Table of contents
special characteristic of the joint is its complex topic processing. A joint begins with the exposition of the voices: The first voice speaks the concise, short topic . This topic employment becomes also as Dux (lat.“Leader”) designates. For this a second voice, those associates to the Comes (lat. “Companion”), on another clay/tone stage, normally the Quinte and/or. Unterquarte (usually in the kind of dominance clay/tone) speaks. If in the topic head a Quinte appears, which necessarily belongs to the topic (e.g. Quintsprung),this is usually modified in the Comes to the Quarte (tonal answer), in order to ensure the identity of the kind of clay/tone. Otherwise the intervals of the topic are transferred interval-faithfully (“material”) to the kind of dominance clay/tone.
The first voice contains thematically important during the Comes motivisch orMaterial is again taken up later, and possibly. as new execution topic is available, then one speaks of a retort subject. Further voices can come according to this principle, until the full number of votes (with joints mostly 4 (SATB) or 3(2 upper, 1 Unterstimme), more rarely 5) reached is.
The first run of the topic by all voices is called exposition (music). In the further process there are again and again sections, in which the topic is spoken in different voices; these hot executions. They are set off by intermediate plays from each other. In executions the topic can be combined by various arts with itself and the retort subjects, for example in close guidance, reversals, Augmentationen etc.
Before the end of a joint gladly one point of organ becomes- often on the dominant factor - inserted, in order to increase the tension.
history and meaning
the principle of the imitation between different voices of a music piece were already explored in the music of the Renaissance and expenditure-cost artful, whereby hereabove all the canon was maintained. With the northItalian composers of the early baroque (z. B. ) Increasingly works, which begin joint in accordance with in a voice and begin in the other voices imitating, meet Giovanni Gabrieli; however here rather motives lie as alreadyfully developed topics forwards. Such pieces were also called still nonspecific „Sonata “, „Canzon “or „Ricercar “(of Italian ricercare = „search “). Also in the Motette holds the joint principle gradually for introduction.
In the high baroque the emancipation of the joint follows asindependent (part) form. In the French Ouvertüre is the center section a joint, in the north German organ school becomes the joint the locking counterpart of a preceding Präludiums, a Toccata or other forms.
The probably most well-known composer of joints was Johann Sebastian brook; in its works (z. B.Piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature, the art of the joint) he tested all possibilities of the joint, so that many later composers argued with the topic joint also with brook.
After the baroque the joint applied ashistorical and thereby outdated form, it was however never given up. Later composers argued again and again with their principles, whereby it was clear in each case that the results always meant a reference on the past. The letter of a joint applied besidesas proof of special kompositorischer abilities.
Composers, who dedicated themselves after the baroque substantially to the joint:
- Dmitri Dmitrijewitsch Schostakowitsch (24 Präludien and joints for piano, Opus 87 (1951)),
- Max of active (variations and joint over a topic (from the Singspiel “the Ärndtekranz”)by Johann Adam Hiller OI. 100 (1907), variations and joint over a topic of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart OI. 132 (1914), variations and joint over a topic of Johann Sebastian brook OI. 81 (1904), variations and joint over a topic of Ludwig van Beethoven OI. 86 for 2 pianos (1904), Introduktion, Passacaglia and joint OI. 96 for 2 pianos (1906), variations and joint over a topic of George Philipp Telemann OI. 134 (1914), fantasy and joint over BROOK OI. 46 (1900),Symphoni fantasy and joint OI. 57 (1901), variations and joint fis Moll OI. 73 (1903), Introduktion, Passacaglia and joint e-Moll OI. 127 (1913), Fantasie and joint D-Moll OI. 135b (1915), numerous small pieces of organ, Präludien & joints etc.)
- Paul Hindemith (joint collection “LudusTonalis " for piano)
- Johann Nepomuk David (12 organ fugues by all kinds of clay/tone Wk 66) among other things
special one forms
with the permutation joint, a special form of the musical form of the joint, is present a being correct exchange in firm form: The counterpoints are maintained and to close itself in firmerForm to the topic on.
The permutation joint consists of several executions, which are each other similar.
a double joint is a joint with two topics. Possible expirations of form:
- Joint with topic 1 - joint with topic 2 - jointover both topics. Example: Brook, piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature II. Volume, gis Moll joint
- joint with two topics, both topics use at the beginning at the same time. Example: Brook, joint to the Passacaglia C-Moll
- joint with topic 1 - joint over topic 1 and topic 2. Examples:Brook, piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature volume II, joints A flat major and H major
the Tripelfuge is a joint with three topics. These can be set up again in separate expositions and combined later. Examples: Brook, piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature volume II, joint fis Mollas well as volume I, joint cis Moll
the Quadrupelfuge is a joint with four topics.
Famous, however unfinished example of a Quadrupelfuge the conclusion joint is in brook cycle “the art of the joint “. As the third topic brook ledthe tones BROOK . Numerous composers and instrument valleyists turned to this joint and tried to compose it to end. In addition, in performances frequently in the place is broken off, where brook stopped to compose.
If a joint is, in which the topic goes in the Comes first to the Quinte, then however the Dux the Tonika does not follow, but a Quinte rises again.
a joint-similar section in a Sonate, a Symphonie,a concert etc. one calls Fugato. It does not concern to lead the topic by all voices it is to only work, like a joint. Often this Fugati only few clocks is long.
Web on the left of
- http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~tas3/wtc/wtc.html (all joints from the piano well-being-kept at a moderate temperature together with analysis and interactive operation (sound + notes, Flash))
- Carl Dahlhaus: To historythe permutation joint. BachJb, 46 (1959), 95-110.