Galicien

of these articles is concerned with the region Galicien in Spain. For the historical landscape of the Ukraine see Galizien.
Flagge Galiciens
Galicien< /br> Galicia
map
Lage Galiciens in Spanien
base data
capital Santiago de Compostela
office languages Spanish and Galicisch
population 2.760.179 (2005)
- portion of Spain 6.6%
- Rank in Spain rank 5 of 17
- density 93.8 Einw. /km ²
surface 29,574 km ²
- portion of Spain 5.8%
- rank in Spain rank 7 of 17
expansion north south: to 208 km
west east: to192 km
autonomy statute of 28. April 1981
president
of the Xunta de Galicia
Emilio Pérez Touriño (PSdeG)
parliamentary agency
- in the splinter Congress of 25 seats
- in the splinter Senate 3 seats
arrangement 4 provinces
ISO 3166-2 ES-GA
Xunta deGalicia

Galicien (also Galizien; splinter Galicia, galic. Galicia or Galiza), officially Comunidade Autónoma de Galicia, is an autonomous community in the northwest of Spain. It is divided into the four provinces A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra.

Table of contents

geography

Galicien lies in northwest Spain and extends for instance between the 9°W 42°N and the 7°W 44°N. In the north Galicien borders on the kantabrische sea, in the west on that Atlantic ocean. In the south it borders on Portugal and in the east on the Spanish automomen communities Kastilien León and Asturien.

Coining/shaping for the region are high mountain ranges, which partition Galicien of the remainder of Spain. More than half of the arealies over 400 m highly. The highest collection is with 2100 m the Pena Trevinca. Interesting is besides the pronounced coastal process Galiciens: with an overall length of approximately 1659 km, of those over 800 km from Steilküste and approximately 300km from beach sections exist, cover these a third of the Spanish coast approximately. Of Galiciens coast the Rías in such a way specified, hose and trichterförmige, is characteristic fjord-similar Flussmündungen, into which the sea penetrated.

Coast region with A Coruña

inThe Rías however only a small depth exhibits contrast to fjords. Differences become the Rías Baixas (splinter Rías Bajas) and the Rías Altas. The Rías Altas in the north is enough from Ribadeo to A Coruña. The Rías Baixasare enough from the cape Finisterre (galic. Cabo Fisterra) up to the Portuguese border. Main distinguisher of the two coast regions is the very in each case specific coastal characteristic. While the Rías Baixas runs gently in the sea, the process that is substantially steeper the Rías Altas. Soare at the Rías Altas also highest cliff of the European continent. These lie in San Andrés de Teixido (Cedeira), close Ferrol, and reach a height of 620 M. The largest Ría is to thatRías Baixas belonging Ría the de aero USA. This has a length of 37 km and a depth of maximally 69 M.

Characteristically of Galicien are besides the extensive forests. The forest area in the autonomous community corresponds about 30 per cent of theTotal forest stand in Spain.

By Galicien leads both culturally and routistic extremely interesting Jakob way, which interested pilgrims and to foot, with the wheel or the car until Santiago de Compostela leads.

Important cities are A Coruña, Ferrol, Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra, Santiago de Compostela and Vigo.

climate

the climate of the region is coined/shaped by the Atlantic and is expressed mildly, however very damp. For Galicien mild winters are characteristic with violent precipitation and too do not be called summer months. The middle sun hours are with 1.989, 4 h in the year. The middle temperatures at the coast lie in the annual average in A Coruña with 13,8° and in Vigo with 14,7°. In the inland Ourense reaches14°. In the mountains the average temperatures lie under it clearly, so for instance with 9,7 in the “Alto de Rodicio” or 8° in “Pedrafita DO Cebreiro”. The northwest Galiciens exhibits approximately 150 rain days in the year and is the heaviest-rainfall region of Spain. ThisNumber reduces increasingly toward southeast. Here approximately 100 rain days are registered less and in the year. The autumn and spring are rainmost intensive in removing order of the winters . The middle amount of precipitation is with 1.404, 8 l/m ².

