Football (sport equipment)
a football is a ball, which is used in the ball play of the same name (see football).
a football consists of twelve pentagons and 20 hexagons. From geometrical view is a footballan icosahedron, whose twelve corners were flat-pressed to pentagons - or a Dodekaeder, whose 20 corners were geplättet to hexagons. A football possesses thus the full symmetry of an icosahedron (group of icosahedrons).
According to the rules of the DFBs a ball is rule fair, if it
- is spherical
- from leather or another suitable material is manufactured
- an extent between at least 68 and at the most 70 cm has
- to beginning of play at least 410 and at the most 450 gram weighs and
- its pressure 0.6-1.1 atmospheres amounts to, which corresponds to 600-1100 g/qcm on sea level
The carbon modification Buckminster Fulleren C 60 consists of molecules, which consist of 60 carbon atoms and which have structure of a football.
Admits is the Effetball, which is based on the liking US effect.
up to the end of the 1960er years consisted the football of (cattle) leather and was filled with a pig blister. This became at the upper end, which Schnüdel so mentioned zusammengeknotet,so that air could not escape. The disadvantage of the leather ball was that it full-sucked itself with rains with water and became so heavier. Shooting/stepping could be very much made more difficult then. Into the 1930er years invented Argentinier the blister with valve. Before a net heldthe ball together, which prepared problems with the Kopfball.
Existence the ball originally from Lederstreifen, then was born with the soccer world championship 1970 in Mexico the ball with the five - and hexagons. The Telstar was the first official ball of a football WM, with which previous world championships placedalways the host the playing equipment. With the Azteca, which was used for the first time with the world championship 1986, again in Mexico, again a new evolution stage was reached with footballs. The Azteca was the first football, that instead of from leather from plastic existed and thus as far as possibleand a remaining alike weight and play barness were insensitive to wetness guaranteed. The recent Entwicklungsstufe with footballs is the Roteiro, which was developed for the football European championship 2004 in Portugal. This ball consists of several plastic films and is no longer sewn, but adhesive.
Today is the ball stably and can burst also with a hard shot or not lose air, which prepared in former times problems and which playing caused.
About 80% of the world production at footballs (more than 40 million pieces/year) originate from the area around the city Sialkot in the Punjab (Pakistan). The footballs manufactured except for some exceptions (fair footballs, see trade fair) of extremely badly paid sewers, often also of children under 14 years.
official one ball
FIFA soccer world championships (starting from 1970)
|1970 in Mexico||Telstar||leather||First white ball with black pentagons|
|1974 in Germany||Telstar Durlast||leather||white ball with black pentagons|
|1978 in Argentina||Tango||leather||first ball in the Tango Design|
|1982 in Spain||Tango Espana||leather with waterproof, welded seams||Tango Design|
|1986 in Mexico||Azteca||first purely synthetic ball||Tango Design with aztekischer wall|
|1990 in Italy||Etrusco Unico||pure synthetic ball||Tango Design with etruskischem Löwenkopf|
|1994 in the USA||Questra||first ball with High carouse PU layer||Tango Design with stars|
|1998 in France||Tricolore||first ball with layer from syntactic foam material||first colored WM-ball|
|2002 in South Korea/Japan||Fevernova||gold (energy) with red flames|
|2006 in Germany||team spirit||consists of only 14 patches (six „propellers “and eight „turbines “). Those imprints by foil coat against abrasion is protected.||Colors: Gold, black, grey tones and white|
Telstar - Mexico 1970
the Telstar was,like all other balls of its time, completely from leather. Contrary to other balls it was however manufactured from 32 handsewn panels (12 black pentagons and 20 white hexagons). Thus it was the roundest ball of its time. The Design of the Telstar wrote football history:The Telstar was the first white football with black pentagons. The WM of 1970 in Mexico was the first FIFA soccer world championship, which became to transfer live in the television, the Telstar - whose name was derived from „star OF Television “- was in the black-and-white television clearly better toorecognize. Until today the Telstar applies as the Urdesign of all footballs.
Telstar and Chile - Germany 1974
with the football WM in Germany 1974 two ball were used. The Telstar experienced its comeback with a black instead of the past goldfarbenen inscription. Additionally ledafter the success of the Telstar with Chile a new model held in white completely (this was designated after a completely white ball, with which during the WM 1962 in Chile one played). For the Telstar and Chile the same materials became asfour years before uses.
Tango - Argentina 1978
in the football Design gave it 1978 with the introduction of the Tango a further development. to 20 „triads equal “obtained the optical impression of 12 identical circles. Ball of the next five soccer world championships were based on this basic Design.The Tango was characterised by a higher weathering. The Design of the passion, the emotions and the elegance of Argentina was inspired.
Tango España - Spain 1982
opposite the Tango of 1978 became the Design for the WM 1982 only slightlychanged. However was used with the Tango España an important technical innovation. The Tango España, still completely from leather, had for the first time waterproof sealed seams. Thus the water absorption of the ball was reduced in damp play weather dramatically and the Gewichtszunahme was minimized.
Azteca - Mexico 1986
the Azteca was the first fully synthetic ball with a FIFA soccer world championship. The use of synthetic materials increased the Strapazierfähigkeit and continued to reduce the water absorption. The Azteca showed up to then unequalled characteristics with hard soils, in altitudes and with damp climate.Its development got the football going a large step. The elegant and artful verzierte Design was inspired by the culture of the host country, i.e. from architecture and the Wandmalerei of the Aztecs.
