDP are in the Wiesbadener principles embodied.

Economics and social politics

the FDP pursue from the parties represented in the Bundestag most strongly restaurant economics ideas. A central goal is the job creation by improvement of the investment climate. To be reached this is among other things by bureaucracy dismantling, privatisations, Deregulierung, dismantling of subsidies, a reform of the tariff right. The national indebtedness is to be reduced. In the globalization the party sees above all also advantages. In the tax policya simple tax law is demanded. The model of the income tax plans a differential tariff . The economy is to be animated by reductions of taxes, an increase of the value added tax is rejected. In the social politics the introduction of a citizen money is aimed at, in that all taxfinanced socialAssistance of the state to be summarized. The social security is to be supplemented or replaced by principal systems.

Social policy

the common denominator is a critical attitude to the state and to conservative as well as egalitären society drafts. After the slogan „as much state as necessarily, solittle state as possible! “ the FDP tries to limit the interferences of the state into the life of the particular as far as possible. Connecting element is for it the thought „of the creation and keeping of the liberty of the particular “. Thus carriedit almost all social liberalisation also, which were realized in the Federal Republic.

Home policy

the FDP rejects tradionell laws, which are regarded as restriction of fundamental rights. The large wire-tapping was disputed: 1995 accomplished the FDP in addition a strike ballot,with that a majority of 63,6% for the “large wire-tapping” expressed itself. As reaction to it the Federal Secretary of Justice at that time Sabine Leutheusser Schnarrenberger ( FDP) of their office withdrew. When the Bundestag the making possible law with the voices of the FDP discharged 1998,partly successfully raised several prominent FDP members constitutional complaint. The Federal Party Congress in May 2005 in Cologne demanded in the meantime again the abolishment of the large wire-tapping.

The FDP expresses itself against an all too restrictive Judikative. It leans beyond that also oneSupply storage of connecting data with telephone and Internet off.

Education politics

a goal of the FDP are the before-school promotion of the children. So there is to be obligatory language tests starting from the fourth Lebensjahr around linguistic weaknesses e.g. to recognize from children with migration background andto be able to train in time before the school in a so-called starting class. Care of children is according to the legal claim on a kindergarten place, half tags between that 3. Lebensjahr and the first day at school (and/or. the starting class), for children and parents free of charge its. Already in thatfirst class is spielerisch with foreign language instruction to be begun and a firm component of the curriculum be become. The FDP demands the introduction of allday schools and the Abitur after 12 school years. In addition the liberals stand for unit school to the arranged educational system and lean one“off, since it their opinion after too few achievement and individual promotion is not sufficiently ensured. The FDP occurs for running after study fees for the financing of the universities. In addition it demands to change or abolish research-hostile laws and regulations, over therebyto secure the state of research place Germany. The spelling reform rejects the FDP predominantly. Their electioneering program to the election to the Bundestag 2005 was therefore written in the conventional orthography.

European politics

the FDP calls itself as the European party. It wants a politically integrated European Union alsocommon outside and security politics. On the draft of an European Union condition is to be decided in a popular vote. It occurs for a union politically authorized to act and expresses themselves in principle for an entry of Turkey to the European Union. The negotiations would have however result openare led. Further possibilities than alternative to the full membership are with the negotiations if at the end of the negotiation process Turkey the Acquis communautaire not fully converted or the European Union not able are, a further largeTo take up country as a member. The recess of the European Union has priority before the extension.


of members and trailers of the FDP are divided depending upon thematischem emphasis in the public gladly in citizen right liberals and restaurant economics. Sabine Leutheusser Schnarrenberger, Gerhart tree and Burkhard deer occur particularly for right nationalness and citizen rights . For liberals principles in the free-market economy stand and. A. Otto count Lambsdorff, Rainer Brüderle, Carl Ludwig Thiele and Hermann Otto Solms. The organization is often understood as wing formation,whereby of wings however rather in connection with internal-party controversies about a certain topic area one speaks.


