Friedrich William IV. (Prussia)
Friedrich William IV. (* 15. October 1795 in Berlin; † 2. January 1861 in potsdam) was the oldest son of Friedrich William III. by Prussia and Luise von Mecklenburg Strelitz. After dying its father it stepped to 7. June 1840 the government follow-up on and was up to its death king of Prussia. For disease reasons he handed over the regency to 7. October 1858 to his brother William I.
Friedrich William was considered to that as a shy young man, probably protected in the nearly civilEnvironment of its parents' house buildup. It possessed a large general education and was considered as a romantic, who was inspired by the ideals of the medieval holy one of Roman realm.
childhood and youth
Friedrich William was born 1795, when its father was still Crown Prince of Prussia. To 28. October 1795he was baptized in Berlin in the crowning prince palace under the lime trees. 1797 after the death of its grandfather Friedrich of William II. its father mounted the Prussian throne; the two-year Friedrich William was thereby Crown Prince of Prussia. For the educator Friedrich of William parents intended first Friedrich Delbrück and late Jean Pierre Frédéric Ancillon, which should remain long connected Friedrich William a life.
The first large break in the life of the Crown Prince should the defeat of the Prussian army against the French troops Napoleon I. in the battle with Jena and Auerstedt to 14. Octobers 1806 become: The royal family fled to East Prussia. From the children Friedrich William was probably the only one, who understood the tragic of this escape and whom the experience of the defeat coined/shaped lastingly. During its sister Charlotte, the later wife of the Zaren Nikolaus I.it remembered later that for the children the joy had been larger to travel than the grief received to flee, the Crown Prince here a first term from the responsibility, which brought the political guidance of a country with itself. It should not the days of the concernmore forget.
to 29. November 1823 he married princess Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria. The Crown Prince had become on one the purpose of the “Brautschau” undertaken journey on the Bavarian princess attentively and its advertisement had quite begun. Although the connection politicallyboth of more Prussian and from Bavarian side was from desirable, faced the wedding unexpected konfessionelle difficulties, because Elizabeth refused itself converting to the protest anti-mash who Prussian king did not want to accept a catholic crowning princess however. Friedrich William however explained that him steadfastness thatPrincess this makes still more expensive.
Only after extensive diplomatic efforts of both sides it succeeded to find a compromise formula using which Elizabeth their denomination should (first) maintained, however committed themselves, to instruction in the Protestant faith teachings to take and besides restraint in practicing the catholicism promised.To longer time of the life to Prussian yards then finally came it to the freiwilligen crossing the Elizabeth to the reformed faith of the Hohenzollern.
The marriage between Friedrich William and Elizabeth ran according to all certifications lucky, remained however childless.
Friedrich William as building masters
Already as Crown Prince Friedrich William exerted crucial influence on architecture, within those it without reservation as a connoisseur to apply knew. It corresponded with a number of the most important building masters of that time and itself from them with the organization of some building projects particularly in the capital Berlin and the Residenzstadt potsdam leave advised. To call here Karl Friedrich Schinkel, its pupil Friedrich August Stüler, is Ludwig Persius and Christian Daniel smoke, their architectural work a kongeniale addition in the work on the large park plants by Peter Joseph Lenné and Hermann of Pückler Muskau found.
under the government of its father Friedrich William III. prevailed in Prussia after the victory over Napoleon I. restoration politics with repressive measures. Under the influence of Metternich one introduced the press censorship, the civil liberty effortsas the national unit movements in the country were suppressed.
However in the year 1836 one arrested 204 insurgent students. Against some of them one expressed death sentences. Likewise a strong controversy with the catholic church resulted from the mixed marriage law. 1825 became this law in completely Prussiaused. It meant that children from mixed marriages had to accept the denomination of the father. Many bishops jumped over themselves over it why some by them it was arrested (the most popular victim was the archbishop of Cologne Clemens August Droste to Vischering) and itself the conflict with that Church state strengthened of far.
the government Friedrich of William IV.
