Gabriel García Moreno
Gabriel Gregorio García Moreno (* 24. December 1821 in Guayaquil, † 6. August 1875 in Quito) was an Ecuadorian politician, who was twice a president of its country (1859-1865 and 1869-1875). It was pronouncedly conservatively - catholic and/or. klerikalistischer politician, who maintained an authoritarian and repressive government style, but in particular reformed the training system and the public infrastructure of the country and/or. modernized. Thus it is one the outstanding, in addition, one of the umstrittendsten figures of Ecuadorian history. Most important support García Morenos were general the catholic Klerus (in particular the Jesuiten), the great land owners of the northern and region and the mass of pious creditors.
Table of contents
origin and training
García Moreno was the respected son of a businessman originating from Soria in Altkastilien, who had lived before in Callao and with Gabriels birth of urban authorized persons (procurador síndico) of the city Guayaquil was. Its nut/mother was daughter of a family from the colonial, landpossessing Oberschicht of Guayaquil; their father was a constant councilman (regidor perpetuo) of the city. When García Moreno was about ten years old, its father died. The primary education received the boy from its nut/mother. Subsequently, it went to Paters José Betancourt under the Obhut of the Mercedarier - into the Colegio San Fernando into Quito. Afterwards it visited the central university in Quito. It was for a while decided priests to become and received even the low consecrations. Finally it was attained a doctorate to 1844 in jurisprudence.
early years (1846-1858)
his way into the policy member of the town councillor von Quito found fast and became to García Moreno. It made also as sow-Irish commentator in its newspaper El Zurriago (dt. The whip) on itself attentively. 1845 it was involved in the collection, which set Juan off José Flores and the president made Vincente Ramón Roca.
1846 he married the 13 years older pink ones de Aseásubi, a daughter enriches nordandinischer great land owner. 1848 became García Moreno as an attorney certified. When the government Roca supported of it fell 1849, it went for the first time in the exile. After some months, which he spent particularly in Europe, it could return to Ecuador.
With the return García Moreno from Panama brought a group from Neugranada (Colombia) refugee Jesuiten also to Ecuador, for which he secured a unlimited right to residence in his homeland against the efforts of the neugranadinischen envoy by personal employment with the acting president Diego Noboa y Arteta. García Moreno saw itself to due to its repeats meeting with hostility of opponents of the Jesuiten particularly from the neighboring country Neugranada suspended. The Jesuiten was again driven out however under Noboas successor Urbina, after the Ecuadorian congress had determined, the expulsion order of Karl III. from 1767 and the Jesuiten is still valid by “aufrüherische activity” against the government its classification would have earned.
After its return García Moreno took its activity as an attorney and was also politically active. 1853 it created the newspaper La Nación, which criticized above all the policy of the government of president José María Urbina and which dominant corruption attacked. García Moreno was referred due to its by the government of the country and deportiert to Colombia. It returned shortly thereafter secretly to Guayaquil, where it was selected to the senator. When it wanted to take however its seat in the Ecuadorian congress, it was referred again the country, since it had entered without valid papers. It traveled over Peru, where it met in Paita Manuela Sáenz, again to Europe.
In Paris it studied politics, mathematics and natural sciences. It developed as unersättlicher readers the conviction that for the progress of its country it was essential that the broad population receives a minimum of education and clearing-up. Beyond that it read eagerly books to church history, in particular the Histoire universal de L'Eglise Catholique of René François Rohrbacher in 29 volumes, which still strengthened its strong religious coinage.
At the end of of 1856 it could return in the context of a general amnesty, which the new president Francisco Robles had dekretiert, to its homeland. He was appointed soon the rector of the central university in Quito, where he held also lectures on physics. 1858 he was selected as a senator for the province Pichincha into the Ecuadorian congress. Here it occurred freimaurerische” government on the one hand for a comprehensive reform of the Ecuadorian training system and fought on the other hand the liberal, “. Likewise the dominant corruption in the power elites acted and criticized its 1858 created newspaper La Unión Nacional in this direction the government and. García Moreno used itself besides for the interests of the catholic population particularly the poorer layers, with which he provided support outside of the dominant elite.