roots of the liberalism

the liberal movement sat down in the beginning 19. Century in the course of the clearing-up for more rights of the lower layersand the national agreement. Liberal groups, those to a large extent consisted of students and other intellectual ones, protested for „unit and liberty “. Whereupon counter measures of the reactionary forces of Germany, particularly by chancellors Metternich, followed that the liberal March revolution in the year1848 to the resignation forced. Starting from 1849 however the revolution was mostly exhausted the monarchy and became generally accepted again, although liberals ideas firmly verwurzelt remained and for example the Prussian king at the time of the execution of its politicsup to Bismarck's substituting prepared problems. The German progress party, which was based 1861, was the first party in the today's sense, with party program and clear political goals. Their successors in the time of the German empire were the national liberal a party and the German people's party as well as later the progressive people's party. The German democratic party /Deutsche state party and German people's party in the Weimar Republic, whose members were considerably in the establishments of the liberals parties of the post-war period involved, followed them.

LiberalAfter 1945 soon

after end of war the Soviet Union the establishment of parties forced parties. William Külz and Eugen boat operator called at the beginning of of July 1945 for the establishment of a liberal-democratic party of Germany as all-German Parteri, those because of zögerlichen permission in the west howeveronly in the east zone as LDP one constituted. In September 1945 those was based a Hamburg party suitor democrat (PFD) as first liberals a party in the west zones. With the first citizenry elections in Hamburg those reached now FDP a party mentioned to 13. October 1946 18.2%. Likewise in September 1945 in the southwest the DVP was created, which cut off with the elections of the federal parliament in Württemberg bathing in November 1946 similarly strongly. Reestablishments of liberal parties took place in all Lands of the Federal Republic. In Hessen the FDP received througha Listenverbindung with the refugees of homeland, who were not allowed to stand as a candidate yet independently, 1950 with 31,8% the best election of the federal parliament result of their history. In the Soviet occupied areas the LDP attained 1946 with the only free elections of the federal parliament between 7,8% in large Berlin(East) and 29.9% in the province Saxonia (Saxonia-Anhalt). The LDP (east) came up however 1949 as „coalitionLDP into the national front .

FDP predecessor organizations in the post-war period

roasted. Zone: A free democratic party (FDP);
Hamburg: A party suitorDemocrat (PFD) 1945-1946;
Bremen: Democratic of Bremen people's party (BDV) 1945-1952;
Bremen: A free democratic party Bremen (FDP) 1946-1947;
SBZ: A German democratic party (strip packing) 1945;
SBZ: A liberal-democratic party of Germany (LDP) 1945-1951;
SBZ: A nationaldemocratic party of Germany (NDPD) 1948-1990;
Bavaria: A German democratic party (strip packing) 1945-1946;
Bavaria: A free democratic party (FDP);
Hessen: A German democratic party (strip packing) 1945-1946;
Hessen: A liberal-democratic party Hessen (LDP) 1946-1948;
Hessen Pfalz: Social national union (sports association) 1946-1947;
Rhine country: Liberal a party of the Rhine country (LP) 1945-1947;
Rhineland-Palatinate: A democratic party (DP) 1947-1948;
Württemberg bathing: Democratic people's party (DVP) 1945-1952;
Bathe:A democratic party (DP) 1946-1948;
Württemberg Hohenzollern: Democratic people's party (DVP) 1946-1952;
Saarland: Democratic combination of the Saarland (DVS) 1945-1947;
Saarland: A democratic party Saar (DPS) 1947-1951;
GDR: A liberal-democratic party of Germany (LDPD) 1951-1990;
GDR: Federation suitor democrat (BFD) 1990;
GDR: A German forum party (DFP) 1990;
GDR:A free democratic party (F.D.P.) 1990;
Germany: A democratic party of Germany (DPD) 1947-1948;

An establishment of party

to 17. March 1947 in Rothenburg whether that deaf one the democratic party of Germany (DPD) as an all-German party was created. Chairmen were Theodor Heuss and William Külz. Due tofrom arguments over the political course of Külz this project could not become generally accepted however durably.

