Friedrich Ludwig Jahn

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn

„turn father “ Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (* 11. August 1778 in Lanz; † 15. October 1852 in Freyburg (Unstrut)) was a German political activist nationalistic and anti-Semitic adjustment.

Table of contents

youth and study time

the son of a minister is informed first by the father, 1791 visits it the High School salt whisk, 1794 the Berlini High School to the grey monastery, Berlin, which it leaves without conclusion.

Under wrong conditions it registers at the universities resounds themselves (1796) to the theology study and spends seven years at different universities, under it grab forest which it, like already the High Schools, because of bad guidanceand not existed Abitur abandoned must.

Jahn accepts a place as a house teacher and is concerned intensively with German language and history. It steps into resounds for purity of the German language and writes the writing “Patriotismus into Prussia”, must Resounds abandoned and goes to Breslau.

1800 are made for it in Leipzig the process and a prohibition for all German universities is expressed. 1802 it meets Ernst Moritz Arndt at the university in grab forest; the idea „combined Germany”arises.

development of the ideology

soon thereafter he leaves grab forest without conclusion, goes first to new Brandenburg, where he informs 1803-1804 as a house teacher the children of the baron le away, then as a private teacher to Jena. it meets 1807 Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths in Schnepfenthal, dem er Impulse für das Turnen in Deutschland verdankt. During the war (battle with Jena and Auerstedt) it functions as a courier in the order for government. 1810 it becomes at the Plamann educational establishmentin Berlin actively and written its first Hauptwerk the German nationality.

It fails because of an examination for the upper position for teachers in king mountain, becomes an auxiliary teacher in Berlin and dedicates themselves the Turnerei. In its 1810 writing German nationality appeared in Luebeckit undertakes schroffe attacks on „the Ausländerei” and „Verwelschung” of its time. among other things:„The Kleinstaaterei prevents of Germany size on that ground approximately. Who lets the French language teach to its children, an erring, who persists in it, is sündigt against the holy spirit. Ifit however its daughters French to teach leaves, is just as good, as if it lets Hurerei teach them. Poland, Frenchmen, Pfaffen, Junker and Jews are of Germany misfortune. ”

It undertakes expanded migrations with its pupils. From this finally regular doing gymnastics develops.To 18. June 1811 becomes the 1. German turn place on the citizens of Berlin hare heath opens, which with devices after the model by Gutsmuths one equipped. Likewise the Leibesübungen, the Jahn doing gymnastics come of call the model Gutsmuths, however Jahn means with doing gymnasticsthe whole of all Leibesübungen: Device exercises were developed further and supplemented by plays, swimming, fencing and moving.

Widmungen am Jahn-Denkmal in der Berliner Hasenheide
Doing gymnastics continues to develop dedications at the Jahn monument in

the citizens of Berlin hare heath Jahn for „patriotic education for preparation on the war of liberation”. Jahn saw the developmentdoing gymnastics in close relationship with political goals: the release of Germany from Napoleoni rule, the idea of a future German Reich under Prussian guidance and the participation of the individual citizens to well-being and pain of the whole one. Also it arranges a doing gymnasticspolitical criteria under. Jahn wanted to train the youth for the fight against France.

With the defeat Napoleon 1812 the condition for the national release of Germany is created. With the victory of the people battle with Leipzig Jahns becomes desire in certain senseReality. Here the Lützower free corps, which Jahn with its Turnern had joined, had special earnings/services.

1813, in the time of the people battle with Leipzig demand Jahn: „... free speech, condition, unit of the native country…”. In the same year Jahn takes inBerlin the turn enterprise again into its hand, led in the meantime by Eiselen. Jahn helped it with the propagation of doing gymnastics where it was possible: it sent Vorturner and visited on its turn travels themselves different turn places.

To 12. June 1815 the German Burschenschaft in Jena is created. 1816 appear the book the German turn art (with Ernst Eiselen).

restoration

of the Viennese congress disappoints Jahn, since a policy of the European equilibrium became generally accepted there. The German federation suppressedthe liberals condition movements in the member states. From the actual goals Jahns was fulfilled only the release from France.

It begins 1817 with a course of lectures to the German nationality, in which it anprangert the bad states in the Prussian army and which restriction thatcivil rights in the state regrets. Thus it creates itself not only friends, but also enemies, e.g. State State of Hardenberg, who wants to take over a doing gymnastics under national supervision at the schools.

In close purchase to the turn nature also the movement is located to that Burschenschaften. They and the Turner pursued the same political goals in the reason. However there were also small groupings, which stood out against these objectives. Here splitting into a democratic and a national liberal direction of the German liberalism showed upon.

To 18./19. October 1817 took place on Jahns initiative as high point of the turn movement in Germany (also over 100 turn places alone in Prussia) the waiting castle celebration with the first modern book burn in the German-speaking countries. Jahn placed thoseList of the books together, his pupil Hans Ferdinand measure man initiated the action. This symbol-pregnant act of the book burn drew suspicions Metternichs on itself, in the consequence came it to to citizens of Berlin and Breslauer turn feud, where criticism against doing gymnastics oragainst his religious-patriotic direction became loud.1819 became in the course „of the Demagogenverfolgung” (Carlsbad resolutions 31. August) against Turner and Burschenschafter Jahn the resumption of doing gymnastics on the hare heath forbidden, there the turn exercises in the context of instruction take place and thatSchool administrative board to be subordinated should. The murder of the writer August von Kotzebue by the student and Turner Karl Ludwig sand released the turn barrier finally.

The effect that Carlsbad resolutions met the turn movement hard. Jahn became to 13. July 1819 arrests,the Burschenschaften forbade, universities posed under state control and many student Turner and Burschenschafter under police supervision posed. Jahn spent the next 5 years in detention in Spandau, Küstrin, Berlin and Kolberg. A turn prohibition in completely Prussia andother German states one issued.

Grabmal Jahns in Freyburg
Grabmal Jahns in Freyburg

Somit war offiziell in Preußen 1820 das Turnen eingestellt, allerdings fanden vielerorts trotz dieser Sperre Leibesübungen weiterhin statt. To 13. January 1824 was condemned Jahn to 2 years fortress detention and to 15. March 1825 on the condition to live in no university or Gymnasialstadt acquitted. 1825 to 1852 it lived under Polizeiaufsicht in Freyburg to the Unstrut (today in Saxonia-Anhalt). Here today by the way still the oldest gymnasium of Germany, of them standsBuilding later, after which political rehablitation Jahns was initiated by it. In September 1828 it was expelled because of contact with pupils and teachers until 1835 after Kölleda. In the course of the years the regulations were loosened and physicians and paedagogues supportedthe rereviving of the Leibesübungen. 1837 is permitted in the High Schools Leibesübungen.

1840 amnesty and perfect rehabilitation by Friedrich William IV., Iron cross.

1842 lift Friedrich William IV. up and thereby officially the turn barrier terminates the decree of its father;In Prussia certified and school subject will do gymnastics.

1848 were selected Jahn into the Frankfurt national assembly in the Paulskirche. It turns away from patriotic doing gymnastics and engages themselves for peace and order.

1852 die Jahn in Freyburg/Unstrut. There becomesit at the face of the first German gymnasium buried.

literature

  • Paul Piechowski: Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. From the turn father to the people educator. With a haven guessing board. Gotha: Leopold block publishing house, 1926, 204 S.

Web on the left of

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|| * Literature of and over Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the catalog of the DDB

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