The dampClimate, frequent nebulas and hoist as well as the green hilly landscape in particular in the autumn and in the winter let associations with Ireland or Brittany arise.

population

the number of inhabitants Galiciens is with 2.751.094 inhabitants (conditions: January 2003), of those48.1 per cent of men and 51.9 per cent of women are.

In Galicien Portuguese closely used Galici becomes apart from Spanish with (galic. Galego, splinter Gallego) spoken. Galici is not since 1981 in this region - however in total Spain- Office language apart from the Spanish. In November 2005 Galicisch was recognized as “official language”, not however as one of the office languages of the European union. The German name for the domestic population reads Galicier (splinter gallegos, gal. galegos).

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History

found in Galicien isolates traces, those on the time between 25.000 and 16.000 v. Chr. were determined. The oldest finds of human activity were found in Budiño, Porriño, and originate from the time around 25.000 v. Chr. After8,000 v. Chr. the finds of block factory witnesses are quite frequent. At the coast the fishery develops in the Mesolithikum. This period is designated also as a asturianische period and brings along the coast of Vigo until Asturien its own, developed cultureout. First ceramic(s) emerge. Extensive traces of the galicischen prehistory are then from the time of the Megalithkultur (around 4,000 years v. Chr.) admits. About 5000 hills of Megalithanlagen - those here Mámoa mentioned bewerden and usually in the centerlying Dolmen covers - are to be found here. This unusual density was connected with interferences into the galicische landscape, in addition, with robbery excavations, which continue until today. Admits is the plants of cathedral-asked, Axeitos, Pedra there of Arca with Baiñas or Mouse de Salas are examples of this time.

In the Bronzezeit (1800 years v. Chr.) gives it to referring to a developed metalworking. From this period also various figures (Petroglyphen) with religious or cosmic symbols, engraved on stone, originate. Outgoingalso animals and humans are represented by abstract erring garden topics. The most important discovery sites of these figures lie in the province Pontevedra (Mogor, Castrove, Campolameiro). Due to numerous metal occurrences Galicien becomes soon as country of the innumerable raw materials admits. The protection of the native population forwardsIntruders becomes thus a society-coining/shaping characteristic. In this time (for instance starting from 1000 v. Chr. to 400 v. Chr.) developed militaryful large villages (gal. u splintercastros), predominantly at protected Hanglagen or hills. The attachments and the sketches that usuallyoval houses are to be seen still until today at some places. Good examples of the Castros of this time are Santa Tegra with A Guarda, Troña, Castromao, Borneiro, S. Cibrao de Lás, Viladonga. From the Castro time also most originatefound excavations. Probably starting from that 7. Century v. Chr. break in the Celts in different waves in Galicien and mix themselves with the native population.

The name Galicien leads itself then also from the celtic Galläkern (Kallaiker, Latin Callaici) off, which settled in this area, before the Romans for the first time 135 v. Chr. first expeditions after Galicien accomplished. The consolidation of Roman power took place only via Julius Cäsar in the year 60 v. Chr. - Galicien became Roman province Gallaecia. Gallaecia covered however - beyond the today's Galicien - areas in the western part of the today's Kastilien and in the northern part of Portugal. The pacification Gallaecias took place via the war courses emperors Augustus. In the consequencedeveloped further the Romans a comprehensive infrastructure, in particular however road construction. The roads of the Romans remained beside the Pilgerwegen after Santiago de Compostela in the Middle Ages inside the only good connections after Galicien.

In the time of the people migration left themselvesin Galicien in the year 409 the Germanic Sueben down and created 411 under king Hermerich, who governed to 438, a kingdom, which was subjected 585 by the Westgoten.

The occupation of the iberischen peninsula beginning in the year 711 throughthe Mauren had only small influence on Galicien. The first penetration of the Mauren in Galicien is dated on the year 716. For a durable settlement of the Mauren in the galicischen central area there are no references. Only in the edge zones of the countrybecame probably some smaller groups of Berbern established. An integration Galiciens into the rule area from aluminium-Andalus did not take place. Approximately around 740 the Mauren from Galicien withdrew itself finally. From the following decades are however again and again maurische expeditionson galicisches area admits.