The free democratic party became at the 11. December 1948 in Heppenheim at the mountain route as a union of all liberals parties of the western zones of occupation based.The name a liberal-democratic party (LDP) could not become generally accepted thereby. Their first chairman was Theodor Heuss. The place of the establishment of party was selected with consideration, because to 10. Octobers 1847 had themselves with the Heppenheimer conference the moderate liberals inApron of the March revolution met.

With the creation of the Basic Law 1948/49 and its arrangement the FDP had let always assume more portion than their election results. Like that it was the Hüterin of the personal liberty rights, the parliamentary system and the social free-market economy (duringall other parties an economy working at the Basic Law rather state-steered preferred). In many other questions the FDP had gotten alternative or mediating solutions going between SPD and CDU and could thus often more actively than other parties points of program into the reality convert.Also the FDP was the party, which should be taken part with altogether 41 years longest in the Federal Government.

Into the fifties inside some regional organizations of the FDP stood right from the CDU/CSU, those for its part initiallystill concepts of a Christian socialism after-hung. With national oriented basic values voices also by carriers by state and society functions of the third realm was recruited, in order to integrate also this into the new state.

1949-1969: The structure of Germany

with firstElections to the Bundestag to 14. August 1949 achieved the FDP a voice portion of 11,9% (with 12 direct mandates, particularly in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Hessen) and received thus 52 from 402 seats. In the July of the same yearly became the FDP chairmen Theodor Heuss suggested by the CDU chairman Konrad Adenauer as the first Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany and selected. it received 1954 with its re-election with 871 from 1.018 voices (85.6%) of the Presidential Election Council to today best election result of a Federal President. The FDP was correct(together with the DP) in the Bundestag toward of CDU and SPD the end of 1950 brought in Entnazifizierungsverfahren. On its Federal Party Congress 1951 in Munich it required the release of all „war criminal so mentioned “and welcomed the establishment „of the federation of GermansSoldier “from former Wehrmachts - and SS - member, in order to get the integration going of the nationalistic forces into the democracy. The Naumann affair (1953 ), designated after Werner Naumann, marks the attempt of old national socialists to infiltrate the party. Thereupon Nazi became party internalSeilschaften uncovered and the Naumann circle one excluded from the party. After the federal FDP always stood far from right ideology, now also the last regional organizations had to take distance of it, and the national gesinnten members left the party. After the election to the Bundestag received 1953the FDP 9.5% of the secondary voices, 10.8% the Erststimmen (with 14 direct mandates, particularly in Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Hessen, Württemberg and Upper Franconia) and 48 of 487 mandates.

In the second legislative period of the federal daily forces of the South German liberal democracy in that wonA party at influence. With Thomas's Dehler a representative took over one rather left liberals of course the party and the parliamentary group presidency. The former Minister of Justice Dehler, who had to suffer after 1933 under pursuit by the national socialists, became admits by his rhetorical sharpness. Generallythe different regional organizations were very independent and set in such a way from country to country different accentuations in the struggle for the best concepts within liberals politics.

As only of the smaller postwar parties the FDP survived despite many problems. 1957 reached it still 7,7until 1990 in it resounds to % of the voices and it to the Saale last direct mandate with which she held 41 of 497 seats in the Bundestag. However it separated nevertheless from the Federal Government, because the union achieved the absolute majority. InThe FDP supported the following for example a nuclear weapon-free zone in Central Europe.

Already before the choice Dehler had retired as a party chairman. On the Federal Party Congress in Berlin at the end of January 1957 replaced it Reinhold Maier. Of Dehler function as a leader of the parliamentary group took overafter the election to the Bundestag with Erich Mende a representative one rather national liberals of course. 1960 became Mende also party chairman.

