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the different establishment myths referring all to the legendary king Minos. Traces of first settlement actually reach up to the Neolithikum; a minoische settlement was in the southwest range of the surface.
At present the dorischen immigration became Górtys before Phaistós the most important city of the Messera - a ummauerte Akropolis originates from this phase. Since that 8. Century expanded the city since the areas in the level before the hill of the Akropolis . In the archaischen time the town centre was already there with a Agora (market place) and a temple of the Apollon Pythios. During the bloom time of the city states in classical period and brightism Górtys with Knossós , Eleftherna , Kydonia and Lyktos to the most important and with 40.000 to 80,000 inhabitants belongs population-richest cities of the island.
In the 3. Century v. Chr. dominated the city southern central Crete without reservation. 189 v. Chr. Hannibal found asylum here. When Górtys engaged itself in the conflict with Rome on its side against Knossos, it became 69 v. Chr. Capital of the Roman province Creta et Cyrene, for which for example the Prätorium, seat and house of the per-consular governor, were established.
The city was early a center of the Christianisierung: 59 n. Chr. here the Apostel Paulus preached. 250 n. Chr. are in the proximity the “ten holy bishops” martyr death to have found. The name of the city Agíoi Déka decreases/goes back to this event. In a medieval source Górtys already becomes for 2. Century beside Knossos as bishop seat designation, first bishop is to have been the holy Titus, a pupil of the Apostels Paulus.
After the division of the Roman realm in the year 395 Górtys Byzanz was slammed shut and fristete in the future rather a shade existence. It became a Freibeuternest, because from Crete it could be operated more or less undisturbed. Górtys had one while several earlyByzantine churches and remained after conquest by the Arabs fled from Spain under Abu Hafs Omar (824 or 828) abandoned by its inhabitants still another as only bishop seat of Crete in church regard meaning. Only could back-conquer 961 the Byzantine field gentleman Nikephoros Phokas the Pirateninsel and thus Górtys.
Since 1884 the antique city was excavated by Italian archaeologists.
- Titus Basilika
ruin of a earlyChristian Basilika from that 6. Century. The name the church received due to the local excessive quantity by its excavators in 19. Century. There with later excavations in the place Mitropolis a further, older church was discovered, applies it in the meantime than questionable.
- Gesetzescodex (the large inscription of Gortyn)
an extensive, in a dorischen dialect alternating from left to right and right to the left written, inscription from that 5. Century v. Chr., which is at the north wall of the desert ion, is considered as oldest Gesetzescodex Europe. Amazingly liberally it contains all regulations important for the common life, like e.g. marriage - and family right.
- Apollon temple
Antonis Vasilakis: Gortyn. V. Manouras edition, Heraklion o.J. (2000 or later).
Web on the left of
coordinates: 35° 03 `N 24°56 `O