In the year 813 in a grave in a place of the today's city Santiago de Compostela the alleged Gebeine of the Apostel Jakobus (Spanish Santiago) were found, to one of the twelve Apostel Jesu. The place of the find became aboutaround 830 - at present bishop Theodemir von Iria Flavia - to the place of pilgrimage. In the future gläubige Christians began out completely Europe on the Jakob way after Galicien too pilgern. Purpose of the Pilgerreise was an attendance at the grave of Jakobus.Not least for the alleged Gebeine of the Jakobus in the year 1075 the foundation-stone for the cathedral was put by Santiago de Compostela, who was finally geweiht in the year 1211.

In 10. and 11. Century was Galicien briefly in each case an independentKingdom. In the year 1065 Don García was proclaimed to the king by Galicien. Galicien was otherwise part of the Kingdom of León. In 13. Century fell Galicien as well as León to the kastilische crown.

In the year 1833 the Kingdom of Galicien became formaldissolved and in four provinces divided, those directly the Spanish centre government been subordinate.

Among other things the economic backwardness Galiciens resulting in from the remoteness of the region led itself in 19. Century at the beginning of a mass emigration. In the time between 1836 and1980 altogether approximately 2.5 millions moved Humans from Galicien out. The most popular goal was thereby Latin America (among other things Argentina, Brazil). As result of this emigration wave beginning at that time live still at present approximately 1.4 millions Galicier (2003) in the emigration, whereby with thateconomic upswing Spain approximately since 1980 a return movement used.

In the course of the democratization of Spain into the 1970er years Galicien beside Katalonien and the Basque country were recognized as one of the historical nationalities of Spain and received therefore to 1980/1981 asone of the first regions of Spain an autonomy statute. Since then it is one of the autonomous communities of Spain.

The years between 1989 and 2005 were thereby on level of the autonomous community of a clear absolute majority of the conservative Partido popular under thatHead of the government Manuel Fraga Iribarne coined/shaped.

In the last years there were several oiling anchors before the coast of Galicien - averages. Into the field of vision arrived to the international public in particular the heavy tanker average prestige in the year 2002 (see also oil pollution).This was starting point for the comprehensive citizen and social movement “never again!” (Nunca corn).

After the regional elections of 2005 the government of the Partido became popular by a coalition government from Partido Socialista de Galicia and Bloque Nacionalista Galego under thatnew head of the government Emilio Pérez Touriño replaced.

Politik

Galicien hat den Status einer Autonomen Gemeinschaft innerhalb des Königreichs Spanien und verfügt über ein eigenes regionales Parlament. The regional government is called Xunta de Galicia.

The political landscape Galiciens becomesby the regional folders of the large Spanish people's parties Partido popular (here: Partido popular de Galicia - PPG) and Partido Socialista Obrero Español (here: Partido Socialista de Galicia - PSdeG) as well as the left-nationalistic regional party Bloque Nacionalista Galego (BNG) determines.

With thatRegional elections to 19. June 2005 obtained the Partido popular, with for a fifth term of office the standing as a candidate Manuel Fraga Iribarne at the point, 44.9% of the voices (37 seats) and missed thereby scarcely the renewed absolute majority. The socialists, the 32,5% (25 seats) of the voices on itself combined as well as the BNG with 19,6% (13 seats) had thereby knappe a majority in the regional parliament. The united left obtained with the elections to 19. June 2005 (Izquierda Unida) 0.8% (0Seats) of the voices.

After the education of a coalition government from PSdeG and BNG Emilio Pérez Touriño of the PSdeG became to 29. July 2005 from the galicischen parliament to the successor of Manuel Fraga Iribarne as a head of the government selected and stepped to 2. August 2005its office on.

