foot traffic is putting back ways at public roads, ways and places. Among foot traffic today each movement from own Kraft without technical aids ranks those legally as vehicle to apply or with vehicles those expressly in the traffic not participate may.
Table of contents
roads were always for all kinds of traffic intended. , Where there were however conflicts with the cart or rider traffic, already promptly sidewalks were furnished. Roads were coined/shaped of various uses. Apart from transport took place trade, handicraft and communication on the road, the road were an extension of the living and work space.
The more closely the street space and the more traffic therein, all the more largely were the conflicts took place. Already 1563 asked the parliament in vain in France the king, it may vehicles on that to Paris roads forbid. Also without motor vehicle it was not unproblematic for pedestrians, as Goethe describes a Kutschfahrt by Neapel: „The driving walk incessant „place, place! “, so that donkeys, wood or Kehricht basic, against-rolling Kale, read-sluggish or free-changing humans, children and Greise are careful, evade, unhindered however the sharp Trab one continue. “ (1)
in addition, the conflict was an argument between above and down, because in the Kutschen the rule sat. The clearing-up and the French revolution were also emancipation of the pedestrians and bloom time of the foot journeys and the Flanierens. In the Paris of 1789 there was the idea of a republic of the pedestrians. The sidewalk was part of the call after citizen rights and the emancipation of the middle class (therefore it is called also citizen rises).
The bloom time of the sidewalks was naturally also then, when the middle class got financial power. The straight founder-temporal town construction was characterized by broad sidewalks. „Nevertheless sidewalks under 4 m broad no more should not be put on “wrote Brix 1909 in large cities in the interest of larger comfort of the public and for the aggravation of the activity of the pickpockets. The sidewalk was an important component of the street space organization, the full-scaleness of road and land development a condition and measure of the town construction was. Boulevards and promenades were expression of the won self-assurance. After Stübben , if possible, the drive to half the road width are limited, and a quarter the road width should constitute the sidewalks thus in each case. „This arrangement connects with the reduction of the initial cost a friendly appearance. “ (2)
the use of the roadways by pedestrians was naturally and became even expressly z. B. in the way regulation for west Prussia of 1905 mentions: “Drives may be used from everyone to going, riding, wheel driving, driving and for the cattle driving, cycle tracks only for the wheel driving, footpaths, without prejudice to powers under private law for other one use, only for going.” (3)
The displacement of the pedestrians of the road began only by arising the automobile. „From all sides, at each place and at each time the Huppe of the automobile in the large city drives off on your victims. “ (4) led the speeds high for conditions at that time and the mixed use of the roads (1910 were permitted in Prussia 15 km/h) to numerous accidents. In Berlin also straight once 5613 automobiles occurred from October 1910 to at the end of of September 1911 of altogether 2851 automobile accidents, from which 67 ran deadly.
The process did not go unproblematically, it was also conflict between above and down and it gave violent counterreactions, how beer tree in its report on a journey of 1902 describes: „In my life I am never as much verflucht, as during my automobile journey in the year 1902. All German dialects from Berlin over Dresden, Vienna, Munich to Bozen were not involved and all dialects of the Italian of Trient until in it Soreent - at all to count the mute curses, when are there: Fist-vibrate, tongue out distances, the Hinterfront show and other more. “ (5)
is all too understandable the Hinterfront show also, if one reads the diary note of the journey of Rudolf Diesel of 1905: „No, which we made with our parting from Italy for a dust. I did not experience such a thing in my whole life again. Mehliger lime-deaf lay five centimeters thickly on the road. Whereupon George, which the car gave, hunted by the valley of the Piave, and behind us a tremendous cone spread. ... We frightened the pedestrians as with a gas attack, their faces distorted ourselves, and we left them back in informal a world become, in which field and tree under a dry propellant layer had far away lost all color. “ (6)
with the arising of the automobile „the conquest of the road “began by the motor vehicle. Pedestrians were displaced by local regulations ever more by the roadway. 1934 were then issued for the first time with realm road traffic regulations for the entire realm area uniform regulations over the traffic. „A road is for individual kinds of traffic recognizably intended (footpath, wheel drive, bridle path), then is limited this traffic to it assigned the road section, remaining traffic of it impossible. “ Within few decades the car had become generally accepted; Pedestrians were allowed to only use them assigned part of the road.
