The Nobel peace prize

the Nobel peace prize is an honor for special earnings/services in the peace work. It was donated, like also the other Nobelpreise, by the Swedish inventor and Industriellen Alfred Nobel. This honor becomes since 1901 each year at the day of death Alfred Nobels, that 10. December, in Oslo lent.

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basis of the Nobel peace prize

the Nobel peace prize goes back on the will to the 1896 deceasedAlfred Nobel, in which it ordered Swedish crowns over the use of its fortune at a value of approximately 31 million. The money was invested in a donation, which is led by an advice of six directors and after the examination will of the 1898 was used. ThoseNobelpreise are formed after the will from the interest of the fund. In five equal large parts they will assign to the different disciplines. Beside the Nobel peace prize this is the ranges medicine and physiology, physics, chemistry and literature. The Nobelpreis for economic science is not embodied in the will and only since 1969 as intending price of the Swedish realm bank additionally one assigns.

For the assignment of the Nobel peace prize it means in the will:

A part that or that, that or at most or best for the fraternization of the peoples worked and forthe abolishment or reduction of the standing armies as well as for the education and delivering of congresses of peace.

By this definition the Nobel peace prize became to world-wide first the honor for the work in the peace movement.

Differently than with all other Nobelpreisen, which are assigned in Stockholm, the award takes placein the Norwegian capital Oslo. The winner of the Nobel peace prize is selected by a family of five committee, the Norwegian Nobelkomitee. The members of the committee are appointed by the Norwegian parliament, the Storting.

The cause for this lies in the fact that to Nobels lifetimes Sweden and Norway combinewere and questions with regard to foreign policy only by the Swedish parliament were decided. Nobel never explained, why he did not want to let the price assign like all different in Sweden. One assumes that however that he the opinion was, the Norwegian parliament, only forthe home policy was responsible, would be less strongly delivered to manipulations by the government. In addition it comes that Alfred Nobel estimated the Norwegian author Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson much and it decided therefore for Norway as place for the award of the price.

In addition Alfred Nobel held in his willfirmly:

it is my express desire that with the assignment of the price no consideration is to be taken on the nationality of the candidates and that the worthiest one the price receives, independently of whether it is Skandinavier or not.

the Nobelpreiskomitee

the committee toAssignment of the Nobel peace prize consists of five persons, who are selected and appointed by the Norwegian parliament. This selection applies to one period of six years, whereby the members can be also red-elect. The political composition of the parliament is reflected thereby naturally also in the composition of theCommittee again. The committee selects the chairman from its rows and its deputies. The director of the Nobel institute represents the secretary of the committee. Although it does not concern thereby a default, so far all representatives of this committee were Norwegians.

The committee is in itsDecision perfectly independently of external influences. The meetings do not have to be logged and decisions not to be justified, also not if it comes to opposite opinions. Accordingly the committee never takes position also in the discussions following after the assignment for decision.

To 1936 could alsoMembers of the parliament to representatives of the committee to be selected. This changed after the assignment of the Nobel peace prize to the German resistance fighter Carl von Ossietzky. This assignment was particularly condemned sharply by Germany and by Adolf Hitler and as act of aggressive foreign policy of Norway opposite thatGerman Reich rated. Since then there was no delegate in this committee. 1977 were to that extent again intensified the rule that no members become certified from governmentnear committees, at the same time with the change of name of “Nobel committee of the Norwegian parliament “into” Norwegian Nobel committee

the currentOccupation exists individual members since 2003, in the year 2005 is exchanged and/or. are confirmed. Accordingly the following persons educate the current commission:

  • Oil Danbolt Mjøs (* 1939) is a physician and professor at the university of Tromsø. There it was from 1989 to 1995 president thatUniversity. It belongs to the Christian people's party of Norway and dressed in the function several political offices. It is since 2003 member of the commission and leads these for the same year.
  • Ragnar Furre ( * 1937) saves is historian and professor for theology at the university of Oslo. In addition he was parliamentary director/conductor of the socialist left wing party of Norway of 1975 to 1976 and party leader from 1976 to 1983. It was member of the Norwegian Stortings from 1973 to 1977. It is member of the commission since 2003 and became in the same year to the deputy leaderselected.
  • Sissel Marie Rønbeck (*1950) is a deputy directress in Institut for the cultural inheritance of Norway (Riksantikvaren). It was a chief of the social-democratic youth from 1975 to 1977 and member of the Storting from 1977 to 1993. As a minister in the government cabinet it was active from 1979until 1981, from 1986 to 1989 and of 1996-97. It is member of the commission since 2003.
  • Inger Marie Ytterhorn (* 1941) is Seniorberaterin of the right-wing extremists a Norwegian progress party and was member of the Storting from 1989 to 1993. It is since 2000 member in the Nobelpreiskomitee.
  • Kaci Kullmann Five(*1951) independent Beraterin for public work and Affairs is public. It was a chief of the boys conservative ones from 1977 to 1979. Member of the Storting was it from 1981 to 1997. As a minister for trade, shipping and European co-operation it worked from 1989 to 1990. Of 1991until 1994 it was a chief of the conservative party of Norway. Since 2003 it is member in the Nobelpreiskomitee

as director of the Nobel institute and thus a secretary of the commission works professor Geir Lundestad (*1945).

nominating and assignment

delivery of the Nobel peace prize of 1963

suggestions for the Nobel peace prizeeach member of a government or the international Court of Justice in the Hague, as well as professors of the fields can social science , history, philosophy, right and theology and the ladder of peace research institutes and similar organizations submit beside the members of the commission and the former winners.