“national crisis” of the years 1859/60
at the end of of 1858 led an actually insignificant border dispute to the war with the neighboring country Peru. Since the acting president Robles rejected the Peruvian demands, a Peruvian naval squadron Guayaquil blocked, the most important Ecuadorian port in November 1858. Robles shifted thereupon capital and seat of the government into the port, in order to be able to dedicate itself to the defense, which he assigned his predecessor, general Urbina. While the conflict with Peru persisted, became in April in Guayaquil Urbina and Robles by the local Artelleriekommandanten taken prisoner and by general Guillermo Franco releases.
In May conservative forces from and region rose against Robles and educated a vierköpfige provisional government in Quito, in which García Moreno was prominently involved. García Moreno took over the guidance of the troops, which should defend the provisional government against the moving forward armed forces general Urbinas, but were subject in the fight. It fled thereupon to Peru, where it received support and weapons for the fight against Urbina. It returned to Guayaquil and looked for the discussion with general Franco, in order to suggest to this to hold under ignoring the condition-in accordance with-eaten president Robles elections in order to educate a new national government. President Robles shifted thereupon in August the capital after Riobamba, of where out he together with Urbina against Franco to proceed meant.
At the same time Rafael Carvajal, one of the members of the defeated provisional government of Quito, penetrated with troops from Colombia to north Ecuador. It succeeded to it finally to draw in after Quito and to furnish the provisional government again. To 13. Septembers fled Robles and Urbina from Ecuador, four days later proclaimed themselves Franco to the head (jefe supremo) of Guayaquil. Already to 21. August had closed Franco for the defense of bottlenecks in Guayaquil a contract with the Peruvian Belagerern, from which soon turned out that it made the territorial concessions originally demanded by Peru, what to a support loss for Franco led.
The different governments, Franco, García Moreno and Carrión Pinzano, tried to negotiate now with Peru, over-threw themselves however repeated among themselves and with the Peruvian government, because this also with the other heads of state negotiated. In November one finally agreed on it that Franco was to lead the negotiations with Peru, but is authorized to make territorial concessions.
García Moreno made for it in the December of itself hears, as it - obviously from fear of loss of the territorial independence - the French envoy in Ecuador contacted and suggested, Ecuador into a protectorate of France converting. The suggestion all thing did not have practical effects.
Franco closed meanwhile with the Peruvian president Ramón Castilla a contract, which stepped likewise never into force. If García Morenos renewed attempts to exercise power together with Franco or withdraw together, in order to call up a national assembly, failed. García Moreno allied itself thereupon with an old political enemy, former president Juan José Flores, which lived in the exile in Lima.
The common military expedition García Morenos and Flores' against the government Francos, which was supported by trailers Robles' and Urbinas, began to 27. May 1860 from Guaranda . It was directed against Babahoyo and Guayaquil, where Francos troops were concentrated. In August 1860 the troops Francos were struck with Babahoyo. To 24. Septembers 1860 finally took the troops of García Moreno and Flores Guayaquil. Franco fled to Peru.
Later García Moreno called one month for January 1861 a national assembly after Quito in. This discharged a new condition and selected García Moreno, the past Jefe Supremo of the provisional government almost unanimously to the official president. Its rival candidate Pedro Carbo received only a voice. Flores was appointed the governor von Guayaquil.
first presidency (1861-65)
García Moreno stepped its official term of office as a selected president to 2. April 1861 on. It restituted and strengthened first the rights of the catholic church in Ecuador. Beyond that it arrived at a reconciliation with Peru, after the relations had suffered during the Peruvian invasion and the internal fights, since the fallen Urbina from Peru against García Moreno acted and Franco a contract should have signed general over the affiliation of the province Guayaquil at Peru, in order to win support.