As Friedrich William IV. he mounted, terminated 1840 the throne the restaurative policy of his father, as well as the controversy with the catholics, for who he made some important concessions. Many death sentences were waived, the Demagogenverfolgung was abolishedand some liberal philosopher from the detention dismisses. The press censorship was only kept further upright.
first government years
1842 arose the king on the celebration of building of cathedrals, where the building of far Cologne cathedral was decided.Before it had approved the establishment of an association of building of cathedrals in the year 1840. He welcomed the celebration as an important symbol of the unit of Germany and put together with archbishop Johannes of scourge the foundation-stone for the building of far. Friedrich William was a friend of the arts. Among other thingshe could be built in potsdam in the park with Sanssouci a neoromanische church, which copied the Roman church in Pomposa with Ravenna. South of Koblenz it let lock proud rock in the maurischen style establish and on the Hohenzollern, the master castle of its sex, left it oneCastle in the neogotischen style build.
Into this time likewise the assassination attempt of Heinrich Ludwig Tschech falls. The former state servant felt in an unfair way treated, after a resetting was refused to him into the government service, and shot to 26. July 1844 in the citizen of Berlin lock yard with a pistolon king Friedrich William IV. and his wife Elizabeth Ludovika. Both remained however intact.
the Prussian united federal state parliament
1847 summoned Friedrich together William the united federal state parliament , which placed the demand after a condition. The king rejected this however.
The revolution of 1848
as the March revolution 1848 began, decided Friedrich William to concessions, which not least the influence of his Oberhofpredigers Dr. Friedrich bunch is attributed. Among other things main header it to 18. March the press censorship up and promised the elaboration of an all-German condition.
When thereupon the citizens of Berlin population loose-marched, in order to thank the king or to encourage him to further measures, the mass came by the bare presence of the military before the king lock into riot. Thereupon the king gave the instruction to the Prussian troops for the completion of the scandal,and there with the marching-up two shots separated by mistake, however the nobody met and/or. , came the mass into panic, the rumor of a bloody massacre with hundreds of dead ones, caused by the military, completely made the round and it hurt came to involving heavy losses road fights.
To 19. March was taken off the military. To 21. March rode the king with a black-red-golden Schärpe by the city and announced its will for the unit and liberty of Germany. Secretly however it wrote his brother, the prince Wilhelm: “I had to attach the realm colors yesterday voluntarily,in order to save everything. If the throw is successful…, then I put it down again! “Therefore Friedrich was William from the outset decided to meet with changed balances of power of the revolution by Gegenrevolution. In newer publications (for example of David Barclay and of Ruediger Hachtmann) becomesthe well-conceived calculation Friedrich of William in the revolution emphasized, which it it permitted to recover with temporary Zurückweichen absolutist power in the long term.
After he had let the citizens of Berlin citizen resistance disarm in November 1848, left he the Prussian national assembly into the province to Brandenburg to shift andfinally dissolve.
to 6. December 1848 was oktroyiert by the against-revolutionary Ministry Brandenburg a new Prussian condition, which planned a freely selected parliament, but power nevertheless to a large extent with the monarchs left. Friedrich William accepted the condition, everyone itsSuccessor on occasion the Inthronisation again for acknowledgment to be submitted had, arranged however in the secret one that with this collecting main also a document with would have to be submitted to the respective Descendenten, in which Friedrich William it requested to malfunction to the condition the acknowledgment. This additional documentbecame from William I. and Friedrich III. ignored and of William II. burned.
At the 3. April 1849 offered the emperor deputation of the Frankfurt national assembly the king the emperor crown, but Friedrich William rejected with the reason that he could not accept „crown from the Gosse “(see realm agreement from downside). After the realm condition campaign and the May revolution breaking out in their context had failed 1849 by military striking down by realm troops under Prussian command, the German revolution had finally failed.