After the election to the Bundestag 1961 (with that it with 12,8% their best country wide result obtained) the FDP took part after difficult negotiationsagain at a coalition with the CDU, although one had committed oneself before the choice to sit in no case further together with Adenauer in a government. Although it succeeded, Adenauer's chancellor shank after two years in favor of the desire chancellorLudwig Erhard to terminate and also not Federal President had already made itself, the FDP for Adenauer as „Umfallerpartei “in the press a name.

The end of the Adenauers' chancellor shank rang the mirror affair, as their consequence the FDP their Ministers outtook off from the Federal Government. The coalition under Adenauer was again renewed 1962, but only later it retired one year in favor of Erhard. This was for Erich Mende again the cause to occur the cabinet: He took over the Federal Ministry for all-GermanQuestions.

After the election to the Bundestag the FDP 9.5% attained 1965. The coalition with the CDU broke 1966 by questions of the tax increases and it followed a large coalition between CDU and SPD. In the opposition also a course change clearedon: The past foreign policy and also the position to the east areas were discussed. To the new chairman the delegated ones selected 1968 walter cross-eyed, a European aligned liberal, who came from the national liberal camp, but with Willi Weyer and Hans Dietrich Genscher the new center of the party stated. This center strove to make the FDP coalitionable with both large parties. The liberals approached the SPD by their re-orientation in the east and German politics particularly on.

1969-1982: Social one Changes and crises

to 21. October 1969 began the period of a social liberal coalition after the election to the Bundestag with the SPD and the Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt. Walter cross-eyed was it, which introduced the turn with regard to foreign policy. Despite a very limited majority setit and Willy Brandt the disputed new east politics through. This politics were within the FDP quite disputed, particularly the entrance into the Federal Government defeats with the elections of the federal parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony and the Saarland to 14. Followed June 1970. In Hanover and Saarbruecken separated the party even from the federal state parliament.

After the Federal Party Congress had supported in Bonn only one week later the policy of the party leadership and cross-eyed in the office had confirmed, party rights based around Siegfried Zoglmann at the 11. July 1970 in Hohensyburg one „non-partisan “association named national liberal action - with the goal of terminating the left liberal course of the party and of falling cross-eyed. This did not succeed however. Zoglmann supported a disapproving request of the opposition in October 1970 against Ministers of Finance Alexander Möller; Erich Mende and Heinz strong one proceeded likewise. All three a little later explained their withdrawal from the FDP; Mende and strong ones joined the CDU, Zoglmann created later the German union, those over the status of a splinter partydid not out-come.

The with regard to foreign policy as well as the socio-political turn were set to 1971 by the free citizens theses, which were sold as Rowohlt paperback several 100.000-mal, to a theoretical basis. Walter cross-eyed was first a minister of foreign affairs and vice-chancellor, 1974 became he then secondliberal Federal President of the Federal Republic and freed thereby the internal-party way for the past Minister of the Interior Hans-Dietrich Genscher.

From 1969 to 1974 the FDP supported Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt, afterwards it governed Helmut Schmidts at the side. Already at the end that70's did not seem to be sufficient the agreements between FDP and SPD no more for a coalition, but the CDU/CSU Kanzlerkandidatur of Franz Josef bunch 1980 let the two parties go again together into the election to the Bundestag. The FDP however always sawmore the differences to the SPD, particularly in the economic policy. In the attitude for the question of the NATO double resolution chancellor Schmidt did not have his own SPD behind itself. Also contradictions became within the FDP ever more largely.

1982-1998: Economic re-orientation and reunification

to 1. October 1982 selected the FDP as well as the CDU/CSU - Bundestag faction the CDU chairman of the party Helmut Kohl to the new Federal Chancellor (see also turn). The coalition change entailed violent internal arguments, then the FDP lost thereupon over20% of their 86,500 members, which settled also with the election to the Bundestag 1983 (relapse of 10,6% to 7,0%). The members ran mostly to the SPD, the Green and again created splinter parties, like the left liberal a party liberal democrat(LD) over. Among the withdrawing members were also the FDP secretary general at that time and today's European Union commissioner Günter hay gene. With the Party Congress in November 1982 the schleswig holsteinische regional chairmen Uwe Ronneburger began against Hans Dietrich Genscher as a party chairman. Ronneburger received 186 to the deliveredAnd was subject to voices - approximately 40% - thereby only scarcely.