The objective of realm road traffic regulations was described in the preamble: „The promotion of the motor vehicle is the goal pointed by the realm chancellor and leader, which also this regulation is to serve. “
With rising motorizing after the war - 1953 gave it again to scarcely 1.2 millions Person motor vehicles - to regulate in new road traffic regulations 1953 the possibility for sidewalk parks explicitly taken up over, as it in the reason was called, so far the question of parking on sidewalks, answered not uniformly in the iurisdiction, now legally. In the revised version of the StVO 1970 still the possibility for a common wheel and footpath was then taken up. Progress was 1964 the introduction of the priority on zebra crossing in the StVO, the establishment of pedestrian precincts (in closely limited districts) and the introduction of the traffic-calmed down zones.
- (1) Goethe, Johann Wolfgang of; Italian journey. Cologne 1998, S. 208
- (2) Stübben, Josef; The town construction. Leipzig 1924
- (3) Wegeordnung for the province west Prussia of 27. September 1905. In: Law collection for the royal Prussian states, Bd. VII, 1900-1906, S. 682
- (4) Pidoll, Michael baron of; The today's automobilism. A protest and a wake-up. Vienna 1912, S. 1
- (5) beer tree, Otto Julius; A empfindsame journey in the automobile. From Berlin to Sorrent and back to the Rhine. Berlin 1903
- (6) quotes after: Sachs, Wolfgang; The love for the automobile. A review into the history of our desires. Reinbek 1984
(excerpt out: Schmitz, Andreas: Over standards, guidelines and regulations. In: Institut for land and town development research of the country North Rhine-Westphalia - ILS; To foot mobilely. Dortmund 2000)
meaning of foot traffic
the meaning of foot traffic in the traffic happening removed the last decades strongly. In West Germany 1972 still if 33% of all ways were back put exclusively to foot, 1982 30% were still scarce. Meanwhile foot traffic has portion of 23% after the current investigation of the mobility in Germany 2002 still another in Germany. If only the means of transport choice in the cities is regarded since 1972, the change is particularly clear (see illustration city level). Both in the GDR as well as in the FRG comparable investigations were accomplished to the means of transport choice. If foot traffic to center of the 60's of the last century was in the cities dominating kind of traffic, the portion of the footpaths decreased clearly since then. The causes for this are various:
- changed settlement structures: Frequently the settlement structures are appropriate for the nearly exclusive accessibility with the motor vehicle. The goals moved into the distance. Grocer's shops, which in former times within walking distance were, must today with the motor vehicle are started, because the local supply is ever more thinned out.
- the centralization of public mechanisms such as schools leads to further ways. For example today 53 v. become. H. the ways put from children to including 9 years as front seat passengers in the passenger car back. The bringing and getting service of parents with the car (parents taxi) did not achieve meanwhile insignificant dimensions.
- changed life-styles and values: Mobility culture is limited today almost exclusively to „the joy in driving “. At the beginning of the twentieth century there was a whole literature kind, which sat down apart with Flanieren in the cities. Mobility culture is most cities, also in the context of a city marketing, a foreign word.
- The conditions for pedestrians are mostly extremely modest. Frequently today remainder surfaces are only put to them at the disposal. Many broad sidewalks z. B. the generous founder-temporal town construction today for parking or for cycle tracks are used.
- Foot traffic is not noticed of the political decision makers and planners as relevant kind of traffic.
Despite everything the pedestrian traffic represents a kind of traffic immensely important for the internal-local traffic happening. Without the pedestrian traffic would be inconceivable urban life, economic functioning of our city centers and urbane experiencing of the European cities. Pedestrians animate the cities. Without pedestrians it is desert and empty. The revitalization of the cities succeeds only by creation of pleasant conditions for foot traffic. Also functioning of the ÖPNV is inconceivable without pedestrian traffic, since nearly all passengers reach the ÖPNV to foot. The accessibility of the stops for the pedestrians was for a long time not noticed of the transporting enterprises as problem.
traffic-legal regulations (Germany)
use of the sidewalks
in § 25 exp. 1 of road traffic regulations (StVO) is regulated the sidewalk use for pedestrians: „Pedestrians must use the sidewalks. On the roadway they may go only if the road has neither a sidewalk still another Seitenstreifen. “ However they may not obstruct other pedestrians by bulky articles or carrying vehicles. For this it means in exp. 2: „Pedestrians, who carry vehicles or bulky articles, must use the roadway, if they would obstruct the other pedestrians on the sidewalk or on the Seitenstreifen substantially. “
The use of the sidewalks by vehicles is not permitted. This results out § 2 StVO: „Vehicles must use the roadway… “ under vehicles to fall also bicycles. Also parking on sidewalks is not permitted.