Etrusco Unico - Italy 1990
the Etrusco Unico placed thosenext Entwicklungsstufe of synthetic materials: It was the first ball with an internal layer from black PU - foam. Thus the Etrusco Unico was complete water-rejecting. The ball could be played better and achieved higher firing speeds. The name and the fine Design were inspired by thosesingular history of Italy as well as the works of art of the Etrusker. Everyone of the 20 Tango triads three etruskische lion heads zierten.
Questra - the USA 1994
the first ball with a Hightech layer from white polyethylene foam with particularly high energy return. Was by the PE layer the Questra at the footbetter controllably, separated however at the same time also clearly faster from the foot, which became apparent in higher firing speeds. Questra inspired by space technology, high-speed rockets and America „Quest for the of star the “ set new achievement yardsticks.
Tricolore - France 1998
the Tricolore was thatfirst multi color WM-ball. The name and the Design of the ball were inspired by the French flag as well as the national colors ( the Trikolore) and „the gallischen cock “, the traditional symbol of the Frenchmen and the French football federation. The Tricolore possessed besides a again developed layer out„syntactic foam “- a close, regularly arranged matrix out with gas filled, individually locked and particularly strainable micro balls. Owing to the syntactic foam the ball was still more strainable and convinced with improved energy return and resistance to deformation.
Fevernova - South Korea and Japan 2002
the Fevernovathe first ball for a soccer world championship was since 1978 with another Design than the traditional Tango. The multicolored Design was completely coined/shaped of the asiatic culture. The improved syntactic foam layer of the Fevernova lent still better capability characteristics, and the three-fold to the ballFabric provided for a more precise and better calculable flight path of the ball with each shot.
+Teamgeist - Germany 2006
By the new arrangement of 14 panels (six “propellers” and eight “turbines”) a altogether rounder structure is reached. +Teamgeist thus a maximum deviation from 0,1 per cent from the perfect ball exhibits. That is a clear improvement regarding precision and ball controlcause. In addition thereby the length of the seams is reduced, which leads to a better maximum stress. The individual panels are not sewn with one another, but sticks together, as with the Roteiro 2004.
For the first time with a soccer world championship all balls with the names of the two playing crews, as well as the date become,Time and with the play place marked its. For the final is planned to begin a goldfarbene version of the ball (Berlin +Teamgeist).
Pelias II - Germany 2005
the new Pelias becomes like the ball of the olympic playsfrom Athens with the again developed thermal adhesion method manufactured, differs from this however in the colour. The new power balance technology of the ball provides for equal lasting precision and balance in each flight phase. With the balancing of a motor-car tire became comparable with the new PeliasCounterweight to the valve trained, so that a still calmer flight path is guaranteed. In the new adhesion method the Pelias exhibits a smooth surface. The result are apart from the calculable flight characteristics, a clearly smaller water absorption and maximum abrasion resistance. As Hommage to the host country those have GermanyDesigner the ball a fresh and alive exterior given, which is ajar of Athens against the official ball of the olympic plays. The traditional national colors black, red and gold are taken up thereby in dezenter way and integrated to an internal alignment.
Questra Europe - England 1996
the Questra Europe was the official mirror-image ball of the UEFA football European championship 1996 (euro 96) in England. It was an advancement of the ball of the FIFA soccer world championship 1994, the Questra. Also the Design became, for the first timewith a EM, the host country adapted and in such a way zierten three meatallic blue lions and a red rose the hexagons; thus the Questra Europe was the first colored football with an important football tournament.
Terrestra Silverstream - Belgium & the Netherlands 2000
the Terrestra Silverstream of adidas 2000 were with the UEFA football European championship 2000 the official ball. The tournament was aligned for the first time from two countries and adapted thus the Design the rivers, for which the two host countries are famous Belgium and the Netherlands. From the inhabitants they becomebecause of their shining in the morning sun, also “Silver Streams” translates mentioned.
Roteiro - Portugal 2004
the Roteiro was the official ball of the UEFA football European championship 2004 in Portugal. This football was not together-sewn for the first time, separates thermally stuck together and exists therefore only outPlastic (PU). In addition a small weight opposite the valve, which is to compensate the imbalance, is. The ball was designated there after the log of the famous Portuguese sailor and discoverer Vasco Gama. The aqua metallic basic colour of the ball with blue strips should thereby onremind the sky and the sea, during fine silver lines the coordinate system to represent should.
Questra Olympia - Atlanta 1996
like already the Questra Europe, that with the UEFA football European championship 1996 in England in the June of the same yearlywas used, was the Questra Olympia, the ball of the olympic plays, a graphically adapted Questra, which was already used with the FIFA soccer world championship 1994 in the USA. The olympic fire zierte in place of the stars and/or. the lions the hexagons, whichto the ball oranges an accent lent.
Gamarada - Sydney 2000
the Gamarada was a graphic revision of the ball of the UEFA football European championship 2000, the Terrestra Silverstrams. In place of silver, he lit up to the colors of the Australian Outbacks now in red and orange .The name is meant as many from the language of the Aborigines and as friend.
Pelias - Athens 2004
after the Greek Mytologie designated Pelias was the official ball of the olympic plays of Athens in the year 2004. It was the first football, thatfor the olympic plays designed became new and not only a graphic adjustment received.