Young FDP members, that did not agree with the policy the FDP at that time youth organization young democrat, created 1980 the boys liberal (July). For a while both youth organizations existed next to each other, to itselfJuly due to the turn interspersed and the new official youth organization of the FDP became. The young democrats separated from the FDP and became an party-independent left youth federation.

In the time of the reunification the FDP pursued the goal of a special economic area inthe ex GDR, could not become generally accepted however against the CDU/ CSU, since with the election to the Bundestag 1990 wanted to prevent these possible voice losses in the five new Lands of the Federal Republic.

During political pagings 1989/1990 developed in the GDRnew liberals parties, like the F.D.P. the GDR or the German forum party. They formed with the LDPD, those as coalition at the side of the SED had before worked and with Manfred Gerlach also for the last Council of State chairman of the GDR, suitor democrat (BFD) placed the federation. Already before the reunification of Germany the West German F.D.P united on a combination Party Congress in August 1990 in Hanover. with the parties of the BFD and the former coalition NDPD to the first all-German party.Both coalitions gave a large, even if only briefly stopping, to the FDP member increase. In der ersten gesamtdeutschen Bundestagswahl wurde die CDU/CSU/FDP-Koalition bestätigt, die FDP bekam 11,0 % der gültigen Stimmen (79 Sitze) und errang (inHalle (Saale)) ihr erstesDirect mandate since 1957.

In the 90's national aligned forces tried to infiltrate the FDP around Alexander of steel purposefully. In this connection also Klaus Rainer Röhl, which is assigned to new rights, occurred the party. Todaythis current does not have any meaning more.

1998 until today

since 1998 are the FDP - after 29 years continuously in the Federal Government - in the opposition. Often was accused to the FDP to be a pure Mehrheitsbeschafferin for other parties(this reproach would have under the past constellations also applied to every other small Federal Party). In the election to the Bundestag fight 2002 the FDP began its own profile on same eye level therefore with „the project 18 “and wanted thereby to the twolarge people's parties create as well as by an unorthodox election campaign also younger voters address.

In the process of the election campaign 2002 it came to the Möllemann - affair, which released a Antisemitismusdebatte. „The Grande lady “and presidency candidate of the free democrats Hildegard Hamm Brücher left in September 2002 their party after over dreissigjähriger membership, there it the demarcation above all the chairman of the party Guido Westerwelle of the attempts Möllemanns to go by means of populist expressions on voice catch when felt insufficiently.

The inquiry values of 10 13% before the choice could not in voices to be converted, since among other things the Möllemann affair deterred many voters. Nevertheless the election result was better than with the elections to the Bundestag 1994 and 1998: The Erststimmenergebnis of 5,8% was one of the best last elections to the Bundestag and therebyfor example more highly than that the Greens, and also the secondary voices could be increased by a fifth on 7,4%.

With the choice to the European parliament in the year 2004 the FDP with 6,1% achieved its best European election result at alland Silvana cook Mehrin drew after ten years Abstinenz again into Brussels parliaments with the leading candidate. The seven FDP delegates in the European parliament belong the ALDE - to parliamentary group, which places the third-strongest parliamentary group there.

The FDP became with the preferred election to the Bundestagto 18. September 2005 with 9,8% third-strongest Kraft in the German Bundestag and places thereby the largest opposition parliamentary group.

It is involved in federal state governments in Baden-Wuerttemberg , Lower Saxony , North Rhine-Westphalia , Rheinland-Pfalz and Saxonia-Anhalt. The moreover one sit due to the latterElections FDP delegates in the state parliaments of Berlin, Bremen, Hessen, Saarland, Saxonia and Schleswig-Holstein.