With the other neighboring country, Neugranada, came it however repeated to diplomatic and military arguments, which took an important part of the first presidency García Morenos:
1862 were pulled in Ecuador into the Colombian civil war, in which the conservative ones under general Julio Arboleda fought against the liberal government of general Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera and for its own proclaimed president Mariano Ospina. In June 1862 liberals troops had crossed the border with the pursuit of conservative opponents to Ecuador and had attacked a commander of ecuadorianscher border troops, who wanted to prevent this. García Moreno explained thereupon Colombia the war and took over even the command over the troops. Into Tulcán it came to fights with liberal kolombianischen troops, in whose process the Ecuadorian army was struck and García Moreno were taken prisoner. It became released soon thereafter, after the Colombian insurgent material and financial support in the fight against its president one had assured. This was however never paid, since García Moreno dissociated itself soon from it.
García Moreno had recognized the conservative Arboleda as a head of state of Colombia and had made thus the liberal Mosquera its opponent. 1863 came it again to the war, this time with the regular government Mosqueras. Background were obvious contacts Mosqueras with the Peruvian president Ramón Castilla and plans to incorporate parts of Ecuador both countries and to let on Colombian side the idea of large Colombia become again in such a way reality. Mosquera had demanded the agreement from García Moreno to the union of Ecuador and Neugranada, which García Moreno rejected clearly. Although a diplomatic mission under the later president Antonio Flores settled the crisis first, García Moreno explained the war again in December 1863 Colombia. To several engagements in the province Carchi came it finally to the peace treaty in the contract of Pinsaqui.
and ratified the government García Moreno a new concordat with Pope Pius IX. signed 1862., in which among other things again the liberty was entitled to the catholic church, their bishops themselves to select and begin. On the other hand García Moreno reached a reform of the Klerus, which he so on the one hand more strongly actually bind could and which was released on the other hand from lay jurisdiction and placed under religious special courts.
Inside endeavored it itself around the fight of the criminality, the reform of the finances of the state and the promotion of the education. Straight ones during the Sicherstellung of the public order operated restrictively by him he conflicted repeated with the 1861 adopted new condition, which was quite liberally held and among other things the death penalty for political crimes abolished and the possibilities of the president, in the work of public mechanisms of intervening had limited and the position of the congress had strengthened.
During its first presidency García Moreno had to fight almost annually with conspiracy and invasion attempts, which had the goal nearly always under leading the exilierten former president Urbina of killing or of bringing from the office García Moreno. It let such political rebellions and collections with large hardness strike down, which brought in sharp criticism for it. It let political opponents repeated execute, which with the condition was not compatible. It regarded the condition as secondary and placed over it the necessity for political order. Its repressive, personal employment for peace and order is to have gone even so far that it, when traveler disguises at the pursuit of bandits participated.
To 27. August 1865 ended the first constitutional presidency García Morenos. It succeeded to it to through-bring with the presidency elections the candidate Jerónimo Carrión favored by him which became thereby its successor. García Moreno was appointed in follow-up the 1864 deceased general Flores the governor von Guayaquil.
second presidency (1869-75)
1866 was sent García Moreno of its successor Carrión as an authorized person for switching in a controversy between Peru and Spain around the Chincha islands to Lima (see Spanish-South American war). There an assassination attempt on García Moreno was committed, which ended with the death of the assassin. García Moreno went in diplomatic mission to Chile, where it remained also longer time, after it had been referred in September 1867 from Ecuador. In Ecuador president Carrión had been forced in December 1867 from conservative forces to the resignation to forestall among other things in order a coup d'etat of Urbina faithful forces. Its successor Javier Espinosa could not bring the again politically torn up country to the peace.
When García Moreno returned in January 1869 from Chile, it succeeded to him fast to come power. To 17. January 1869 he was appointed (interCIM) the president again, since after Carrión also Espinosa had been entmachtet and set off. In May 1869 García Moreno was selected again by a national assembly to the condition-in accordance with-eaten president. Its term of office began however only to 10. August, up to then served its brother-in-law Manuel de Ascázubi as a transition president.