An exception gives it for children with bicycles. Children up to completed 8. Lebensjahr must, older children up to completed 10. Sidewalks may use Lebensjahr with bicycles. On pedestrians then special consideration is to be taken.
Not vehicle to be called „special progressive movement means “(§ 24 StVO). By this fall pushing and grab wheelchairs, sledges, buggies, scooters, Kinderfahrräder and similar progressive movement means as Inline Skater. With these must, if it is not differently regulated, the sidewalks used.
at crossings and inlets
have Stuttgart general after § 25 exp. To exceed 3 StVO the roadways considering vehicle traffic briskly on the shortest way transverse to the driving direction, if the traffic conditions require it only at crossings or inlets, at Lichtzeichenanlagen within markings or on pedestrian crossings (character 293). If the roadway is crossed at crossings or inlets, then pedestrian crossings or markings at Lichtzeichenanlagen (pedestrian ford ), attached there, are to be always used. At crossings and inlets the priority regulations for pedestrians are complicated, depending upon whom, on who roadway part they are and whether bend or straightforward drive the vehicles. In § 9 exp. 3 is held the behavior regulations for motorists when bending:
„Who wants to bend, to let must accomodating vehicles drive through, rail-mounted vehicles, bicycles with auxiliary engine and cyclist, even if they drive on or beside the roadway in the same direction. This applies also opposite line buses and other vehicles, which use characterized special driving strips. On pedestrians it must take special consideration; if necessary, it must wait.“
Opposite bending vehicles pedestrians are thus always privileged. This applies independently of whether the crossing or inlet is provided with right of way describing or not. Opposite vehicles, which do not turn, the pedestrians are not privileged (see illustration). If light signal plants are installed at the crossings and inlets, pedestrians must consider the traffic light signals. If green on red changes, while pedestrians cross the roadway, then they have to continue their way briskly. To bending vehicles apply above in § 9 exp. 3 described behavior regulations when bending also at light signal plants.
road construction guidelines
in the year 2002 were published by the research association for road and traffic - FGSV - „the recommendations for pedestrian traffic plants - EFA 2002 “. In Austria by the research council road and traffic were published in August 2004 the instruction card „check valve 3,12 - pedestrian traffic “.
- see sidewalk
of ways for pedestrian
the ways for pedestrians of inside place leaving to be divided as follows:
- independently led footpaths or not passable living ways
- of pedestrian zones (pedestrian precinct) in roads and at places
- road-accompanying sidewalks
- traffic-calmed down ranges
- Dirk Bräuer, Werner Draeger, Andrea Dittrich Wesbuer: Foot traffic - a planning aid for practice. Institut for land and town development research - component 24, Dortmund 2001, ISBN 3-8176-9024-X
- Dirk Bräuer, Andreas Schmitz: Bases of the foot traffic planning. In: Manual of the local traffic planning, Heidelberg 2004, ISBN 3879074003
- Andrea Dittrich Wesbuer, Erhard Erl: To foot on the way - worth knowing and desirable to underestimated means of transport. In: Manual of the local traffic planning, Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3879074003
- research council road and traffic: Instruction card check valve 3,12 pedestrian traffic. Vienna 2004
- research association for road and traffic - FGSV: Recommendations for pedestrian traffic plants - EFA 2002. Cologne 2002
- Institut for land and town development research of the country North Rhine-Westphalia - ILS (Hrsg.): To foot mobilely. Dortmund 2000, ISBN 3-8176-6158-4
- Angelika Schlansky, Roland hare staff, Bernd duke Schlagk: Go moves the city - to use of foot traffic for the urbane development. Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-922504-42-6
- Michael Hartmann: The AutoGeher. AutoBiografie of an autoopponent. ISBN 3-928300-81-4
- mechanisms for foot traffic on public roads are pedestrian ford, pedestrian crossing, sidewalk and the meeting zone in Switzerland. Their mechanism is subject to the traffic planning.
- Special attention requires foot traffic with the green arrow.
- Special kinds of foot traffic are the walk and moving.
Web on the left of
- working group foot traffic
- foot registered association.
- Foot traffic Switzerland
- meeting zones (Switzerland)
- city Zurich: Mobility culture
- move-cash Germany: Information from the German moving federation
- mobility in Germany 2002
- SrV Internetseite DO to Dresden
- the 20 Greens of arteries in Berlin
- catalog of the road signs
- road traffic regulations
- administrative regulation for road traffic regulations
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