On local level the FDP particularly applied in the 1970er, 1980er and 1990er years as weak, so that it spöttisch as „Lady without abdomen was designated “. Since beginning 21. Century seems to initiate itself however one Renaissance of the liberals as a local party. Thus it places also various full-time mayors in larger cities, among other things in Dresden, Ettlingen, Jena, Pforzheim, Plauen and Wetzlar. Besides it returned in the last years to many local parliaments.


the FDP carried so far longest government responsibility in the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. altogether 42 years. The FDP placed six vice-chancellors in altogether 14different cabinets. It placed three West German ministers of foreign affairs with walter cross-eyed , Hans Dietrich Genscher and Klaus Kinkel.

The foreign policy of the FDP stands completely in the tradition of the Aussenpolitiken roll ago for Rathenaus and Gustav Stresemanns. Classical FDP Minister departments were also law and economics. The FDP placed two Federals President with Theodor Heuss (1949-1959) and walter cross-eyed (1974-1979).


party finances

the FDP had 2002 incomes of 31,5 millions Euro, of it became 44% by donations, 26% by national means, 20% by membership dues and 10% from other sources applied. To the comparison: Alliance 90/Die the Green had 26,3 millions Euro and the CSU over 46,1 millions Euro.


choice-statistically becomes the FDP particularly by weakly konfessionell bound one (equivalent largePortions of denomination lots, catholics and Evangelist ones), more highly education selected, which attend to an occupation, frequently independent are. Among farmers, pensioners and union members the FDP has the lowest values. It dominates, only easily, the male portion in small and medium sized cities.In the country as well as in large cities the FDP fares easily more badly. Choice-crucial topics (multiple denominations possible) are for FDP voter tax - and economic policy (56%), labor policy (31%) and social justice (27%). Inquiries usually result in that authority assumptionsfor the FDP with priority with the tax -, job market -, and are appropriate for education politics.

The FDP centers are the areas along the high, upper, central and down Rhine without the Ruhr district, as well as along the river Neckar, in the Eifel,in means Hessen, the area between Minden and Oldenburg (Oldenburg), which resound areas around Munich , Frankfurt/Main , Hamburg , (Saale), to south Saxonia and the southwest of Berlin.

Voter current analyses result in only considerable voter stream between thatFDP and CDU/CSU and SPD, in relative values also between the Greens and FDP. Less between FDP and Party of Democratic Socialism (in East Germany) and as well as not at all between FDP and parties at the right edge. Sociological investigations resulted in thatnext, in socio-political questions however the SPD and Green trailer stand for the FDP trailers political-by program in economic questi0ns the CDU/CSU trailers. The largest differences between FDP trailers on side and PARTY OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM and REP - trailers on the other sides resulted also here.

On on the left of - right - the FDP trailers arrange themselves scale of 1-10 at the value 5 (in West Germany easily over 5, in East Germany easily under 5).


the free democratic party is divided into 16 regional organizations; it hasround 67,000 members (conditions June 2005). However on North Rhine-Westphalia of it about 17,000 members are void. White the party 1981 with 86.500 members as well as, 1991 with approximately 155,000 members agreement-cause the highest level of members up.

The FDP is member that European liberal-democratic and reform party and the liberal international one. In the European Union parliament it belongs to the parliamentary group of the alliance of the liberals and democrats for Europe . This parliamentary group places 12.0% the European Union parliamentarian with 88 seats.

In the Saarland the FDP regional organization leads thatAdditivea democratic party Saar (FDP/DPS). In Baden-Wuerttemberg the regional organization of the FDP the additive has democratic people's party (FDP/DVP) from a 140-jährigen tradition out.

In Berlin there are no circle federations. Instead the regional party work of the district federations becomestaken over.


important personalities from the FDP are in the portal: Politics and in the list of the FDP members.