At the same time the condition-giving meeting, that had occupied García Moreno with it faithful members, had prepared a new condition, which became the desires of the new president very much more strongly fair than the condition of 1861. The new condition, of critics as Carta Negra (dt. Black Charter) designation, gave large rights to the president in the case of the occupation of justiceships, extended the term of office on six years and permitted the direct re-election. Also the death penalty for political crimes was introduced again, the Roman-catholic denomination was explained practically as the state religion, which forbids public and private practice of all remaining cults. After the condition in (more reduced) popular vote had been accepted, García Moreno could intersperse its reform project without reservation.
Due to strengthened power and that its conceptions more strongly corresponding condition hard repression measures were more rarely necessary in the second term of office. In particular the Pressefreiheit was however strongly reduced. The prominent critical journalist, Juan Montalvo, left the country before swearing-in García in Morenos demonstratively.
While political rebellions decreased, increased not directly with García Morenos politics, but with the general, unequal economic system of the country coherent Indian rebellions. García Moreno let a large and symbolic rebellion of the Indians of the hills Cacha and Amulá in the province Chimborazo strike down however with all power of the army. The leader, Fernando Daquilema, which delivered itself, in order to prevent a massacre, was shot, and is this very day symbol figure of the Indian movement.
re-election and murder (1875)
with the elections in May 1875 were selected again García Moreno to the president. At the end of of 1874 had already called Juan Montalvo from its Colombian exile over a newspaper in Panama to the Tyrannenmord at García Moreno. This idea won now within the radical political opposition at traction power, it formed a group of conspirators, in which also close trusted friends were involved by Montalvo.
To 6. August 1865, on which he wanted to begin its third term of office, was lain in wait for to García Moreno on the short way before the cathedral to the president palace by a group from four conspirators. Its leader, a in-patriated Kolumbianer, hit with a Machete on García Moreno, while the others shot from guns at him and/or. its bodyguard in chess held. García Moreno died on the fliers of the president palace.
Thereupon the liberals rose in Guayaquil and caused the choice Antonio Borreros to the president. Since this prevailed however moderately, which preserved trailer García Morenos and the Klerus, already 1876 rose in Guayaquil again the leader of the radical liberals, general Veintimilla, defeated the government troops and still in December 1876 in Quito to the new transition president were proclaimed and 1877 by a new condition-giving meeting selected. While in the subsequent years the political climate of Ecuador became clearly liberal, the following governments did not continue the modernization program García Morenos lastingly.
the main goal of the political manipulation García Morenos was the pacification and agreement of Ecuador. The pacification should be achieved primarily through with hard hand accomplished fight against rebellions and common criminality. At the same time by force one on the other-hitting particularist interests of the different regions should be geeint by a stronger central state and the infrastructural as mental agreement of the country since the establishment of the state again and again politically and. For the agreement and modernization of the country García Moreno set particularly on the stabilization of Christian-catholic values and an improvement of the training system on all levels, with which technical, commercial and agricultural training as well as religious instruction took primacy. Apart from the psychological agreement desired of the population the president set on comprehensive infrastructure measures for the physical on and connection of the different regions. Beyond that it met measures for the consolidation and more efficient administration of the commonwealth and the finances of the state.
When basis should serve all its stabilization of Christian moral, which contained an understanding of the government and administration as service at God and native country. In this connection those were merged catholic church and in particular religious medal into increasing mass into sovereign tasks of the state, in particular the training system.
Particularly during its second reign García Moreno created numerous educational facilities on all levels of the educating nature, whose enterprise he entrusted above all church institutions, among them both higher schools for the training of teachers and numerous rural village schools. He called foreign medals for the service on all levels of the training system, among other things Jesuiten, heart Jesu sisters, Salesianer, Lazaristen, school brothers and planning sisters, to Ecuador. Among them were also German Jesuiten, in particular scientist and mathematician. From 1867 to 1875 the number of the registered pupils in Ecuador on 39.000 trebled itself.
Within the range of the higher education García Moreno 1869 created the Escuela Politécnica Nacional, the first technical university of Ecuador. To it belonged also the establishment of the first scientific observatory of South America, which is used since 1873 in the Alameda park in Quito. Furthermore García Moreno operated the establishment of banks, vocational schools, Manufakturen and a conservatoire. It supported the improvement of the cultivation ways and the improvement of the equipment allotment in the agriculture.
