Friedrich Schiller

of these articles is concerned with the poet Friedrich Schiller, further persons with names Schiller and further meanings sees to Schiller (term clarifying)

Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller, since 1802 of Schiller (* 10. November 1759 in Marbach at the Neckar; † 9. May 1805 in Weimar) was a German poet, dramatist and a historian. It applies beside Goethe as the most important author the German classical period. Many of its plays belong to the standard repertoire of the German-language theatres. Its Balladen rank among the most popular German poems.

Ludovike Simanowiz: Friedrich Schiller (1794)

table of contents


origin, trainingand first successes

Friedrich Schiller Johann Caspar Schiller and Elizabeth Dorothea Schiller became geb. as a son of the officer Kodweiss 1759 in Marbach at the Neckar born. Since the father got an employment as an advertising officer, the family settled 1763 after Lorchover. Briefly after 1766 its sister Luise was born, the family moved to Ludwigsburg . In the same year Friedrich occurred the latin school. Already with thirteen he wrote the not received plays „Absalon “ and „the Christians “.

On herzoglichenInstruction and against the will of parents he had to occur 1773 the military academy high Karl school Stuttgart and began first law studies. The pupils were covered with brutal, military twisting and it still were probably also therefore with fifteenYears a bed-wet. Twice it was therefore hard punished. Secretly it schnupfte tobacco and read together with its comrades forbidden writings.

Schiller als Regimentarzt, 1781/1782. Gemälde von Philipp Friedrich Hetsch
Schiller as a regiment physician, 1781/1782. Painting of Philipp Friedrich Hetsch

as 1775 the academy of lock Solitude into thoseCity center was shifted from Stuttgart, changed for Schiller the subject and began a medicine study. During this time it read intensively the works of the poets storm and urge and was occupied also with the poems of the literary critic Klopstock. In the sameYear wrote he the not received drama „the student of Nassau “.1776 appeared its first printed poem „the evening “. It studied the works Plutarchs, Shakespeares, Voltaires, Rousseaus and Goethe. Likewise 1776 it began the work onthe liberal play „the robbers “.1779 it passed the first medical exams and asked for the dismissal. Only after conclusion of the thesis it was allowed to leave the military academy as an army surgeon 1780.

Skizze von Viktor von Heideloff mit dem Untertitel: „Schiller liest die Räuber im Bopserwald“
Sketch of Viktor of Heideloff with the sub-title: „Schiller reads“1781 Schiller the play

completed the robbers in the Bopserwald „the robbers “, which was anonymous printed still in the same year. On the fortress Hohenasperg it met for the first time the poet Christian kind of thrust eingekerkerten there. To 13. January 1782 „the robbers were successfully uraufgeführt “ by the Mannheimer theatre. The piece kindled rejoicing towers in particular at the juvenile public. Also Schiller was despite the herzoglichen prohibition with its friend Andreas strike ago present. Duke Karl Eugen threw the insubordinate poet on itfourteen days long in the prison and forbade to it until further notice to write comedies „and such things “. Liberty-inspired young people created many in the following months in South Germany „gangs of robbers “.

At the night of 22. on the 23. September fled Schiller also Andreas strike ago from Stuttgart and traveled again to Mannheim, where he read out the drama „to Fiesco “. Journeys followed to Frankfurt/Main, Oggersheim and Bauerbach. At the end of of 1782 appeared the Anthologie on the year 1782 with 83, usuallyfrom Schiller wrote, poems. Schillers friend strike ago described the escape in the book Schillers escape from Stuttgart and stay in Mannheim from 1782 to 1785.

uncertain years

with its stay in farmer brook (Thuringia) in the year 1783make friends yourself Schiller with the librarian Reinwald from Meiningen , with which he co-operated and which late Schillers sister Christophine married. It completed there the work on „Kabale and love “(first „Luise Millerin “called) and began with thatPiece „Don Carlo “. After its return to Mannheim it got sick in September 1783 at the nerve fever (malaria), which was domestic in at that time still swampy country. In Mannheim Schiller worked until 1785 as a theatre poet and learned in thisTime also Charlotte of calf know. 1784 were renamed Schillers piece „Luise Millerin “ by August William Iffland in „Kabale and love “and uraufgeführt like also the drama „Fiesco “. The theatrical director Wolfgang Heribert of Dalberg let Schiller fall and renewed itsContract not, which led to the fact that Schiller was to blame for itself highly and landed nearly in the debt tower.