FDP Federal President candidate
portion of the delivered voices in %
1949 Theodor Heuss, 54.7%
1954 Theodor Heuss, 98.0%
1959 max of Becker, 10.3%
1964 Ewald books, 14.8%
1969 support Heinemann (SPD)
1974 walter cross-eyed, 51.6%
1979 choice abstention
1984 support Weizsäcker (CDU)
1989 support Weizsäcker (CDU)
1994 Hildegard Hamm Brücher, 10.0%
1999 support Rau (SPD)/Schipanski (CDU)
2004 support charcoal burner (CDU)


  • Lothar Albertin: Political liberalism in the Federal Republic. Collection Vandenhoeck, Goettingen 1980, ISBN 3-525-01324-8
  • Jürgen Dittberner: FDP - History, persons, organization, perspectives. An introduction, Wiesbaden2005, ISBN 3-531-14050-7.
  • Daniel Elfendahl: Direction fights in the party-political liberalism: The FDP between 1948 and 1972. Ruhr University, Bochum 2003
  • Karl ago man flat: Still another chance for the liberals. A disputation. Frankfurt/Main 1971, ISBN 3-596-22040-8
  • Hans Dietrich Genscher: Only one local change? A trial balance of the citizens of Berlin republic. High home publishing house, 2002, ISBN 3-8985-0074-8
  • Jörg Michael Gut: The development of the FDP from their beginnings to 1961. Hain publishing house, Meisenheim at the Glan 1967
  • Dieter Hein: Between liberals an environment party and national collection movement.Establishment, development and structure of the free democratic party 1945-1949. Droste publishing house, Duesseldorf 1985, ISBN 3-7700-5127-0
  • Karl Holl, Günter trusting man, Hans Vorländer: Social liberalism. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen 1986, ISBN 3-525-01333-7
  • pure-hard pretty, Jürgen Frölich: German-German liberalism in the cold war. ToGerman politics of the liberals 1945-1970. Potsdam 1997
  • Heino Kaack: To the history and pro grammar of the free democratic party. Publishing house Anton Hain, Meisenheim at the Glan 1976, ISBN 3-445-01380-2
  • briefly J. Body: FDP. Balance of the years 1960 - 1966. Germany needs a liberalA party? Cologne 1968.
  • Otto count Lambsdorff (Hrsg): Liberty and social responsibility. Principles of liberal social politics. FAZ publishing house, Frankfurt 2001, ISBN 3-8984-3041-3
  • Dieter Langewie: Liberalism in Germany. Suhrkamp, 1988, ISBN 3-518-11286-4
  • Peter deletes, Franz walter: The FDP. Direction controversy and the future SPC EifelScientific book company, Darmstadt 1996, ISBN 3-5348-0195-4
  • Marco Michel: The election to the Bundestag fights of the FDP 1949-2002. VS publishing house for social sciences, 2004, ISBN 3-531-14180-5
  • Andreas's morning star: The FDP in the parliamentary opposition 1966-69. Change to one „a reform party “. Tectum publishing house, 2004, ISBN 3-8288-8670-1
  • Ralph Raico: ThoseA party of the liberty. Studies for the history of the German liberalism. Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-8282-0042-7.
  • John Rawls: Political liberalism. Suhrkamp, 2003, ISBN 3-518-29242-0
  • John Rawls: The idea of the political liberalism. Suhrkamp, 1994, ISBN 3-518-28723-0
  • Theo Rütten: The German liberalism 1945 to 1955. Germany and social policy east and West German liberals in the developing phase of the two German states. Nomos publishing house, Baden-Baden 1984
  • walter cross-eyed, Otto count Lambsdorff: Liberty within responsibility, German liberalism since 1945. Bleicher 1988, ISBN 3-8835-0047-X
  • Mathias Siekmeier: Restoration or reform. The FDP in the sixties. Janus publishing house, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-922977-51-0
  • Guido Westerwelle: New ground. The future of the German liberalism. ECON, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-612-26658-6
  • Ruediger Zülch: Of the FDPto the F.D.P. - Third Kraft in the German party system. Bonn 1973

Web on the left of

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)