Gallium

characteristics
zinc - gallium - germanium
aluminium
Ga
in

[acre] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 1
69
31
Ga

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generally
name, symbol, ordinal number gallium, Ga,Block
13 (
IIIA) , 4 , p appearance silvery proportion at the Earth's shell 1
knows 31 series
of metals group, period , · 10 -3 %
atomically
atomic mass 69.723
atomic radius (computed) 130 (136) pm
Kovalenzradius 126 pm
van the Waals radius 187 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [acre] 3 D 10 4 s 2 4 p 1
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 18, 3
1. Ionization energy 578.8 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1979.3 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 2963 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 6180 kJ/mol
physically
state of aggregation (Magnetism) firmly (-)
crystal structure orthorhombisch (Ga-i)
density (Mohshärte) 5904 kg/m 3 (1,5)
melting point 302.91 K (29.76 ° C)
boiling point 2477 K (2204 °C)
molecular volume 11,80 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 258.7 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 5,59 kJ/mol
steam pressure 9,31 · 10,-36 Pa with 302,9 K
speed of sound 2740 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 370 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 6,78 · 10 6 S /m
heat conductivity 40.6 w (m · K)
Chemically
oxidation conditions of 3
oxides (Basicity) (amphoter)
normal potential -0.56 V (Ga 3+ + 3e - → Ga)
Elektronegativität 1.81 (Pauling scale)
isotopes
isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
67 Ga {syn.} 3.2612 D Epsilon 1.00 67 Zn
68 Ga {syn.} 67.629 m Epsilon 2.921 68 Zn
69 Ga 60.1% Ga 70 Ga are stable {
syn} 21.14 m beta with 38 neutrons - 1.656 70 Ge
71 Ga 39.9% Ga is stable with 40 neutrons
72Ga {syn} 14.10 h beta - 4.001 72 Ge
73 Ga {syn} 4.86 h beta - 1.593 73 Ge
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Gallium is inMetal (chemical element), which 1875 were discovered for the first time by the French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who gave it also the name. It is designated after Gallien, latin name for France. Possible it would be also that itselfthe discoverer perpetuated here, because Le coq is French and means the cock, which is called on Latin gallus.

Table of contents

history

thatstill unknown element was already predicted with the production of the periodic system by Dmitri Iwanowitsch Mendeleyev (1869) and Lothar Meyer (1870) (Eka - aluminum) and briefly thereupon also discovers.

characteristics

interesting is the tender light blue Metallfarbethe crystalline Galliums. Characteristics are the remarkably low bloom and the relatively high boiling temperature. Up to the today's day are well-known 4 normal print and 3 high pressure modifications. In solid state the modification steady with standard conditions shows some peculiarnesses. Like that is Gallium relatively softly, compact pieces splinter during strong, sudden mechanical load however with muscheligem break and develop fine sharp fragments. Remarkably further the high wetting ability is liquid Galliums. Thus it e.g. forms. on the skin easily a greyLubricating film, likewise in the eyes, why the contact with the metal should be avoided.

Gallium has a strong tendency under its melting point to cool down and remain liquid. Only by a crystallization germ or by further cooling it solidifies itself then.

ThoseDensity of liquid gallium amounts to 6100 kg/m 3, is thus higher than from firm gallium (anomaly of density).

The melt is silver white. Gallium oxidized slowly at air and keeps its gloss.

occurrence

crystal out99,999% gallium

gallium always occurs in nature in combination with other elements. As the most important ore serves the bauxite, from which it is extracted as Begleitmetall during the fusion electrolysis during the aluminum production. Further minerals are zinc blende and the Germanit. The main occurrences at gallium are in Kazakhstan, in Australia, in Tschechien, in India as well as in Guinea. Larger recycling plants are located in the USA, in Japan and in Germany.

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Use

gallium is relatively expensive, which makes the use fast uneconomic. Innocuous, non volatile mercury replacement (Galinstan) for thermometer fillings with very broad normal range is suitable as.

A gallium alloy with Indium, zinc and copper rigidly under 0 °C, possessesa high surface tension, a very high boiling point and a very low steam pressure.

Of the semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN) blue light emitting diodes are made. Gallium arsenide (ATMs, gallium + arsenic) finds after the crystal breed and the subsequent treatment to Wafern particularly for electronicHigh frequency construction units (circuits and light emitting diodes and/or laser ) use integrated. A further important procedure is here the representation of semiconductors with the chemical gaseous phase separation (CVD).

Gallium is used as alloying addition in dentaltechnischen to edelmetallverarbeitenden the range. Gallium oxides leave themselves to special strong-refractiveCrystal materials process. In crystals a complete exchange of gallium ions is possible by aluminum ions.

Gallium tri chloride (GaCl 3) is used in neutrino detectors. The quantity used thereby corresponds to several world annual productions gallium.

Under element collecting tanks gallium is popular because of its low melting point. It leavesalready with lukewarm ones liquefy.

biogenous characteristics

gallium is considered as innocuous.

Gallium

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