A party per cent of seats of 2005 seats 2001
PP 44.9% 37 41
PSdeG 32.5% 25 17
BNG 19.6% 13 17
EU-IU 0.8% 0 0

political arrangement

the autonomous community Galicien is divided into the four provinces A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra. The provinces cover for their part 53 districts with 315 municipalities and 3,781 Parroquias so mentioned.

It is remarkable that Galicien with a portion of only 5.8 per cent of the total area of Spain overhalf of the localities of Spain covers. In the year 1996 there was 20,947, from which some however counted only one house.

Province inhabitant capital municipalities
A Coruña (La Coruña) 1.120.814 A Coruña (La Coruña) list
Lugo 360,512 Lugo list
Ourense (Orense) 342,213 Ourense (Orense) list
Pontevedra 927,555 Pontevedra list

economics and infrastructure

Galicien is one of the poorer regions of Spain. The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) was 2002 with 36,8 billion €. ThatPro head gros domestic product was with 13.391 € and thus on a level that only with 79 per cent Spanish pro head gros domestic product ran out. The economic structure of the country is dominated of small and medium-size enterprises (KMU). Altogether there were 2003 174.083 in the yearEnterprise in Galicien, from which 173,935 (99.9 per cent) was to be added small and to medium-size enterprises (between 0 and 249 persons employed). Belonged to approximately 94.9 per cent of the enterprises in Galicien to the group of the Kleinstunternehen (0 to 9 persons employed). The number ofLarge-scale enterprise in Galicien is underdeveloped in the comparison with the Spanish total state.

Are of special importance in Galicien the agriculture and fishing. The meaning of the agriculture in the east of the country and the industry outweighs as well as the large ports inWesten.

The occupation of the galicischen economy distributed itself 2003 proportionally as follows on the economic sectors:

  • Agrarian sector 12.8 per cent (Spain entirely: 5.6 per cent)
  • industrial sector 20.3 per cent (18.2 per cent)
  • building/construction sector 12.1 per cent (11.8 per cent)
  • service sector 54.8 per cent (64.3 per cent)

the unemployment ratiowas in June 2004 about 11,1 per cent, whereby it was lowest in the agriculturally coined/shaped province Ourense with 12,3 per cent at the highest and in the province Lugo with 9,4 per cent. In the province Pontevedra was the unemployment ratio about 11,7Per cent and in A Coruña with 10,9 per cent.

Imported goods: 9.4 billion €: 32 per cent of cars, 14 per cent fish/sea fruits, 13 per cent of minerals mainly from France and Portugal, in addition, from other European Union states. Exports: 9.3 billion €: 50 per cent of cars, 8 per centFish/sea fruits, 5 per cent of clothes mainly to France and Portugal, in addition, into other European Union states.

Leuchtturm am Cabo Fisterra
Lighthouse at the Cabo Fisterra

objects of interest

to culture

literature

the roots of the galicischen literature hand in 12. Century back. The oldest well-known and still received literaryText in galicischer language is 1196 a composed praise singing of Xoán Soares de Pavia. Altogether 170 authors of medieval praise singing are well-known. Although the galicische language also during 16. to 18. Century the most common language in Galicien was, gives itfor this period hardly literary certifications; this period becomes in Galicien as the “dark centuries” (galicisch:OS Séculos Escuros) designates. Only the year 1863 marks the beginning of the Rexurdimento in such a way specified, the linguistic-literary Wiedergeburt. In this year that becomesWork “Cantares gallegos” (songs from Galicien) from Rosalía de Castro publishes. The work of these Lyrikerin, together with the works Curros Enríquez (Aires there miña terra, 1880) as well as Eduardo Pondal (Queixumes DOS pinos, 1886), places the Wiedergeburt Galici in thatSpanish literature. In the works of these authors and with Pondal clear efforts of galicischer man of letters are expressed in particular to develop the galicische literature further.

To the galicischen writers most well-known in Spain, who wrote however predominantly in Spanish language, also Ramón belongMaría del Valle Inclán, Camilo José Cela (Nobelpreisträger for literature) as well as torr duck ball ester.