Schiller began to develop an exchange of letters and a friendship with Christian Gottfried of grains, which published a total expenditure of Schillers works from 1812 to 1816. Duke Carl August lent the title of a Weimari advice to Schiller, after this read the first elevator „of the Don Juan “during a lecture. In April 1785 Schiller traveled to grains to Leipzig, where this helped him from the financial state of distress. InSummer developed for the today's quarter Gohlis „the desert in close convenient village, to the joy “, in the autumn followed it grains after Dresden delete joke. During its stay in delete joke Schiller in the village lain opposite the Elbe learned blister joke ina Schankgut (today Schillergarten) the daughter of the restaurant operator/barkeeper, Justine Segedin, know, which it later 1797 in „boiling stone camps “as „Gustel of blister joke “(5. Appearance, call of the first hunter) perpetuated. 1786 appeared in the second expenditurethe magazine Thalia the narration „criminals from infamy. A true history “, which under the title „the criminal from lost honour “was published later.

To 21. There July 1787 traveled after Schiller Weimar and made the acquaintance of Herder and how/as country. While a journey by Rudolstadt he became acquainted with Charlotte of Lengefeld and their sister Caroline, which admits under its marriage name Caroline of Wolzogen became, after her first anonymous in Schillers magazine „hearing “the novel „Agnes ofLilies “published, which occasionally even Schiller was attributed.

„Don Carlo “appeared in this year and was immediately specified. After Goethe returned 1788 from his Italy journey, both met in Rudolstadt, without developing large interest for each other. Schiller terminated the workat the first and only volume „of the history of the waste of the united Netherlands of the Spanish government “and at the twelve letters over „Don Carlo “.

financial safety device

Beischreiben to the document, the Schiller to the honour citizen that(1792) in the year 1789

received Schiller makes French republic a Professur in Jena - against its hopes without content - and taught there as a historian, although he was a professor of philosophy. For this place it had itself in particular alsoits „history of the waste of the united Netherlands “qualifies. Likes, as it was particularly by „the robbers “, the message of the training activity released Schillers in Jena inspiring storms. The start lecture („which one is called and to which end studies universal history? “) brought that, And the countless listeners in such a way changed lecture-room for overflowing to the larger hall. The whole city was in riot.

In the same year the first expenditure for book of the novel appeared „that spirit rather “, and Schiller makes friends itself with William of Humboldt . To 22. February 1790 married Schiller Charlotte of Lengefeld. Trusting minister was its colleague, who philosophy professor Carl Christian Erhard forge. Much pointed now to a large vocational and family luck.

But already 1791 got sick to Schiller lethal. At the 3. January sufferedit a collapse, a cramp-like cough and a temporary Ohnmachten. Two weeks later, in addition, still in May followed further accumulations. Schiller was probably at Tuberkulose gets sick, of which he time life no more genas. In the December of the same yearly Ernst Heinrich offeredCount von Schimmelmann as well as Friedrich Christian von Augustenburg Schiller an annual pension of 1000 valleys on, which five years long one paid to it, in order to take to it during its illness financial concerns.

In the year 1792 became Schiller for „The robbers “beside Friedrich God-dear Klopstock, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, George Washington and Tadeusz Kościuszko to the honour citizen of the French republic. A cause was rather Schillers call as a rebel as its actual working. It stood for the French revolutionat first quite in a well-meaning manner opposite, a possible transformation of trailers of the liberty however always feared to trailers of tyranny. The French king was actually cut back later by the freedom fighters. Schiller abhorred this act.

It completed „the history of the dreissigjährigen war “; alsothe works „new Thalia “and „over the tragic art “appeared.

A. Graff: Friedrich Schiller (over 1790)

1793 appeared „over beauty and “and it visits its parents in Ludwigsburg.

To 14. September became his first child Karl Friedrich Ludwig born. 1794 became acquainted with Schiller the publisher Friedrich Cotta , which explained itself ready to publish the monthly magazine „a hearing “and „the MUSE yearbook “.

By Goethe Schiller obtained the promise to take part tohearing “and developed in friendly exchange of letters between the two. In September 1794 Schiller spent two weeks in Goethe's house. It held thereby its used routine of the day, that meant, it slept until at noon and worked at night. In the knowledge around Schillers tradition consciousness Goethe and its hushed uplife companion of many years Christiane Vulpius their „wild marriage “. The Versteckspiel must have caused an unusual logistic expenditure in the house of Goethe in the two weeks. Christiane Vulpius and their five-year son August remained invisible in the own house. Schiller designated thoseRelationship of Goethe with the Mademoiselle Vulpius as Goethe's „only bare ones “and criticized Goethe in a letter for „wrong terms over the domestic luck “. The liberal Goethe spoke simply of „earliest and without ceremony “. Goethe however disturbed himself at Schillers passion for that Pack of cards, how it could be malicious at all also opposite friends (the much kolportierte anecdote, Schiller had been able to seal only with the smell of putrid apples, comes from it).

1795 appeared the monthly magazine „hearing “for the first time. In addition completedSchiller the paper „over naive and sentimentalische seal “. In the magazine the most famous writers and philosopher of this time participated. In addition among other things Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann belonged God-dear to spruce, August William Schlegel, William of Humboldt, Alexander of Humboldt, Johann Heinrich Voss and Friedrich Hölderlin.

