Funmilayo Ransome Kuti

Funmilayo Ransome Kuti (* 25. October 1900 in Abeokuta; † 13. April 1978 in Lagos) was a Nigerian politician, teacher, a Frauenrechtlerin and an African Feministin.

Table of contents

after independence

, the way into the policy

Funmilayo Ransome Kuti became in the year 1900 as Frances Abigail Olufunmilayo Thomas in Abeokuta, thatat that time to the kingdom dependent on Grossbitannien Egba belonged, born. Since the sixties of the nineteenth century seized Great Britain strengthens initiative, late Nigeria the region mentioned toocolonize. Egba was one the numerous Yorubamonarchien, which on the colony Lagos bordered directly and which from the British on the one hand against powerful enemies protects, was on the other hand increasingly patronized. In accordance with the colonial doctrine indirect rule left Great Britain the Alake, the king and its it untergebenen of advice, also after the official mechanism of the colonial status 1914 on its post, on the condition that he made himself the executor of the instructions of the British governor and its District Officers. Parents Funmilayos were both teachers and belonged thus to the middle class. They had enjoyed, spoke a western education flowing English and were already in the third generation christianisiert. Nichtsdetoweniger were them decided Egba Patrioten and opposed with a culture-nationalistic Habitus at least indirectly against the colonial power. Thus it does not take to miracle that already the young Funmilayo with the famous Iyalode Madam Tinubu († 1887), which sympathized to “Löwin woman guide mentioned of Lisabi”, which had defended once powerfully independence Egbas. But the British, who left otherwise the old poet acts in their offices, had ever more back-pushed the traditionally strong political influence of the women; the office of the Iyalode was finally abolished.


The life way Funmilayos did not stand first under political signs. After training at thatAbeokuta Girls Grammar School sent it their parents 1919 to the study after Manchester, from where out them returned 1923 over first at their old school to inform. There it acquired itself the name “Béère”,which means as much as “firstborn daughter”, because she had been the first woman, at this school informed. It is reported likewise that Funmilayo Ransome Kuti was the first woman in Nigeria, who drove a car. In the year 1925 she married the teacher and theologian Reverend I.O. Ransome Kuti, which became soon thereafter a director of the Abeokuta Grammar School. Reverend Ransome Kuti made itself later a name than founders of the Nigerian union OF Teachers, as well as the Nigerian union OF Students, two organizations, which occurred for political independence and over-ethnical unit of Nigeria. When Funmilayo Ransome Kuti created the later Abeokuta Ladies club toward end of the twenties, she pursued thereby politically unsuspected goals, like manual work and cultural education for women from the Oberschicht Abeokutas. In the thirties began Kuti, which had never had fears of contact with the lower layer organize with the help of its club large-scale Alphabetisierungskurse for land women. These courses acquired themselves soon, not least are able “Béères” of original teaching methods, a regionally meaning call. Thereby the Ladies club was confronted in addition, with the oppressive economic loads of the lower layer women and the numerous humiliating and arbitrary acts against it on the part of the Egbaregierung. Kuti began to publish protest notes and articles, in those it the Alake Ademola II. from Egba of the office abuse and the corruption accused. The situation was intensified, after starting from 1939 the British government due to the wartime economy more money of Nigeria to press out tried and the Egbaregierung this tried to intersperse particularly debited to the women. On the other hand organized the Abeokuta Ladies club mass demonstrations, in which ten thousands of women participated and whom in heavy trouble got the Alake. In the year 1946 the Abeokuta Ladies club in Abeokuta Women's union was renamed, whose permanent agitation led 1949 to the fact that the Alake withdrew from all offices. Funmilayo Ransome Kuti was taken up against it as a councillor to the Egbaregierung and worked from now on purposefully on the improvement the situation of the Mrs. Nigerias on the one hand and the detachment of Nigeria of Great Britain on the other hand.