After the end of the Franco regime, which forbade the publications in galicischer language, the galicische literature experienced a renewed phase of the upswing. In the year 1998 becamealtogether publishes 1,106 books on Galicisch. The total circulation of these books was with scarcely two million copies. The galicischen authors most popular in the present are Xosé Neira Vilas, Manuel Rivas, Suso de Toro and X. L. Méndez Ferrín.

Music

traditional one galicische music coined/shaped of the employment of Dudelsack (galicisch Gaita), lyra and harp. The music reminds of the music from celtic areas such as Ireland or Brittany and enjoys also today still large likingness inGalicien. “Gaiteiro” (German “Dudelsackspieler”) the Johan Gonçalves, which lived 1374 in Monfero, is the first in particular delivered Dudelsackspieler Galiciens. Important representatives of the traditional galicischen music, who received partly also internationally attention, are about the groups of Milladoiro or Fuxan OSVentos. In particular Milladoiro attained thereby years ago a very good international reputation in the area of celtic Folkmusik already. Musicians, who verwurzelt firmly in the traditional galicischen music are, in addition, new ways search are and. A. Berrogüetto, Carlo Núñez, Luar well Lubre, Pancho Alvarez, Susana Seivane and Xosé Manuel Budiño. Also these musicians could attain into the international Folkszene some admittingness.

celebrations

in Galicien are celebrated each year over 4.000 stationary ones, to thosestill innumerable Wallfahrten, gastronomische celebrations and other traditions, like the Karneval, come.

religious ones of celebrations

  • 25. July name day of the holy Jakobus in Santiago de Compostela. This day galicischer national holiday (Día there Patria Galega) is simultaneous.

historical celebrations

some annually committed celebrations with historical background are:

  • 28. March: Festa there Reconquista in Vigo - celebration of the “back conquest” of the Stadtes after the idea that napoleonischer troops.
  • 1. Sunday in August: Festa Viquinga in Catoira,Pontevedra - of Catoira is based on a historical occurence. With the celebration attacked as Wikinger disguised native one from their kite boats the friedliebenden inhabitants of the place Catoira. After completion of the placed behind battle enormous amounts of wine, shells and Tintenfischen becomeverzehrt. The Wikingerfest from Catoira was classified meanwhile as celebration “of national historical interest”. The celebration is accompanied musical by different traditional Dudelsackgruppen.

catering trade

in the coastal regions reflects itself the proximity to the Atlantic ocean. Toohere various crust and bowl soft animals belong to the specialities of the galicischen kitchen. Among these rank and. A.Duck shells (galicisch percebes), oysters (eastrace), Langusten (lagostas) and Jakob shells (vieiras). Also various fish places rises here regularlythe food plan. In addition for instance the Seehecht (pescada) or the gesalzene stick fish belongs (bacallau). For Galicien are typical besides deftige pot (e.g. caldo galego), polbo á feira (Krake according to galicischer kind) or empanada.This predominantly court consisting of paste and a spicy filling is one of the most popular meals of the traditional galicischen kitchen and in the year 1188 in the Glorienportal of the cathedral to Santiago de Compostela was already represented.

At present there are five indications of origin (Denominacións de Orixe) for wines from Galicien. These are Ribeiro, Valdeorras, Rías Baixas, rubbing Irish Republican Army Sacra, and Monterrey.

See also: Viticulture in Spain

sport

of two soccer associations of the Spanish Primera División are resident in Galicien:

different

  • photography: Manuel Ferrol, Mariano Grueiro, Xurxo Lobato
  • film: Mariano Grueiro, Chano Piñeiro
  • painting: Antón Lamazares, Urbano Lugrís, Laxeiro, Castelao
  • architecture: Cesar Portela
  • people culture: Meigas

literature

  • Peter Bohning: Galicien and the Jakob way by the north of Spain. Meyer travel guide. February 2003. ISBN 3898591344

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