1796 died Schillers sister Nanette and its father. His second son Ernst Friedrich William was born. From 1796 to 1800 Schiller indicated the literature magazine „to MUSE yearbook “out,as considerable contemporaries as Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Hölderlin and August William Schlegel cooperated. 1797 appeared in „the MUSE yearbook for the year 1797 “„the Xenien “, in those Schiller and Goethetogether literary bad states scoffed. The year 1797 is called alsothe Balladenjahr „, there Schiller in this year „the diver “, „the glove “, „the ring of the Polykrates “, „the course after the Eisenhammer“and „the Kraniche of the Ibykus “completely placed. 1798 developed the Ballade „the endorsement “and „the fight with the kite “. Schiller was finally set the document, which made him the honour citizen of the French republic.

Weimar years

in the year 1799 Schiller completed „the boiling stone “, which developed „for song of the bell “, and at the 11. October was born its daughter Caroline Henriette Luise. At the 3. It drew Decembers with itsAfter family Weimar over.1800 terminated Friedrich Schiller the work on the drama „Maria Stuart “. 1801 it completed „the virgin of Orléans “, and the poem „the start of the new century “appeared.

F. G. Weitsch:Schiller (1804)

to 16. November 1802 was presented Schiller the aristocracy diploma, it was allowed to call itself from now at Friedrich of Schiller. In the same year its nut/mother deceased. 1803 terminated Schiller its work on „the bride of Messina “. To 18. February 1804 it completed „the William Tell “and began with his work „Demetrius “on. Schiller became ever more frequently ill in this time. To 25. July 1804 was born its daughter Emilie Friederike Henriette.


A newspaper spread the message, Schiller is dead. But in February 1805 Schiller got sick actually very heavily and met at the 1. May for the last time on the way in the theatre with Goethe together. To 9. May died Friedrich Schiller onone probably by a Tuberkuloseerkrankung caused acute pneumonia in Weimar. The autopsy results in that Schillers of left lungs is completely destroyed. Also its other organs pulled strongly in. Like that its spleen and its Galle are strongly increased andthe kidneys by dissolution nearly no longer available. The normally strong heart muscle becomes no longer fair this designation.

In the autumn 1826 entlieh itself Goethe the head Schillers from the Anna Amalia library. Only William of Humboldt to his friend toldit this secret, which out-chatted it however. Goethe used the head for studies. Schillers Gebeine were Weimar buried first in the Kassengewölbe at the Yak-generic term cemetery . Its mortal remnants became to 16. December 1827 in prince-close-calls on the new Weimar cemeterytransferred, where also Goethe on own desire at Schillers page was bestattet later.

Schillerbüste of Theodor Wagner (after Johann Heinrich Dannecker)

literature-historical meaning

Schiller is a contemporary of the transition from the absolutist to the civil age and that French revolution. There the middle class under - in Germany smallnational - the absolutism not politically to articulate itself could do and was allowed, became the literature in the second half 18. Century to a central medium of the development of the civil self-confident unity.Pathos and the feeling SAMness in Schillers works to around 1785 are expression of the increase of the human one, a principle, which was against placed to the political one in the sense of the absolutism as a power play. The civil tragedy as prevailing form element (and/or itsContrast “human - power play” in the early dramas to „Kabale and love “) reflects this.

After the period between 1785 and 1795 with works like „Don Carlo “and fundamental literature-theoretical papers as „over the aesthetic education of theHumans “and „over naive and sentimentalische seal “develop between 1795 and 1805 above all dramas, which are to be assigned to that Weimar classical period. In them Schiller converted the program of the aesthetic education of humans - the reconciliation ofUnderstanding and feeling. It intended to form with the effect on the public by the change of Idyllik and drama TIC aesthetic humans - as a condition for the force-free transition for a reasonable state and as Gegenprogramm to the French revolutionhow also to the contemporary policy, in which he saw only raw forces at the work.

Schiller is not only author inexhaustibly picture and languagestrong dramas like „the robbers “, „Don Carlo “, „the virgin of Orleans “or „William Tell “, but also the politicalMore closely in German language, that the Vernunfts, humanity and liberty ideals at the end 18. Century without compromises in the literature expressed. In Schillers own words „the building of a true political liberty “„the most perfect of all works of art “(second is saidLetter „over the aesthetic education of humans “)

Rezeption (see.Artistic Rezeption)

Schillers of works did not only become in Germany, but also taken up in many other European countries enthusiastically, so for example in still ungeeinten, suppressed Italy (see. Giuseppe Verdi) as well as in tsarist Russia. To the one Schiller was considered as a poet of the liberty, other one than defenders of civil Gesittung. Its 100. Birthday was celebrated 1859 in completely Europe. The publisher Cotta sold altogether 2.4 million until 1867Copies of the expenditure for work.