A second important point in its reform program was the not only political-administrative, but also economical-economic combination of and EN with the coastal region. It operated therefore in its second presidency the building of several roads from Quito to the coast. Beyond that the first kilometers of railway line were established from Durán.
The third part of its reform program existed in the reorganization and reorganization of the national budget. With the risen export and import duty incomes by the cocoa boom and by an improved bookkeeping and control system in the financial administration he could improve the financial situation of the state clearly and again negotiate the foreign debts.
the evaluation of the policy García Morenos is this very day controversial by these two columns of its politics, its klerikal authoritarian government style and its comprehensive modernization program.
On the one hand it strengthened clearly the central power and the national unit in Ecuador and initiated a modernization, which got Ecuador going economically. Sometimes in conservative circles it is regarded as a martyr for the national unit.
On the other side stands the picture of an authoritarian, theokratischen dictator, who wanted to transform Ecuador into God state. It is stated frequently that García Moreno geweiht 1873 after a law the Ecuadorian State of the heart Jesu decided by the congress. The ceremony took place in the cathedral of Quito as church-national celebration, with which the archbishop of Quito, José Ignacio Chela and García Moreno made appropriate Weiheversprechen. It was beyond that an only head of state, that after the occupation of Rome by Italian troops under king Viktor Emanuel II. in September 1870 raised official protest against the “plundering of the holy chair “and the Annexion of the church state.
García Moreno is delivered as more economical, personally integerer politician. One certifies to it neither to have wastefully governed nor be corrupt which made it in the political life of its time a special case. On the other hand it is described also than to compromises and concessions incapable, very ambitious personality.
in the context of its efforts toward the reform of the judiciary let García Moreno establish 1871 in Quito a new, modelful penitentiary, which is this very day used and García Morenos name carries. Various persons of the public life, under it former and future presidents, sat in late 19. and 20. Century usually for political reasons there for a while, among them Eloy Alfaro (the 1912 one murdered there), Mariano Suárez Veintimilla (the 1947 from this prison into the office for president one appointed), Jaime Roldós, Osvaldo Hurtado and Lucio a Gutiérrez. 
- Julián B. Ruiz Rivera: García Moreno. Dictador ilustrado del Ecuador, Madrid: Anaya, 1988 (Biblioteca Iberoamericana 26), ISBN 84-207-3089-0.
- Pilar Ponce: Gabriel Garcia Moreno, Madrid: OD. Historia 16, 1987 (series of Protagonistas de America), ISBN 84-7679-072-4.
- Benjamín Carrión: García Moreno. El santo del patíbulo, Mexico city: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1959.
- Amara George buyer (= Mathilde buyer): Don Gabriel Garcia Moreno, president of the Republic of Ecuádor. A life picture, after historical sources sketched, Freiburg i. Break: Herder, 1891.
- Augustin Berthe: Garcia Moreno, président de l'Équateur, vengeur et martyr you droit chrétien (1821-1875), Paris: Retaux Bray, 3 Bde. 1888
Web on the left of
the texts the following reflects the this very day existing zwiegespaltene evaluation García Morenos.
- Gabriel García Moreno in the Catholic Encyclopedia (English, clearly positive evaluation)
- haven-guesses/advises García Morenos of Humberto Oña Villarreal with Ecuador on-line one (splinter, rather positively)
- to Biografie García Morenos of Simón Espinosa Cordero with edufuturo.com, the first presidency in particular treating (splinter, partially. critical evaluation)
- Gabriel García Moreno, vencedor del liberalismo EN el Ecuador, part of Hechos de loosely apóstoles EN América of José María Iraburu (splinter, positively)
|NAME||García Moreno, Gabriel|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Ecuadorian attorney and politician, twice president|
|DATE OF BIRTH||24. December 1821|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Guayaquil|
|DYING DATE||6. August 1875|