the fight for the Emanzipaton Nigeria and its Mrs

the of the Nigerian Women's union (NWU) led first supraregional activities Kutis 1949 to the establishment, which had sat down democratic participation into Nigeria, right to vote for women and proportional representation of women in the local councils to the goal. The NWU had come out from the combination of the Abeokuta Women's union, the Aba Market Women's Association under guidance of Margaret Ekpo and the Enugu Women's Association under Janet Okala, woman organizations from the south and southeast of the country. Funmilayo Ransome Kuti led the presidency, while the charismatische Margaret Ekpo was selected to the general secretary. Great Britain had called up a national conference for Nigeria starting from 1950,which democratic reforms and partial autonomy of the colony had as a goal and to several traditional representatives was invited. When only woman participated Funmilayo Ransome Kuti in the conference, which should lead 1954 to the so-called Macpherson Constitution, which planned the political allocation of Nigeria into three regional parliaments. Since it regarded women however in the new condition as disadvantaged, Kuti 1953 initiated the establishment of the Federation OF Nigerian Women's Societies (federation of Nigerian woman organizations), which Kuti described as a Gegenparlament of the women. The FNWS demanded, about each law resolution to be informed and for agreement asked. The man politics tried to weaken against it the FNWS from the outset. The organization received a heavy impact by the resignation from Margaret Ekpo, to which at the same time a Zurückweichen of the so far unverbrüchlichen gene the solidarity of the Mrs. Nigerias announced in favor of individual interests. Mrs. Kuti had always regarded it as necessary to engage itself at the same time in the man politics and to the NCNC, the party of the later first president of Nigeria Nnamdi Azikiwe had therefore joined, into which her, in constant conflict with the party leadership, which woman wing led. After Azikiwe had prevented however several times its nominating as a candidate for the regional elections, she began 1959 as an independent candidate in the elections in Zentralegba and received 17.6% of the voices.

after independence

after the independence of Nigeria in the year 1960 Funmilayo Ransome Kuti withdrew itself more and more from the active policy and dedicated themselves to the establishment of educational facilities for women. It maintained numerous international contacts, first of all with woman organizations in China and the Soviet Union and with anitikolonialistischen politicians of the third world, so e.g. the first president of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah. Because of such contacts you had been extracted in the colonial years several times the passport, but Kuti had pursued always an independent course for the release of the third world, in particular their wives, and ideologically to be never taken in to be able. Beginning of the seventies drew itself up it inthe piece of private creating of its son Fela Kuti created artist municipality Kalakuta republic in Lagos back, with whose dissolution by force by the military government 1977 it was heavily hurt. Funmilayo Ransome Kuti, which called itself on initiative of its son in their last Lebensjahren also Funmilayo Anikalupo Kuti, died at the late sequences of its injuries to 13. April 1978. Numerous ring-back signals honoured it as a “nut/mother of the nation”. Its son Fela perpetuated its memory on the album Unknown Soldier (alluding to the unknown soldier, who had thrown it with the evacuation of the Kalakuta republic from the third stick of their apartment).

Funmilayo Ransome Kuti received several honour doctor titles and to 1965 by membership in order OF the the Niger was honoured. The Soviet Union lent their the Lenin peace price for their efforts to 1970 around friendship and co-operation between the Soviet and Nigerian people.

highlights

  • 1946 establishment of the Abeokuta Women's union (AWU)
  • 1949 resignation of the Alake Ademola II from Egba
  • 1949 establishment of the Nigerian Women's union (NWU)
  • starting from 1950 national conference for the reorganization of the condition of Nigeria
  • 1951 first regional elections in Nigeria
  • 1953 establishment of the Federation OF Nigerian Women's Societies (FNWS)
  • 1954 Macpherson Constitution
  • 1959 Funmilayo Ransome Kuti as an independent candidate in the city council of Abeokuta
  • 1960 Nigeria 1967 become
  • independent - 1970 Biafra war Funmilayo Ransome Kuti in Vermittlungsgeprächen in the Congo takes part.
  • 1977 evacuation of the Kalakuta republic

of children

Funmilayo Ransome Kuti had one daughter and three sons.

  • Dolupo Ransome Kuti (* 1926)
  • Olikoye Ransome Kuti (* 1927; † 2003) - physician and minister of health of Nigeria of 1985-1992.
  • Olufela Ransome Kuti, and/or. Fela Kuti (* 1938; † 1997) - international musician and politician
  • Bekololari Ransome Kuti, (* 1938) - physician, between 1989 and 1998 leaders democracy movement against military rule in Nigeria

quotation

best one, which you can to your enemies give - assigning / your adversaries tolerance / a friend your heart / your nut/mother - implement which, what proud her on you will make / your child a good example / you respect / and all humans quality. - Funmilayo Ransome Kuti

literature

  • Cheryl Johnson and Nina Emma Mba, For Women and the nation, University OF Illinois press, Urbana and Chicago 1997.


 

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