Monument for Goethe and Schiller into Weimar

the German education middle class maintained then in 19. and also in early 20. Rather material-end handling to century one with Schillers works. One learned Schiller like also different poets by heart, around itselfto provide in the fight for the social ascent a komparativen advantage - less, in order to take it than artist and philosopher to the knowledge (see. Half formation). It became very estimated in the German workers' movement and in the worker education associations.

Alsoin the GDR one endeavored around the ideological integration and made themselves Schiller the Vorkämpfer of communism. On the occasion of its 200. Birthday 1959 aufwändige celebrations were organized. Not the whole Schiller Œuvre enjoyed however of the appreciation of the regime. That all tooliberal play „Don Carlo “(„Sire, giving it thought liberty “) was not specified in the late phase - in it the GDR resembled the third realm - no more.

Still in May 1955 the writer had Thomas man to a better, more humaneres Germanyappealed, by it on the occasion of 150. Day of death the same speech in Weimar and Stuttgart held: „Attempt over Schiller - to 150. Day of death of the poet “.

Starting from the seventies, probably as a result of the 68er - movement, disappeared to Schiller together alsoalmost all poets of the large epoch from the storm and urge to the Viennese congress from the general education canon. After the fall of the classical, Humboldt 'High School Schillers of works schen by the training body are today rather avoided. The learning are also concerned Thomas's man, Gerhart captain and if necessary still with Theodor Fontane or Heinrich Heine. Far back rich their knowledge usually not.

In the Schillerjahr 2005 it became clear that its work also in the united German republic rather kalendarisch as alsogeneral Zuspruch one appreciated. The schillerbezogene literature science took new upswing, but the mass media discussed the anniversary mainly biographically. In public meetings its texts were able to however quite strike sparks, if they were rezitiert in the original. HoweverTravestien or working on did not cause a large echo.

That is literature-sociologically interesting. Eugen Rosenstock Huessy pointed out that in the course of the social change after approximately 130 years whole culture existence can become outdated and disappear from the memory of the new generations. In view ofits are at least one part of the German education elite remarkably close to Schillers of texts - anyhow than it Schillers contemporary at that time nearly forgotten German baroque literature before the dreissigjährigen war was closer. On the other hand however the type of the education citizen , its can Schiller intus does not have, at the theatre public and the readership today any longer to be presupposed.


Schillerdenkmal of Bertel Thorvaldsen in Stuttgart

the following Schillerpreise were donated:



smaller ones of works

philosophical writings

historical works



  • Ludwig founts: Dramaturgi sheets. Over the character William of the Tell in Schillers drama, 1828, in: All writings. I bound. Duesseldorf 1964
  • Gert Sautermeister: Idyllik and drama TIC in the work Friedrich Schillers.Kohl hammer, Stuttgart1971
  • Friedrich Schiller. A documentation in pictures. Schiller Nationalmuseum, Marbach 1979; Expenditure for license island, Frankfurt/Main
  • Arnd Meusburger: The civil ideals 18. Century in Schillers dramas 1780-1804. Thesis, University of Innsbruck 1985
  • Peter André alto: Schiller. Life - work - time.2 volumes. Publishing house C.H.Beck, Munich 2000.ISBN 3-406-45905-6 and ISBN 3-406-46225-1
  • Claudia Pilling: Friedrich Schiller. Biography. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002 ISBN 3-499-50600-9
  • Ruediger Safranski: Friedrich Schiller or the invention of the German idealism. Biography. Hanser, Munich 2004 ISBN 3-446-20548-9
  • Ruediger Safranski: Schiller as a philosopher - a Anthologie. Wjs publishing house, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-937989-08-0
  • Sigrid dam: The life of the Friedrich Schiller. Island, Frankfurt 2004. ISBN 3-458-17220-3
  • franc Druffner, Martin scarf horn: God plans and mouse business - Schiller 1759-1805.Marbacher catalog 58, Marbach 2005, ISBN 3937384111
  • Günther Emig and Peter Staengle: Schiller in Heilbronn. 2005.
  • Jörg Aufenanger:Schiller and the two sisters. German paperbacks publishing house, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-423-24446-1
  • the Regimentsmedicus Schiller - physician, author, deserter. Hearing book. Berlin, 2005.ISBN 3-9810256-3-6
  • Stephan lints: Schiller and its publishers island publishing house, Frankfurt A.M. - Leipzig 2005. ISBN 3-458-17243-2 (review)
  • Johannes Lehmann: Our poor Schiller - an irreverent approximation. Biography. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005 ISBN 3-499-23270-7

see also

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person data
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich of
of German poets, dramatists and historian
10. November 1759
Marbach at the Neckar
9. May 1805
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