A little later the conservative trusted friend made Friedrich of William, general Joseph Maria ofRadowitz, which suggestion for a smallGerman solution with close connection at Austria, for which also the king could become enthusiastic. But the Austrians and many conservative advisors leaned this decided off, so that the German federation was again created.
thosePrussian condition of 1850
the forceless distance and dissolution of the Prussian national assembly and the oktroyierte condition (5. Decembers 1848) signaled the end of the revolution in Prussia by a coup d'etat. Since the condition oktroyiert only, therefore announced, one became from could proceed further changes.
Thoseby this condition appointed two chambers stepped for the first time to 26. February 1849 together. To the first chamber a high census right to vote applied, here therefore dominated the aristocracy. To the second chamber with the first choice still the general and same right to vote applied. The second chamber putimmediately with the government on, it concerned itself the acknowledgment of the realm condition. As the second chamber this recognized (21. April 1849), incompatibly with the claims to power of the king, he loosened the second chamber on (27. April 1849). To 30. It led May 1849by emergency decree the three-class right to vote for the second chamber. After incomes and selected now a fixed number of delegates differentiated in terms of figures strongly groups from each other deviating. After training the revised condition stepped to numerous suggestions for improvement and safeguarding clauses to favour of the crowning force to 2. February 1850 into force. 1853 decided the king the heritability of a seat in the “manor-house” created now for certain persons. He reserved himself likewise the right to determine individual delegates themselves. The condition remained up to the November revolution (9. November 1918) valid.
last government years
1850 was attached the Principalities of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen and - Hechingen Prussia as new South German governmental district.
illness and government inability
1857 suffered Friedrich William IV. several impact accumulations. Because of the associated restrictions of its language center he could not notice the Regierungsgeschäfte any longer. His Mrs. Elisabeth Ludovikaby Bavaria it ensured for the fact that it the regency to 7. October 1858 to his brother William I. handed over.
From this the pair undertook a larger European journey, whose high point was an attendance with the Pope.
death and funeral
over dying the ill king liethe certification his wing aide prince Kraft to Hohenlohe Ingelfingen forwards. To its tasks the notification of the next Anverwandten belonged. Around midnight, with beginning of the yearly 1861, Hohenlohe at the prince regents sent a telegram: “Sudden faster process to the end than this to expect was. Die each instant possible. AlleruntertänigstesLeave to whether and to communicate when from the royal family this at the night. “
Prince Wilhelm let the entire royal family inform and traveled immediately to potsdam. It is reported that in Berlin soon no more locomotives were to be gotten, because everyone from the king house oneSpecial train took, in order to take from the dying parting to. Prince Friedrich Karl is to have come with the carriage to lock Sanssouci.
Thus the death of the monarch carried out itself nearly publicly. To 2. January 1861 set a last impact accumulation a suffering of the king an end.
ThatKing was bestattet accordingly its testamentary instructions of 1854 in the peace church in potsdam, after its heart had been taken from the body and buried at the entrance of the Gruft in the lock Charlottenburg at the Ruhestätte of its parents.
standing and thinking marks
- David E. Barclay: Anarchy and good will. Friedrich William IV. and the German monarchy. Settler publishing house, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-88680-463-1
- walter bus man: Between Prussia and Germany. Friedrich William IV.Settler publishing house, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-88680-500-X
- Ruediger Hachtmann: Berlin 1848. A policy and a society history of the revolution. The time publishing house, Bonn 1997, ISBN 3-812-4083-5
- Ernst Lewalter: Friedrich William IV. The fate of a spirit. Kiepenheuer publishing house, Berlin 1938
- franc L. Kroll: Friedrich William IV. and the state thinking of the German romance. Colloquium publishing house, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-7678-0778-5
see also: The queen of Borneo
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Friedrich William IV. of Prussia - quotations|
Friedrich William III.
|List of the kings of Prussia|| successor|
|NAME||Friedrich William IV.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||king Friedrich WilliamIV. of Prussia|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||king of Prussia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||15. October 1795|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Berlin|
|DYING DATE||2. January 1861|