Contrary to the othersNobelpreisen can be assigned the Nobel peace prize at persons or organizations, those is involved in a peace process and not only for the locking solution of a conflict. Therefore some Nobel peace prizes in the today's light can be judged as questionable. This particularly applies to the Nobel peace prizes of the years 1973, when Henry Kissinger (the USA) and Le Duc Tho (Viet Nam) (did without the price) for the peace agreement of 1973 in Viet Nam were distinguished and 1994, when beside Schimon Peres and Jitzhak Rabin also Jassir Arafat for its efforts for the solution of the Middle East conflict one distinguished.A deprivation is not possible however.

The nominating must at the committee up to the 1. February of the yearly concerned been received its, later nominating are not accepted for the current year and are received into the decision to the next year. The commission got in some yearsclearly more than 140 suggestions for persons per year, from whom it may select maximally three persons. On behalf the secretary of the committee both permanent and special observers are assigned the report over the candidates. These reports are into the decision by thoseCommittees member facilitate and support, them may however no evaluations or recommendations of the nominated ones contain.

For the designation of the winners there is no firm date, mostly acts it however around one Friday around the center of the monthly Octobers. The proclamation finds official in the building of theNobel institute instead of. The assignment takes place only to 10. December of the yearly, the day of death by Alfred Nobel. Differently than with the other Nobelpreisen the price and the pertinent medal and document of the commission leader will assign and not from the king, of these are however just like different membersthe Norwegian government with the ceremony invited and present. After the award of the price as a rule the “Nobel Lecture “, a lecture or a speech of the winners takes place. This published in the appearing annual book series of “Les Prix Nobel “, in addition on the Websitesthe Nobel e-museum and the Norwegian Nobelinstitutes. In addition in the same evening a flank in smaller round takes place.

development of the Nobel peace prize

the Nobel peace prize medal 1921, lent at Christian Lous the long

Nobel peace prize was assigned for the first time 1901 at two persons. This were the founderthe international committee of the red cross Henri Dunant and the founder of the French peace company Société Française pour l'arbitrage entre nation, Frédéric Passy. 1905 received it as a first Mrs. the Austrian Bertha from Suttner (novel the weapons down!, Foundress of the German peace company).Since then the assignment took place until 2004 at 91 persons and 18 organizations. By all Nobelpreisen in this discipline however most frequently without an assignment one did and one spent in the 104 years the price only 83 times. The woman portion with 12 women liesup to the year 2004 more highly than in all other disciplines. The Nobelpreis for literature went nevertheless so far 11 time to a woman.

Since 1960 the Nobel peace prize becomes also for the employment for the human rights, since 2004 also for the work for the environment anda lasting development assign.

An important development concerns the production of the dossiers for the committees member. These were written in the initial days alone by the secretary of the committee , Christian Lous long one, and continued to give. With the establishment of the Norwegian Nobel institute the secretary support got 1904 throughpermanent advisors. This were into the 1980er years inside three persons, who were experts for international right, history and world economy. Meanwhile there are four durable advisors, in addition further advisors can be tightened to special candidates.

Although the assignment of the price by a Norwegian committee, no above average preference was criticized already from the beginning can be found by Norwegians or Skandinaviern with an analysis of the past winners. So far the price went at eight Skandinavier, of it was five Sweden, one Dane and two Norwegians.

controversies

the assignmentthe Nobel peace prize is particularly strongly coined/shaped disputed from contradictions and accordingly. The selected persons and organizations are polarizing frequently strongly and it come with almost any assignment to meeting with hostility over the decision. A cancelling of the price is not possible however and the decision of the committeeaccordingly not formally contestably.

Also many persons were not appreciated with the Nobel peace prize, who would have earned it in the public perception. A particularly prominent example is thereby Mahatma Gandhi, which occurred for the peaceful independence effort of India. Also the Popes Benedikt XV. and Johannes PaulII. the Nobelpreis never got, although they were several times nominated.

see also

list of the Nobel peace prize carriers, to 1000 women for the Nobel peace prize 2005

literature

  • Bernhard Kupfer: Encyclopedia of the Nobelpreisträger, Patmos publishing house Duesseldorf 2001 (ISBN 3-491-72451-1)
  • BrockhausNobelpreise - chronicle of outstanding achievements, Brockhaus, Mannheim 2004 (ISBN 3-7653-0492-1)
  • Peter Badge: Nobelpreisträger in the Portrait, acre Vivendi 2004 (ISBN 3-89716-519-8)
  • Heinrich Zankl: Nobelpreise: Explosive affairs, disputed decisions, Wiley VCH 2005 (ISBN 3-527-31182-3)
  • John bank clay/tone: Alfred Nobel: Andthe Story of the Nobel Prize (Great Achievement Awards), Mitchell Lane Publishers 2003 (ISBN 1584151684)
  • Agneta Wallin Levinovitz, Nils Ringertz (Herausgeber): The Nobel Prize: The roofridge 100 Years, World Scientific Publishing company 2001 (ISBN 9810246641)
  • Charlotte Kerner: Madame curieand their sisters, Beltz 2001 (ISBN 3-407-78868-1)
  • Charlotte Kerner: Not only madame curie…, Beltz 2001 (ISBN 3-407-78839-8)
  • Sharon Bertsch McGrayne: Nobel Prize Women in Science: Their live one, Struggles, and Momentous Discoveries, national Academies press 2001 (ISBN 0309072700)
  • Geseko of Lüpke: The alternative, Riemann2003 (ISBN 3-570-50031-4) - book to alternatives the Nobelpreis
  • Matthias Hannemann, the good propagandists. Iran, the eyes of the world and the Nobel peace prize, in: Liberally - quarter booklets for politics and culture, No. 46 (March2004), S. 66-69. - Essay for the function and medium production of the price

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